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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduced-intensity FOLFOXIRI in Treating Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To report on the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity FOLFOXIRI (RI-FOLFOXIRI) as salvage chemotherapy for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
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All-normal-dispersion passive harmonic mode-locking 220??fs ytterbium fiber laser.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report a stable passive second-harmonic mode-locked all-normal-dispersion ytterbium fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization evolution. This fiber laser has two polarization beam splitter output ports for optimizing the output spectrum 5 ps duration pulses with 187 mW average power being generated at the harmonic repetition rate of 99.6 MHz. By use of a pair of gratings to extracavity compensate the chirp, the pulse is further compressed to 220 fs. We measured that the peak-to-pedestal extinction of the radio frequency is about 80 dB corresponding to a pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuation of 0.32% and timing jitter of 3.2 ps.
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Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 ?M) and high (50 ?M) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (?(60)Niplant-solution = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (?(60)Niplant-solution = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (?(66)Znplant-solution = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (?(60)Niplant-solution = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.
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Full quantum trajectories resolved high-order harmonic generation.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We use a carrier-envelope-phase stabilized sub-2-cycle laser pulse to generate high-order harmonics and study how the two-dimensional spectrum of harmonics, with the resolutions in temporal frequency and spatial frequency, is shaped by the laser phase. An arrowlike spectrum obtained experimentally when the gas cell is located in front of the laser focus point shows a resolution of full quantum trajectories; i.e., harmonics from different trajectories stand on different positions in this spectrum. In particular, due to the laser phase combined with the classical-like action, the harmonics from short and long trajectories differ maximally in their curvatures of wave fronts in the generation area, and so occupy very different ranges of spatial frequency at the far field. The result directly gives a full map of quantum trajectories in high-order harmonic generation. The conclusion is supported by an analytical model and quantum mechanics simulations.
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SHP-1 is a target of regorafenib in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Regorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple protein kinases which exerts antitumor and antimetastatic activities in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to have tumor suppressive potential because it acts as a negative regulator of p-STAT3(Tyr705) signaling. However, little is known about the mechanism regarding regorafenib affects SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and leads to apoptosis and tumor suppression in CRC. Here, we found that regorafenib triggered apoptotic cell death and significantly enhanced SHP-1 activity, which dramatically decreased the phosphorylated form of STAT3 at Tyr705 (p-STAT3(Tyr705)). Importantly, regorafenib augmented SHP-1 activity by direct disruption of the association between N-SH2 and catalytic PTP domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 blocked the effect of regorafenib-induced SHP-1 activity, growth inhibition and a decrease of p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression, suggesting that regorafenib triggers a conformational change in SHP-1 by relieving its autoinhibition. In vivo assay showed that regorafenib significantly inhibited xenograft growth and decreased p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression but induced higher SHP-1 activity. Collectively, regorafenib is a novel SHP-1 agonist exerts superior anti-tumor effects by enhancing SHP-1 activity that directly targets p-STAT3(Tyr705). Small molecule-enhancement of SHP-1 activity may be a promising therapeutic approach for CRC treatment.
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Thermally robust and porous noncovalent organic framework with high affinity for fluorocarbons and CFCs.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Metal-organic and covalent organic frameworks are porous materials characterized by outstanding thermal stability, high porosities and modular synthesis. Their repeating structures offer a great degree of control over pore sizes, dimensions and surface properties. Similarly precise engineering at the nanoscale is difficult to achieve with discrete molecules, since they rarely crystallize as porous structures. Here we report a small organic molecule that organizes into a noncovalent organic framework with large empty pores. This structure is held together by a combination of [N-H···N] hydrogen bonds between the terminal pyrazole rings and [?···?] stacking between the electron-rich pyrazoles and electron-poor tetrafluorobenzenes. Such a synergistic arrangement makes this structure stable to at least 250?°C and porous, with an accessible surface area of 1,159?m(2)?g(-1). Crystals of this framework adsorb hydrocarbons, CFCs and fluorocarbons-the latter two being ozone-depleting substances and potent greenhouse species-with weight capacities of up to 75%.
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An eye-tracking assistive device improves the quality of life for ALS patients and reduces the caregivers' burden.
J Mot Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease. In some cases, patients with ALS retain a normal level of consciousness but disease progression eventually results in generalized paralysis, which first impedes and then prevents oral communication. This communication obstacle can generate a great deal of stress for the patient, family, and caregiver. Here the authors ask whether the use of an eye-tracking assistive device can improve quality of life for ALS patients and relieves burden of their primary caregivers. Subjects were divided into two groups depending on whether they used (n = 10) or did not use (n = 10) an eye-tracking assistive device. The authors assessed patients' quality of life and severity of depression using the ALS Specific Quality of Life Instrument-Revised and the Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, respectively. The Caregiver Burden Scale was used to assess the burden on caregivers. Our study shows that the eye-tracking assistive device significantly improved patients' quality of life, as compared with patients in the nonuser group (p <.01). The assistive device also reduced the burden on caregivers (p <.05). This is likely a result of the improvement of patient's autonomy and more effective communication between patient and caregiver.
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Tunable deep ultraviolet single-longitudinal-mode laser generated with Ba(1-x)B(2-y-z)O4Si(x)Al(y)Ga(z) crystal.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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We report a new nonlinear crystal, Ba(1-x)B(2-y-z)O4Si(x)Al(y)Ga(z), and employ it to a compact 1 kHz single-longitudinal-mode Ti:Sapphire master oscillator power amplifier system for fourth harmonic generation. A maximum output power of 130 mW is obtained in the tunable range of 195-205 nm with linewidth of less than 0.1 pm.
