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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.
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Interdomain lateral gene transfer of an essential ferrochelatase gene in human parasitic nematodes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Lateral gene transfer events between bacteria and animals highlight an avenue for evolutionary genomic loss/gain of function. Herein, we report functional lateral gene transfer in animal parasitic nematodes. Members of the Nematoda are heme auxotrophs, lacking the ability to synthesize heme; however, the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi has acquired a bacterial gene encoding ferrochelatase (BmFeCH), the terminal step in heme biosynthesis. BmFeCH, encoded by a 9-exon gene, is a mitochondrial-targeted, functional ferrochelatase based on enzyme assays, complementation, and inhibitor studies. Homologs have been identified in several filariae and a nonfilarial nematode. RNAi and ex vivo inhibitor experiments indicate that BmFeCH is essential for viability, validating it as a potential target for filariasis control.
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Erythroid heme biosynthesis and its disorders.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Heme, which is composed of iron and the small organic molecule protoporphyrin, is an essential component of hemoglobin as well as a variety of physiologically important hemoproteins. During erythropoiesis, heme synthesis is induced before, and is essential for, globin synthesis. Although all cells possess the ability to synthesize heme, there are distinct differences between regulation of the pathway in developing erythroid cells and all other types of cells. Disorders that compromise the ability of the developing red cell to synthesize heme can have profound medical implications. The biosynthetic pathway for heme and key regulatory features are reviewed herein, along with specific human genetic disorders that arise from defective heme synthesis such as X-linked sideroblastic anemia and erythropoietic protoporphyria.
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Loss-of-function ferrochelatase and gain-of-function erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase mutations causing erythropoietic protoporphyria and x-linked protoporphyria in North American patients reveal novel mutations and a high prevalence of X-lin
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are inborn errors of heme biosynthesis with the same phenotype but resulting from autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ferrochelatase (FECH) gene and gain-of-function mutations in the X-linked erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene, respectively. The EPP phenotype is characterized by acute, painful, cutaneous photosensitivity and elevated erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. We report the FECH and ALAS2 mutations in 155 unrelated North American patients with the EPP phenotype. FECH sequencing and dosage analyses identified 140 patients with EPP: 134 with one loss-of-function allele and the common IVS3-48T>C low expression allele, three with two loss-of-function mutations and three with one loss-of-function mutation and two low expression alleles. There were 48 previously reported and 23 novel FECH mutations. The remaining 15 probands had ALAS2 gain-of-function mutations causing XLP: 13 with the previously reported deletion, c.1706_1709delAGTG, and two with novel mutations, c.1734delG and c.1642C>T(p.Q548X). Notably, XLP represented ~10% of EPP phenotype patients in North America, two to five times more than in Western Europe. XLP males had twofold higher erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels than EPP patients, predisposing to more severe photosensitivity and liver disease. Identification of XLP patients permits accurate diagnosis and counseling of at-risk relatives and asymptomatic heterozygotes.
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Discovery of a gene involved in a third bacterial protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity through comparative genomic analysis and functional complementation.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Tetrapyrroles are ubiquitous molecules in nearly all living organisms. Heme, an iron-containing tetrapyrrole, is widely distributed in nature, including most characterized aerobic and facultative bacteria. A large majority of bacteria that contain heme possess the ability to synthesize it. Despite this capability and the fact that the biosynthetic pathway has been well studied, enzymes catalyzing at least three steps have remained "missing" in many bacteria. In the current work, we have employed comparative genomics via the SEED genomic platform, coupled with experimental verification utilizing Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, to identify one of the missing enzymes, a new protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme in heme biosynthesis. COG1981 was identified by genomic analysis as a candidate protein family for the missing enzyme in bacteria that lacked HemG or HemY, two known protoporphyrinogen oxidases. The predicted amino acid sequence of COG1981 is unlike those of the known enzymes HemG and HemY, but in some genomes, the gene encoding it is found neighboring other heme biosynthetic genes. When the COG1981 gene was deleted from the genome of A. baylyi, a bacterium that lacks both hemG and hemY, the organism became auxotrophic for heme. Cultures accumulated porphyrin intermediates, and crude cell extracts lacked protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity. The heme auxotrophy was rescued by the presence of a plasmid-borne protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene from a number of different organisms, such as hemG from Escherichia coli, hemY from Myxococcus xanthus, or the human gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase.