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Identification of bacterial factors involved in type 1 fimbria expression using an Escherichia coli K12 proteome chip.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Type 1 fimbriae are filamentous structures on Escherichia coli. These structures are important adherence factors. Because binding to the host cells is the first step of infection, type 1 fimbria is an important virulence factor of pathogenic E. coli. Expression of type 1 fimbria is regulated by a phase variation in which each individual bacterium can alternate between fimbriated (phase-ON) and nonfimbriated (phase-OFF) states. The phase variation is regulated by the flipping of the 314-bp fimS fragment, which contains the promoter driving the expression of the genes required for the synthesis of type 1 fimbria. Thus, the bacterial proteins able to interact with fimS are likely to be involved in regulating the expression of type 1 fimbria. To identify novel type 1 fimbria-regulating factors, we used an E. coli K12 proteome chip to screen for the bacterial factors able to interact with a 602-bp DNA fragment containing fimS and its adjacent regions. The Spr protein was identified by the proteome chip-based screening and further confirmed to be able to interact with fimS by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Deletion of spr in the neonatal meningitis E. coli strain RS218 significantly increased the ratio of the bacterial colonies that contained the type 1 fimbria phase-ON cells on agar plates. In addition, Spr interfered with the interactions of fimS with the site-specific recombinases, FimB and FimE, which are responsible for mediating the flipping of fimS. These results suggest that Spr is involved in the regulation of type 1 fimbria expression through direct interaction with the invertible element fimS. These findings facilitate our understanding of the regulation of type 1 fimbria.
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Comparison of cetuximab to bevacizumab as the first-line bio-chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: Superior progression-free survival is restricted to patients with measurable tumors and objective tumor response-a retrospective study.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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We aimed to compare the treatment efficacy of cetuximab versus bevacizumab in combination with either irinotecan-based or oxaliplatin-based regimens (targeted triplet) as the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
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Clinical and microbiological characteristics of recurrent group B streptococcal infection among non-pregnant adults.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical and microbiological features of recurrent group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases among non-pregnant adults.
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Identification of simple sequence repeat biomarkers through cross-species comparison in a tag cloud representation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are not only applied as genetic markers in evolutionary studies but they also play an important role in gene regulatory activities. Efficient identification of conserved and exclusive SSRs through cross-species comparison is helpful for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and associations between specific gene groups and SSR motifs. In this paper, we developed an online cross-species comparative system and integrated it with a tag cloud visualization technique for identifying potential SSR biomarkers within fourteen frequently used model species. Ultraconserved or exclusive SSRs among cross-species orthologous genes could be effectively retrieved and displayed through a friendly interface design. Four different types of testing cases were applied to demonstrate and verify the retrieved SSR biomarker candidates. Through statistical analysis and enhanced tag cloud representation on defined functional related genes and cross-species clusters, the proposed system can correctly represent the patterns, loci, colors, and sizes of identified SSRs in accordance with gene functions, pattern qualities, and conserved characteristics among species.
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MicroRNA-146a directs the symmetric division of Snail-dominant colorectal cancer stem cells.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Asymmetrical cell division (ACD) maintains the proper number of stem cells to ensure self-renewal. In cancer cells, the deregulation of ACD disrupts the homeostasis of the stem cell pool and promotes tumour growth. However, this mechanism is unclear. Here, we show a reduction of ACD in spheroid-derived colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) compared with differentiated cancer cells. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer Snail is responsible for the ACD-to-symmetrical cell division (SCD) switch in CRCSCs. Mechanistically, Snail induces the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) through the ?-catenin-TCF4 complex. miR-146a targets Numb to stabilize ?-catenin, which forms a feedback circuit to maintain Wnt activity and directs SCD. Interference with the Snail-miR-146a–?-catenin loop by inhibiting the MEK or Wnt activity reduces the symmetrical division of CRCSCs and attenuates tumorigenicity. In colorectal cancer patients, the Snail(High)Numb(Low) profile is correlated with cetuximab resistance and a poorer prognosis. This study elucidates a unique mechanism of EMT-induced CRCSC expansion.
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Temsirolimus enhances the efficacy of cetuximab in colon cancer through a CIP2A-dependent mechanism.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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A dozen clinical trials examining a combination of temsirolimus and cetuximab in treating metastatic colon cancer are currently underway. We investigated the role of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) in the synergism between temsirolimus and cetuximab in colon cancer.
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Predicting protein-ligand interactions based on chemical preference features with its application to new D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor discovery.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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In silico prediction of the new drug-target interactions from existing databases is of important value for the drug discovery process. Currently, the amount of protein targets that have been identified experimentally is still very small compared with the entire human proteins. In order to predict protein-ligand interactions in an accurate manner, we have developed a support vector machine (SVM) model based on the chemical-protein interactions from STITCH. New features from ligand chemical space and interaction networks have been selected and encoded as the feature vectors for SVM analysis. Both the 5-fold cross validation and independent test show high predictive accuracy that outperforms the state-of-the-art method based on ligand similarity. Moreover, 91 distinct pairs of features have been selected to rebuild a simplifier model, which still maintains the same performance as that based on all 332 features. Then, this refined model is used to search for the potential D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors from STITCH database and the predicted results are finally validated by our wet experiments. Out of 10 candidates obtained, seven D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors have been verified, in which four are newly found in the present study, and one may have a new application in therapy of psychiatric disorders other than being an antineoplastic agent. Clearly, our model is capable of predicting potential new drugs or targets on a large scale with high efficiency.
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The C-Terminal Region of G72 Increases d-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The schizophrenia-related protein G72 plays a unique role in the regulation of d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) in great apes. Several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are linked to overexpression of DAO and G72. Whether G72 plays a positive or negative regulatory role in DAO activity, however, has been controversial. Exploring the molecular basis of the relationship between G72 and DAO is thus important to understand how G72 regulates DAO activity. We performed yeast two-hybrid experiments and determined enzymatic activity to identify potential sites in G72 involved in binding DAO. Our results demonstrate that residues 123-153 and 138-153 in the long isoform of G72 bind to DAO and enhance its activity by 22% and 32%, respectively. A docking exercise indicated that these G72 peptides can interact with loops in DAO that abut the entrance of the tunnel that substrate and cofactor must traverse to reach the active site. We propose that a unique gating mechanism underlies the ability of G72 to increase the activity of DAO. Because upregulation of DAO activity decreases d-serine levels, which may lead to psychiatric abnormalities, our results suggest a molecular mechanism involving interaction between DAO and the C-terminal region of G72 that can regulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.