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An intercellular heme-trafficking protein delivers maternal heme to the embryo during development in C. elegans.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Extracellular free heme can intercalate into membranes and promote damage to cellular macromolecules. Thus it is likely that specific intercellular pathways exist for the directed transport, trafficking, and delivery of heme to cellular destinations, although none have been found to date. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans HRG-3 is required for the delivery of maternal heme to developing embryos. HRG-3 binds heme and is exclusively secreted by maternal intestinal cells into the interstitial fluid for transport of heme to extraintestinal cells, including oocytes. HRG-3 deficiency results either in death during embryogenesis or in developmental arrest immediately post-hatching-phenotypes that are fully suppressed by maternal but not zygotic hrg-3 expression. Our results establish a role for HRG-3 as an intercellular heme-trafficking protein.
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The Escherichia coli protein YfeX functions as a porphyrinogen oxidase, not a heme dechelatase.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The protein YfeX from Escherichia coli has been proposed to be essential for the process of iron removal from heme by carrying out a dechelation of heme without cleavage of the porphyrin macrocycle. Since this proposed reaction is unique and would represent the first instance of the biological dechelation of heme, we undertook to characterize YfeX. Our data reveal that YfeX effectively decolorizes the dyes alizarin red and Cibacron blue F3GA and has peroxidase activity with pyrogallal but not guiacol. YfeX oxidizes protoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrin in vitro. However, we were unable to detect any dechelation of heme to free porphyrin with purified YfeX or in cellular extracts of E. coli overexpressing YfeX. Additionally, Vibrio fischeri, an organism that can utilize heme as an iron source when grown under iron limitation, is able to grow with heme as the sole source of iron when its YfeX homolog is absent. Plasmid-driven expression of YfeX in V. fischeri grown with heme did not result in accumulation of protoporphyrin. We propose that YfeX is a typical dye-decolorizing peroxidase (or DyP) and not a dechelatase. The protoporphyrin reported to accumulate when YfeX is overexpressed in E. coli likely arises from the intracellular oxidation of endogenously synthesized protoporphyrinogen and not from dechelation of exogenously supplied heme. Bioinformatic analysis of bacterial YfeX homologs does not identify any connection with iron acquisition but does suggest links to anaerobic-growth-related respiratory pathways. Additionally, some genes encoding homologs of YfeX have tight association with genes encoding a bacterial cytoplasmic encapsulating protein.
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Discovery and Characterization of HemQ: an essential heme biosynthetic pathway component.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Here we identify a previously undescribed protein, HemQ, that is required for heme synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. We have characterized HemQ from Bacillus subtilis and a number of Actinobacteria. HemQ is a multimeric heme-binding protein. Spectroscopic studies indicate that this heme is high spin ferric iron and is ligated by a conserved histidine with the sixth coordination site available for binding a small molecule. The presence of HemQ along with the terminal two pathway enzymes, protoporphyrinogen oxidase (HemY) and ferrochelatase, is required to synthesize heme in vivo and in vitro. Although the exact role played by HemQ remains to be characterized, to be fully functional in vitro it requires the presence of a bound heme. HemQ possesses minimal peroxidase activity, but as a catalase it has a turnover of over 10(4) min(-1). We propose that this activity may be required to eliminate hydrogen peroxide that is generated by each turnover of HemY. Given the essential nature of heme synthesis and the restricted distribution of HemQ, this protein is a potential antimicrobial target for pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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Ferrochelatase forms an oligomeric complex with mitoferrin-1 and Abcb10 for erythroid heme biosynthesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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In erythroid cells, ferrous iron is imported into the mitochondrion by mitoferrin-1 (Mfrn1). Previously, we showed that Mfrn1 interacts with Abcb10 to enhance mitochondrial iron importation. Herein we have derived stable Friend mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cell clones expressing either Mfrn1-FLAG or Abcb10-FLAG and by affinity purification and mass spectrometry have identified ferrochelatase (Fech) as an interacting protein for both Mfrn1 and Abcb10. Fech is the terminal heme synthesis enzyme to catalyze the insertion of the imported iron into protoporphyrin IX to produce heme. The Mfrn1-Fech and Abcb10-Fech interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis with endogenous proteins in MEL cells and heterologous proteins expressed in HEK293 cells. Moreover, Fech protein is induced in parallel with Mfrn1 and Abcb10 during MEL cell erythroid differentiation. Our findings imply that Fech forms an oligomeric complex with Mfrn1 and Abcb10 to synergistically integrate mitochondrial iron importation and use for heme biosynthesis.