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Basic amino acid residues of human eosinophil derived neurotoxin essential for glycosaminoglycan binding.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Human eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), a granule protein secreted by activated eosinophils, is a biomarker for asthma in children. EDN belongs to the human RNase A superfamily possessing both ribonucleolytic and antiviral activities. EDN interacts with heparin oligosaccharides and heparin sulfate proteoglycans on bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the binding of EDN to cells requires cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and the binding strength between EDN and GAGs depends on the sulfation levels of GAGs. Furthermore, in silico computer modeling and in vitro binding assays suggest critical roles for the following basic amino acids located within heparin binding regions (HBRs) of EDN 34QRRCKN39 (HBR1), 65NKTRKN70 (HBR2), and 113NRDQRRD119 (HBR3) and in particular Arg35, Arg36, and Arg38 within HBR1, and Arg114 and Arg117 within HBR3. Our data suggest that sulfated GAGs play a major role in EDN binding, which in turn may be related to the cellular effects of EDN.
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Effects of driving laser jitter on the attosecond streaking measurement.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Driving laser jitter is one of the main factors affecting the attosecond streaking measurement. The effect of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) jitter and the pulse energy jitter on the attosecond pulse characterization is studied in this paper. We have theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed that CEP jitter could result in a symmetry trace in the streaking spectrogram, while the intensity jitter could result in a slight shift and broadening of the trace. Both of them can lead to an underestimate of the retrieved attosecond pulse duration.
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Superhydrophobic perfluorinated metal-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Three perfluorinated Cu-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were prepared starting from extensively fluorinated biphenyl-based ligands accessed via C-H functionalization. These new materials are highly hydrophobic: with water contact angles of up to 151 ± 1°, they are among the most water-repellent MOFs ever reported.
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[Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of technical specifications of ecological textiles in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil.
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Molecular imaging of heparan sulfate expression with radiolabeled recombinant eosinophil cationic protein predicts allergic lung inflammation in a mouse model for asthma.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoproteins consisting of a core protein to which linear heparan sulfate (HS) side chains are covalently attached. These HS side chains mediate a variety of biologic functions involved in inflammation. Radionuclide imaging of HS side chains in tissues with inflammation may be used for the stratification of patients who would most likely benefit from HSPG-targeting therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo radionuclide imaging of HS side chain expression in a mouse model of asthma using the recombinant eosinophil cationic protein (rECP).
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Elevated serum autoantibody against high mobility group box 1 as a potent surrogate biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complicate and progressive onset devastating neurodegenerative disease. Its pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear and there is no specific test for diagnosis. For years, researchers have been vigorously searching for biomarkers associated with ALS to assist clinical diagnosis and monitor disease progression. Some specific inflammatory processes in the central nervous system have been reported to participate in the pathogenesis of ALS. As high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is elevated in spinal cord tissues of patients with ALS, we hypothesized, therefore, that serum autoantibody against HMGB1 (HMGB1 autoAb) might represent an effective biomarker for ALS. Patients with ALS, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and healthy age-matched control subjects were recruited for this study. ALS group consisted of 61 subjects, the other groups each consisted of forty subjects. We generated a polyclonal antibody against HMGB1 and developed an ELISA-based methodology for screening serum samples of these subjects. All samples were coded for masked comparison. For statistic analyses, two-tailed Students t-test, ANOVA, Bonferroni multiple comparison test, Spearman correlation, and receiver operating characteristic curve were applied. We discovered that the level of HMGB1 autoAb significantly increased in patients with ALS as compared with that of patients with Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and healthy control subjects. The differences between all groups were robust even at the early stages of ALS progression. More importantly, higher HMGB1 autoAb level was found in more severe disease status with significant correlation. Our study demonstrates that serum HMGB1 autoAb may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of ALS and can be used to monitor disease progression.
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Protein-ligand binding region prediction (PLB-SAVE) based on geometric features and CUDA acceleration.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Protein-ligand interactions are key processes in triggering and controlling biological functions within cells. Prediction of protein binding regions on the protein surface assists in understanding the mechanisms and principles of molecular recognition. In silico geometrical shape analysis plays a primary step in analyzing the spatial characteristics of protein binding regions and facilitates applications of bioinformatics in drug discovery and design. Here, we describe the novel software, PLB-SAVE, which uses parallel processing technology and is ideally suited to extract the geometrical construct of solid angles from surface atoms. Representative clusters and corresponding anchors were identified from all surface elements and were assigned according to the ranking of their solid angles. In addition, cavity depth indicators were obtained by proportional transformation of solid angles and cavity volumes were calculated by scanning multiple directional vectors within each selected cavity. Both depth and volume characteristics were combined with various weighting coefficients to rank predicted potential binding regions.
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Prediction of conformational epitopes with the use of a knowledge-based energy function and geometrically related neighboring residue characteristics.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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A conformational epitope (CE) in an antigentic protein is composed of amino acid residues that are spatially near each other on the antigens surface but are separated in sequence; CEs bind their complementary paratopes in B-cell receptors and/or antibodies. CE predication is used during vaccine design and in immuno-biological experiments. Here, we develop a novel system, CE-KEG, which predicts CEs based on knowledge-based energy and geometrical neighboring residue contents. The workflow applied grid-based mathematical morphological algorithms to efficiently detect the surface atoms of the antigens. After extracting surface residues, we ranked CE candidate residues first according to their local average energy distributions. Then, the frequencies at which geometrically related neighboring residue combinations in the potential CEs occurred were incorporated into our workflow, and the weighted combinations of the average energies and neighboring residue frequencies were used to assess the sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency of our prediction workflow.
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Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 in lung reduced airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in chronic allergic asthma is currently unclear. Both airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia and increase in HMGB1 expression in the lungs in our murine model of chronic asthma. Inhibition of HMGB1 expression in lung in ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice decreased induced airway inflammation, mucus formation, and collagen deposition in lung tissues. Analysis of the numbers of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs revealed that Th17 showed greater increases than Th2 cells and Th1 cells in OVA-immunized mice; further, the numbers of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells decreased in anti-HMGB1 antibody (Ab)-treated mice. In OVA-immunized mice, TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression, but not RAGE expression, was activated in the lungs and attenuated after anti-HMGB1 Ab treatment. The results showed that increase in HMGB1 release and expression in the lungs could be an important pathological mechanism underlying chronic allergic asthma and HMGB1 might a potential therapeutic target for chronic allergic asthma.
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Efficient amplification of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a ring regenerative amplifier.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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A high-stability and high-efficiency ring Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier is demonstrated based on a double-gating pulse picker at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Pulse energy up to 5.7 mJ is obtained using a pump energy of 20.0 mJ at 527 nm, corresponding to a relatively high slope efficiency of 30.3%. After a grating compressor, the laser pulse is compressed to 37.2 fs with an energy of 4.1 mJ. The beam quality factors M(2) are 1.4 and 1.3 in tangential and sagittal directions, respectively. The measured root mean square energy stability is better than 0.31% over an 11 h period.
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Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is elevated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of motor neurons in the brainstem, motor cortex, and spinal cord. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of ALS. Members of the family of damage-associated molecular patterns, including reactive oxygen species, high-mobility group box 1, and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), may participate in pathological conditions. In this study, we aim to discover new biomarker for detecting ALS.
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Prognostic significance of C-reactive protein polymorphism and KRAS/BRAF in synchronous liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The liver is the most common target organ in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Synchronous liver metastases may confer a poorer prognosis than metachronous metastases, and genetic alterations and an inflammatory response have also been associated with a poor prognosis in cases of a liver metastasis arising from CRC. However, few studies have examined the relationship between KRAS mutations and inflammatory status in CRC, especially with respect to liver metastases.
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Identification of Escherichia coli genes associated with urinary tract infections.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). E. coli genes epidemiologically associated with UTIs are potentially valuable in developing strategies for treating and/or preventing such infections as well as differentiating uropathogenic E. coli from nonuropathogenic E. coli. To identify E. coli genes associated with UTIs in humans, we combined microarray-based and PCR-based analyses to investigate different E. coli source groups derived from feces of healthy humans and from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, or urosepsis. The cjrABC-senB gene cluster, sivH, sisA, sisB, eco274, and fbpB, were identified to be associated with UTIs. Of these, cjrABC-senB, sisA, sisB, and fbpB are known to be involved in urovirulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. Our results provide evidence to support their roles as urovirulence factors in human UTIs. In addition, the newly identified UTI-associated genes were mainly found in members of phylogenetic groups B2 and/or D.
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Leptomeningeal metastasis of malignant lymphoma with negative results in magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.
Acta Neurol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Non-Hodgkins lymphoma which occasionally involves the central nervous system, occurs more often in high-grade cases and implicates a poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastases may present as multiple cranial nerve involvements. Diagnosis is achieved by recognizing the clinical manifestations, followed by neuroradiologic studies and laboratory examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. But normal studies of either method do not exclude such a diagnosis.
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Observation of non-odd order harmonics by sub-2-cycle laser pulses.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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High order harmonics generation from argon gas was comprehensively investigated by using multi-cycle and few-cycle laser pulses. Non-odd order harmonics were observed for sub-5-fs pulses, compare to the normal odd-order harmonics in the multi-cycle case. Theoretic analysis shows that the new spectral structure origins from the asymmetry of laser field in few-cycle pulses. This asymmetry induced both amplitude and phase difference between attosecond pulses from consecutive half-cycle of the laser field, which change the interference property of attosecond pulses and result in complex spectrum.
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High-contrast 1.16 PW Ti:sapphire laser system combined with a doubled chirped-pulse amplification scheme and a femtosecond optical-parametric amplifier.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Based on a combined scheme of doubled chirped-pulse amplification and a femtosecond noncollinear optical-parametric amplifier, a high-contrast femtosecond laser pulse with energy of up to 32.3 J has been generated by improving the gain efficiency and boosting the pump energy to 120 J in the final amplifier. Our measurements show that the contrast ratio of the main laser pulse is around 10(10) within the time scale of -400 ps and the duration of compressed pulse is 27.9 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 1.16 PW.
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The efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with high-grade metastatic colon cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic role of histological grade in colon cancer and the efficacy of either oxaliplatin or irinotecan after incorporation into an infusional regimen of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with high-grade metastatic colon cancer.
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A new classification scheme for recurrent or metastatic colon cancer after liver metastasectomy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Metastasectomy is the standard treatment for patients with resectable liver metastasis from colon cancer. This study aimed to determine the impact of initial stage on overall survival (OS) after metastasectomy.
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Clinical and microbiological characteristics of community-acquired Staphylococcus lugdunensis infections in Southern Taiwan.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Most Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains (49/59, 83%) were related to clinical infections, were susceptible to most antimicrobial agents with an overall oxacillin-resistant rate of 5% (3/58), and carried relatively great genetic diversity. Community-acquired infections (41/49, 84%) were dominant, often developed in patients with comorbidity, and had rather benign clinical courses without mortality.
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Functional pathway mapping analysis for hypoxia-inducible factors.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that play a crucial role in response to hypoxic stress in living organisms. The HIF pathway is activated by changes in cellular oxygen levels and has significant impacts on the regulation of gene expression patterns in cancer cells. Identifying functional conservation across species and discovering conserved regulatory motifs can facilitate the selection of reference species for empirical tests. This paper describes a cross-species functional pathway mapping strategy based on evidence of homologous relationships that employs matrix-based searching techniques for identifying transcription factor-binding sites on all retrieved HIF target genes.
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Prediction of B-cell linear epitopes with a combination of support vector machine classification and amino acid propensity identification.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Epitopes are antigenic determinants that are useful because they induce B-cell antibody production and stimulate T-cell activation. Bioinformatics can enable rapid, efficient prediction of potential epitopes. Here, we designed a novel B-cell linear epitope prediction system called LEPS, Linear Epitope Prediction by Propensities and Support Vector Machine, that combined physico-chemical propensity identification and support vector machine (SVM) classification. We tested the LEPS on four datasets: AntiJen, HIV, a newly generated PC, and AHP, a combination of these three datasets. Peptides with globally or locally high physicochemical propensities were first identified as primitive linear epitope (LE) candidates. Then, candidates were classified with the SVM based on the unique features of amino acid segments. This reduced the number of predicted epitopes and enhanced the positive prediction value (PPV). Compared to four other well-known LE prediction systems, the LEPS achieved the highest accuracy (72.52%), specificity (84.22%), PPV (32.07%), and Matthews correlation coefficient (10.36%).
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Effective salvage therapy of imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor with combination of imatinib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Here we presented a 60-year-old Taiwanese man with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Disease progression was noted during imatinib treatment. Surgical resection was done and mutation analysis of KIT gene in all the resected tumors revealed deletion mutations of codons 558-565 in exon 11, whereas a missense mutation was also identified at codon 822 in exon 17 in one resected tumor. Patients disease was refractory to escalating dose of imatinib and dasatinb. Surprisingly, combination of imatinib with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin produced a substantial response and resulted in a 5-month progression free period for this imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
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Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The mechanisms of stabilization by silicon-rich amendments of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in a multi-metal contaminated acidic soil and the mitigation of metal accumulation in rice were investigated in this study. The results from a pot experiment indicated that the application of fly ash (20 and 40gkg(-1)) and steel slag (3 and 6gkg(-1)) increased soil pH from 4.0 to 5.0-6.4, decreased the phytoavailability of heavy metals by at least 60%, and further suppressed metal uptake by rice. Diffusion gradient in thin-film measurement showed the heavy metal diffusion fluxes from soil to solution decreased by greater than 84% after remediation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the mobile metals were mainly deposited as their silicates, phosphates and hydroxides in amended treatments. Moreover, it was found metal translocation from stem to leaf was dramatically restrained by adding amendments, which might be due to the increase of silicon concentration and co-precipitation with heavy metals in stem. Finally, a field experiment showed the trace element concentrations in polished rice treated with amendments complied with the food safety standards of China. These results demonstrated fly ash and steel slag could be effective in mitigating heavy metal accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal contaminated acidic soils.
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Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications.
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International Staging System predicts prognosis of Chinese patients with multiple myeloma across different calendar periods with application of novel agents.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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The applicability of the International Staging System (ISS) for Chinese patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has not been demonstrated, especially with respect to treatments with novel agents. Newly diagnosed MM patients at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were enrolled between 1996 and 2007. Data regarding clinical features, laboratory tests, and outcome at last follow-up were collected. A total of 389 MM patients (71% male) were enrolled, with median age of 71 years. At diagnosis, 72.7% had Durie-Salmon (DS) stage III disease, 56.2% had ISS stage III disease, and 34% had serum creatinine ?2.0 mg/dL. Compared with patients diagnosed in the first calendar period 1996-2001, the patients of the second calendar period 2002-2007 were older and more of these patients had received novel agents, especially thalidomide. The median overall survival period was 20.5 months, with a significant increase of patients in the second calendar period (15.3 and 28.2 months, respectively; P?=?0.002), especially for those with ISS stages I and II. In the Cox proportion model, elevated serum ?(2) microglobulin at diagnosis (?3.5 mg/L), old age (?65 years), and impaired renal function were found to be independently associated with poor survival. Over the entire period, the ISS was found to be effective in providing an accurate prognosis with respect to different ages and calendar periods. This is the first study to show the applicability of ISS for Chinese patients with MM, especially for those who had received thalidomide.
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Liver abscess after liver metastasectomy is a poor prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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More and more complications of extensive hepatic resection are being encountered in patients treated for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. This study aimed to determine the impact of liver abscess after hepatic resection on overall survival (OS) and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Characterizing the role of cell-wall ?-1,3-exoglucanase Xog1p in Candida albicans adhesion by the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Candida albicans is the major fungal pathogen of humans. Its adhesion to host-cell surfaces is the first critical step during mucosal infection. Antimicrobial peptides play important roles in the first line of mucosal immunity against C. albicans infection. LL-37 is the only member of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide family and is commonly expressed in various tissues, including epithelium. We previously showed that LL-37 significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion to plastic, oral epidermoid OECM-1 cells, and urinary bladders of female BALB/c mice. The inhibitory effect of LL-37 on cell adhesion occurred via the binding of LL-37 to cell-wall carbohydrates. Here we showed that formation of LL-37-cell-wall protein complexes potentially inhibits C. albicans adhesion to polystyrene. Using phage display and ELISA, we identified 10 peptide sequences that could bind LL-37. A BLAST search revealed that four sequences in the major C. albicans cell-wall ?-1,3-exoglucanase, Xog1p, were highly similar to the consensus sequence derived from the 10 biopanned peptides. One Xog1p-derived peptide, Xog1p(90-115), and recombinant Xog1p associated with LL-37, thereby reversing the inhibitory effect of LL-37 on C. albicans adhesion. LL-37 reduced Xog1p activity and thus interrupted cell-wall remodeling. Moreover, deletion of XOG1 or another ?-1,3-exoglucanase-encoding gene EXG2 showed that only when XOG1 was deleted did cellular exoglucanase activity, cell adhesion and LL-37 binding decrease. Antibodies against Xog1p also decreased cell adhesion. These data reveal that Xog1p, originally identified from LL-37 binding, has a role in C. albicans adhesion to polystyrene and, by inference, attach to host cells via direct or indirect manners. Compounds that target Xog1p might find use as drugs that prevent C. albicans infection. Additionally, LL-37 could potentially be used to screen for other cell-wall components involved in fungal cell adhesion.
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SNAIL regulates interleukin-8 expression, stem cell-like activity, and tumorigenicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Some cancer cells have activities that are similar to those of stem cells from normal tissues, and cell dedifferentiation correlates with poor prognosis. Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the stem cell-like features of cancer cells; we investigated genes associated with stem cell-like features of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
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Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 inhibits adhesion of Candida albicans by interacting with yeast cell-wall carbohydrates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Candida albicans is the major fungal pathogen of humans. Fungal adhesion to host cells is the first step of mucosal infiltration. Antimicrobial peptides play important roles in the initial mucosal defense against C. albicans infection. LL-37 is the only member of the human cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides and is commonly expressed in various tissues and cells, including epithelial cells of both the oral cavity and urogenital tract. We found that, at sufficiently low concentrations that do not kill the fungus, LL-37 was still able to reduce C. albicans infectivity by inhibiting C. albicans adhesion to plastic surfaces, oral epidermoid OECM-1 cells, and urinary bladders of female BALB/c mice. Moreover, LL-37-treated C. albicans floating cells that did not adhere to the underlying substratum aggregated as a consequence of LL-37 bound to the cell surfaces. According to the results of a competition assay, the inhibitory effects of LL-37 on cell adhesion and aggregation were mediated by its preferential binding to mannan, the main component of the C. albicans cell wall, and partially by its ability to bind chitin or glucan, which underlie the mannan layer. Therefore, targeting of cell-wall carbohydrates by LL-37 provides a new strategy to prevent C. albicans infection, and LL-37 is a useful, new tool to screen for other C. albicans components involved in adhesion.
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Duloxetine improves oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer: an open-label pilot study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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This open-label pilot study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the antidepressant duloxetine, which is effective for diabetic neuropathic pain, in the treatment of chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN).
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Prevalence and prognostic influence of genomic changes of EGFR pathway markers in synovial sarcoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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We aimed to study the prevalence and prognostic influence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effectors in synovial sarcoma (SS).
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Immunostimulatory and antigen delivery properties of liposomes made up of total polar lipids from non-pathogenic bacteria leads to efficient induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Novel liposomes prepared from total polar lipids of non-pathogenic bacteria, viz. Leptospira biflexa serovar Potac (designated leptosomes) and Mycobacterium smegmatis (designated smegmosomes) were evaluated for their adjuvant effects with various antigen presenting cells (APCs), viz. murine macrophage cell line, J774A.1 and bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). These liposomes induced strong membrane fusion as evident from resonance energy transfer (RET) assays and effectively transferred the fluorescent probe to the membrane of these APCs. Moreover, both vesicles caused significant activation of APCs as revealed by release of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-?) and enhanced expression of co-stimulatory signals and maturation markers (CD80, CD86, MHCII), which was significantly higher for smegmosomes as compared to leptosomes. Additionally, activation of APCs by liposomes correlated with their ability to stimulate allospecific T cell proliferation and IFN-? release. In contrast, conventional PC/chol liposomes failed to fuse and induced only a very low level of APC activation. Interestingly, the stimulatory activity of these lipid vesicles was restricted to APCs as they did not cause any significant activation or mitogenic effect on lymphocytes (B and T cells) in vitro. Overall, the activation of APCs by both leptosomes and smegmosomes correlated with activation of strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses in C57/BL6 mice to entrapped ovalbumin (OVA) and was significantly higher than those induced by conventional liposomes and alum, which failed to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Taken together these results demonstrate the adjuvant potential of these novel lipid vesicles that may simultaneously induce both innate and adaptive immune responses due to their immune stimulatory and antigen delivery properties.
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Pneumothorax after bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy: a case report.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2010
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Bevacizumab added to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy can improve outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Bevacizumab had several notable adverse effects including bowel perforation but pneumothorax had never been reported in the available English literature. We reported a 45-year-old male with lung metastases from colorectal cancer who had spontaneous pneumothorax after the second cycle of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. His pneumothorax resolved after tube thoracostomy with a small caliber catheter. The mechanism of pneumothorax developed after bevacizumab therapy was not clear as bowel perforation but tumor necrosis with ruptured parietal pleura might be the cause. In patients who had chest discomfort after bevacizumab-containing therapy, pneumothorax should never be overlooked as one of the differential diagnoses.
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Contrast enhancement in a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system with a noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplifier.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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We experimentally demonstrated the contrast enhancement in a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser with a noncollinear femtosecond optical-parametric amplifier. A total gain of 3.4 × 10(4) and pulse energy of 26 ?J were achieved. With the clean high-energy seeding pulse, the contrast ratio of the main amplified laser pulse to the amplified spontaneous emission in the Ti: sapphire CPA laser system was improved to around 10(10) within the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds.
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Inhibition of the interactions between eosinophil cationic protein and airway epithelial cells by traditional Chinese herbs.
BMC Syst Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is cytotoxic to bacteria, viruses, parasites and mammalian cells. Cells are damaged via processes of pore formation, permeability alteration and membrane leaking. Some clinical studies indicate that ECP gathers in the bronchial tract of asthma sufferers, damages bronchial and airway epithelial cells, and leads to in breathing tract inflammation; therefore, prevention of the cytotoxicity caused by ECP may serve as an approach to treat airway inflammation. To achieve the purpose, reduction of the ECP-cell interactions is rational. In this work, the Chinese herbal combinative network was generated to predict and identify the functional herbs from the pools of prescriptions. It was useful to select the node herbs and to demonstrate the relative binding ability between ECP and Beas-2B cells with or withour herb treatments.
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High early mortality rate in elderly patients with multiple myeloma receiving a vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone regimen.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Treatment-related mortality (TRM) is not uncommon in patients after the first course of vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (VAD) chemotherapy,but quite rare after melphalan-prednisolone (MP). This motivated us to compare the rates of TRM after the first course of VAD with those after the first course of MP. We retrospectively assessed survival and TRM in 179 patients treated for multiple myeloma with either MP or VAD. Survival was similar in two groups (P 50.463 in log-rank test). However, TRM was significantly higher inpatients after the first course of VAD (11 in 100 patients, 11.0%) than that after the first course of MP (1 in 79, 1.3%; P 5 0.010). Poor performance status (P 5 0.004) and advanced age (P 5 0.009) before treatment were independent significant factors associated with TRM after the first course of induction therapy. Pyogenic infection was the major cause of TRM after VAD (9 in 11, 81.8%). We concluded that VAD should be cautiously used as induction therapy in multiple myeloma patients, especially in elderly and/or those with poor performance status.
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BiMFG: bioinformatics tools for marine and freshwater species.
J Bioinform Comput Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Biomolecule sequences and structures of land, air and water species are determined rapidly and the data entries are unevenly distributed for different organisms. It frequently leads to the BLAST results of homologous search containing undesirable entries from organisms living in different environments. To reduce irrelevant searching results, a separate database for comparative genomics is urgently required. A comprehensive bioinformatics tool set and an integrated database, named Bioinformatics tools for Marine and Freshwater Genomics (BiMFG), are constructed for comparative analyses among model species and underwater species. Novel matching techniques based on conserved motifs and/or secondary structure elements are designed for efficiently and effectively retrieving and aligning remote sequences through cross-species comparisons. It is especially helpful when sequences under analysis possess low similarities and unresolved structural information. In addition, the system provides core techniques of multiple sequence alignment, multiple second structure profile alignment and iteratively refined multiple structural alignments for biodiversity analysis and verification in marine and freshwater biology. The BiMFG web server is freely available for use at http://bimfg.cs.ntou.edu.tw/.
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Adjuvant oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-containing chemotherapy improves overall survival following resection of metachronous colorectal liver metastases.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Adjuvant systemic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy improves survival after resection of synchronous colorectal liver metastases (CLMs), but not metachronous. We retrospectively examined if adjuvant chemotherapy with new regimen containing oxaliplatin or irinotecan improved survivals after resection of metachronous CLMs.
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NlpI contributes to Escherichia coli K1 strain RS218 interaction with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing neonatal meningitis. E. coli K1 binding to and invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) is a prerequisite for its traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and penetration into the brain. In the present study, we identified NlpI as a novel bacterial determinant contributing to E. coli K1 interaction with HBMECs. The deletion of nlpI did not affect the expression of the known bacterial determinants involved in E. coli K1-HBMEC interaction, such as type 1 fimbriae, flagella, and OmpA, and the contribution of NlpI to HBMECs binding and invasion was independent of those bacterial determinants. Previous reports have shown that the nlpI mutant of E. coli K-12 exhibits growth defect at 42 degrees C at low osmolarity, and its thermosensitive phenotype can be suppressed by a mutation on the spr gene. The nlpI mutant of strain RS218 exhibited similar thermosensitive phenotype, but additional spr mutation did not restore the ability of the nlpI mutant to interact with HBMECs. These findings suggest the decreased ability of the nlpI mutant to interact with HBMECs is not associated with the thermosensitive phenotype. NlpI was determined as an outer membrane-anchored protein in E. coli, and the nlpI mutant was defective in cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) phosphorylation compared to the parent strain. These findings illustrate the first demonstration of NlpIs contribution to E. coli K1 binding to and invasion of HBMECs, and its contribution is likely to involve cPLA(2)alpha.
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Diabetes mellitus negatively impacts survival of patients with colon cancer, particularly in stage II disease.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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This retrospective study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with newly diagnosed colon cancers, with particular focus on the impact of diabetes on survival at each stage of colon cancer.
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Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial profiles in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the same dairy cattle farms.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance from resistant bacteria to non-resistant strains is an important public health issue. In this study, we have examined the possibility of multiple resistance gene transfer between Escherichia coli and Salmonella in the natural setting. Bacteria isolated from calves concurrently shedding E. coli and Salmonella showed similar antimicrobial drug resistance patterns as measured by a broth dilution method. However, microarray analysis of the antibiotic resistance at the gene level revealed several differences in resistance gene profile. Resistance profiles of E. coli isolated from different farms were closer than the profile of E. coli and Salmonella isolated from the same farm. This shows that the chance of multiple resistance gene transfers between these species is unlikely.
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Trypsin-induced proteome alteration during cell subculture in mammalian cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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It is essential to subculture the cells once cultured cells reach confluence. For this, trypsin is frequently applied to dissociate adhesive cells from the substratum. However, due to the proteolytic activity of trypsin, cell surface proteins are often cleaved, which leads to dysregulation of the cell functions.
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Ptosis as the initial presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Guillain-Barré syndrome has been regarded as a spectrum of diseases with many variants.
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A novel sweet taste cell-based sensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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In this paper, a novel sweet taste cell-based sensor is proposed for tastants detection. The human colorectal carcinoma NCI-H716 cell lines, which express ?-gustducin and sweet taste receptor T1R1/T1R3, are cultured on the carbon screen-printed electrode with the pre-coated poly-L-ornithine and lamimin for adhesion in extracellular matrix. The electrode is placed into a fluidic and environment regulation system. When stimulated by an electric field at a fixed frequency of 1 kHz and 10 ?A, the electrochemical impedance spectrum data was recorded by EG&G 273A and high performance dual phase analog lock-in amplifier 5210 and processed by bistable stochastic resonance method. Four basic tastants and sucrose solutions in seven concentrations can be decided by maximums of the signal-to-noise ratio and relevant noise intensity. A negative control experiment utilizing COLO-205 cell lines demonstrate that carbon screen-printed electrode with mammalian cell line without the expression of gust TIR2 and TIR3 lacked the tastant detecting ability. The sensor system presents good stability and repeatability. The proposed sensor is promising for practical applications, and provides a novel way for taste mechanism investigation.
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Fusobacterium septicemia complicated by cerebral subdural and epidural empyemas: a rare case of Lemierre syndrome.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Lemierre syndrome is characterized by postanginal septicemia and internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis with secondary septic emboli, typically to the lungs. The central nervous system (CNS) is rarely involved.
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Numerical and experimental investigation of a continuous-wave and passively mode-locked Yb:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1.05 microm.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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We present the results of a novel numerical and experimental investigation aimed at obtaining efficient 1.05 mum operation with a Yb:YAG laser. The model shows that the emitting wavelength of the Yb:YAG laser is affected by the combination of length and doping concentration of the gain medium. Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at the wavelength of 1050 nm was experimentally obtained in good agreement with the model predictions. Based on continuous-wave operation, generation of 1.8 ps laser pulses at the central wavelength of 1050 nm, as well as 170 fs laser pulses at the central wavelength of 1053 nm, were realized.
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Beta-adrenergic modulation of arrhythmogenesis and identification of targeted sites of antiarrhythmic therapy in Timothy (LQT8) syndrome: a theoretical study.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Timothy syndrome (TS) is a malignant form of congenital long QT syndrome with a mode of arrhythmia onset often triggered by enhanced sympathetic tone. We sought to explore mechanisms by which beta-adrenergic stimulation (BAS) modulates arrhythmogenesis and to identify potential targeted sites of antiarrhythmic therapy in TS. Using a dynamic Luo-Rudy ventricular myocyte model incorporated with detailed intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, along with its one-dimensional multicellular strand, we simulated various clinical scenarios of TS, with stepwise increase in the percentage of G406R Ca(v)1.2 channels from 0 to 11.5 and 23%, and to 38.5 and 77%, respectively, for heterozygous and homozygous states of TS1 and TS2. Progressive prolongation of action potential duration (APD) and QT interval, accompanied by amplification of transmural dispersion of repolarization, steepening of APD restitution, induction of delayed afterdepolariztions (DADs), and both DAD and phase 3 early afterdepolariztion-mediated triggered activities, correlated well with the extent of G406R Ca(v)1.2 channel mutation. BAS amplified transmural dispersion of repolarization, steepened APD restitution, and facilitated inducibility of DAD-mediated triggered activity. Systematic analysis of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling revealed that sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (uptake current) played an essential role in BAS-induced facilitation of DAD-mediated triggered activity and, in addition to L-type calcium current, it could be an effective site of antiarrhythmic therapy under the influence of BAS. Thus G406R Ca(v)1.2 channel mutation confers not only a trigger, but also a substrate for lethal ventricular arrhythmias, which can be exaggerated by BAS. It is suggested that, besides beta-adrenergic blockers and L-type calcium current channel blockers, an agent aimed at reduction of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase uptake current may provide additional antiarrhythmic effect in patients with TS.
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Unraveling near-field origin of electromagnetic waves scattered from silver nanorod arrays using pseudo-spectral time-domain calculation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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In this study, we report the investigation of both near- and far-field electromagnetic characteristics of two-dimensional silver nanorod arrays embedded in anodic aluminum oxide with the use of a high-accuracy three-dimensional Legendre pseudospectral time-domain scheme. The simulated far-field scattering spectra agree with the experimental observations. We show that enhanced electric field is created between adjacent nanorods and, most importantly, far-field scattered light wave is mainly contributed from surface magnetic field, instead of the surface enhanced electric field. The identified near-field to far-field connection produces an important implication in the development of efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.
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Identification of prophage gene z2389 in Escherichia coli EDL933 encoding a DNA cytosine methyltransferase for full protection of NotI sites.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed that the genomes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains, including EDL933, were resistant to NotI digestion. An amino acid sequence comparison suggested that the z2389 gene carried on prophage CP-933R in strain EDL933 is likely to encode a C(5)-cytosine methyltransferase. The z2389-equivalent gene was found in the NotI-resistant strains tested, but it was not detected in the NotI-susceptible strains. PFGE analysis of the wild-type EDL933 strain and of a z2389 null mutant revealed that z2389 was associated with full genome protection against NotI digestion and partial protection against EagI digestion. In vitro methylation experiments with purified recombinant protein demonstrated that Z2389 is capable of methylating NotI and EagI sites. Sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA indicated that the methylation occurred at the first cytosine residue of the NotI recognition sequence, whereas EagI sites remained unmethylated or were methylated at the first cytosine residue. Thus, z2389 encodes a DNA cytosine methyltransferase that confers full protection to NotI sites.
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Generation of 210 fs laser pulses at 1093 nm by a self-starting mode-locked Yb:GYSO laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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We report the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the femtosecond laser operation by using a new alloyed Yb:GYSO crystal as the gain medium. With a 5 at. %Yb(3+)-doped sample and chirped mirrors for dispersion compensation, we obtained pulses as short as 210 fs at the center wavelength of 1093 nm. The average mode-locking power is 300 mW, and the pulse repetition frequency is 80 MHz.
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The relationship between carotid intima-media thickness and endogenous androgens in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome in Taiwan.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex female endocrinopathy that is associated with multiple vascular risk factors. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and endogenous androgens in young Taiwanese-Chinese women with PCOS. We measured CIMT with B-mode ultrasound in 42 young PCOS patients and 43 controls. Atherosclerosis-associated profiles and endocrinological parameters were also measured. The results showed that although Taiwanese-Chinese PCOS patients tend to possess more risk factors for atherosclerosis than controls, there was no evidence to support that they have a greater CIMT at this age. Furthermore, androstenedione appears to be inversely associated with CIMT.
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Temporal differential proteomes of Clostridium difficile in the pig ileal-ligated loop model.
PLoS ONE
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The impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on healthcare is becoming increasingly recognized as it represents a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea. A rising number of CDI cases and outbreaks have been reported worldwide. Here, we developed the pig ileal-ligated loop model for semi-quantitative analysis comparing temporal differential proteomes in C. difficile following in vivo incubation with in vitro growth using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Proteins retrieved from the in vitro cultures and the loop contents after 4, 8, and 12 h in vivo incubation were subjected to in-solution digestion, iTRAQ labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and statistical analyses. From a total of 1152 distinct proteins identified in this study, 705 proteins were available for quantitative measures at all time points in both biological and technical replicates; 109 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. With analysis of clusters of orthologous group and protein-protein network interactions, we identified the proteins that might play roles in adaptive responses to the host environment, hence enhancing pathogenicity during CDI. This report represents the quantitative proteomic analysis of C. difficile that demonstrates time-dependent protein expression changes under conditions that mimic in vivo infection and identifies potential candidates for diagnostic or therapeutic measures.
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Chemoattraction of macrophages by secretory molecules derived from cells expressing the signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein.
BMC Syst Biol
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Eosinophil cationic protein is a clinical asthma biomarker that would be released into blood, especially gathered in bronchia. The signal peptide of eosinophil cationic protein (ECPsp) plays an important role in translocating ECP to the extracellular space. We previously reported that ECPsp inhibits microbial growth and regulates the expression of mammalian genes encoding tumor growth factor-? (TGF-?) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.