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Identification of Escherichia coli HemG as a novel, menadione-dependent flavodoxin with protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO, EC 1.3.3.4) catalyzes the six-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to the fully conjugated protoporphyrin IX. Eukaryotes and Gram-positive bacteria possess an oxygen-dependent, FAD-containing enzyme for this step, while the majority of Gram-negative bacteria lack this oxygen-dependent PPO. In Escherichia coli, PPO activity is known to be linked to respiration and the quinone pool. In E. coli SASX38, the knockout of hemG causes a loss of measurable PPO activity. HemG is a small soluble protein typical of long chain flavodoxins. Herein, purified recombinant HemG was shown to be capable of a menadione-dependent conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. Electrochemical analysis of HemG revealed similarities to other flavodoxins. Interestingly, HemG, a member of a class of the long chain flavodoxin family that is unique to the gamma-proteobacteria, possesses a 22-residue sequence that, when transferred into E. coli flavodoxin A, produces a chimera that will complement an E. coli hemG mutant, indicating that this region confers PPO activity to the flavodoxin. These findings reveal a previously unidentified class of PPO enzymes that do not utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, thereby allowing gamma-proteobacteria to synthesize heme in both aerobic and anaerobic environments.
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Product release rather than chelation determines metal specificity for ferrochelatase.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Ferrochelatase (protoheme ferrolyase, E.C. 4.99.1.1) is the terminal enzyme in heme biosynthesis and catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form protoheme IX (heme). Within the past two years, X-ray crystallographic data obtained with human ferrochelatase have clearly shown that significant structural changes occur during catalysis that are predicted to facilitate metal insertion and product release. One unanswered question about ferrochelatase involves defining the mechanism whereby some metals, such as divalent Fe, Co, Ni, and Zn, can be used by the enzyme in vitro to produce the corresponding metalloporphyrins, while other metals, such as divalent Mn, Hg, Cd, or Pb, are inhibitors of the enzyme. Through the use of high-resolution X-ray crystallography along with characterization of metal species via their anomalous diffraction, the identity and position of Hg, Cd, Ni, or Mn in the center of enzyme-bound porphyrin macrocycle were determined. When Pb, Hg, Cd, or Ni was present in the macrocycle, the conserved pi helix was in the extended, partially unwound "product release" state. Interestingly, in the structure of ferrochelatase with Mn-porphyrin bound, the pi helix is not extended or unwound and is in the "substrate-bound" conformation. These findings show that at least in the cases of Mn, Pb, Cd, and Hg, metal "inhibition" of ferrochelatase is not due to the inability of the enzyme to insert the metal into the macrocycle or by binding to a second metal binding site as has been previously proposed. Rather, inhibition occurs after metal insertion and results from poor or diminished product release. Possible explanations for the lack of product release are proposed herein.
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Mitochondrial Atpif1 regulates haem synthesis in developing erythroblasts.
Nature
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Defects in the availability of haem substrates or the catalytic activity of the terminal enzyme in haem biosynthesis, ferrochelatase (Fech), impair haem synthesis and thus cause human congenital anaemias. The interdependent functions of regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis and enzymes responsible for haem synthesis are largely unknown. To investigate this we used zebrafish genetic screens and cloned mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (atpif1) from a zebrafish mutant with profound anaemia, pinotage (pnt (tq209)). Here we describe a direct mechanism establishing that Atpif1 regulates the catalytic efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem. The loss of Atpif1 impairs haemoglobin synthesis in zebrafish, mouse and human haematopoietic models as a consequence of diminished Fech activity and elevated mitochondrial pH. To understand the relationship between mitochondrial pH, redox potential, [2Fe-2S] clusters and Fech activity, we used genetic complementation studies of Fech constructs with or without [2Fe-2S] clusters in pnt, as well as pharmacological agents modulating mitochondrial pH and redox potential. The presence of [2Fe-2S] cluster renders vertebrate Fech vulnerable to perturbations in Atpif1-regulated mitochondrial pH and redox potential. Therefore, Atpif1 deficiency reduces the efficiency of vertebrate Fech to synthesize haem, resulting in anaemia. The identification of mitochondrial Atpif1 as a regulator of haem synthesis advances our understanding of the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial haem homeostasis and red blood cell development. An ATPIF1 deficiency may contribute to important human diseases, such as congenital sideroblastic anaemias and mitochondriopathies.
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Identification and characterization of solvent-filled channels in human ferrochelatase.
Biochemistry
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Ferrochelatase catalyzes the formation of protoheme from two potentially cytotoxic products, iron and protoporphyrin IX. While much is known from structural and kinetic studies on human ferrochelatase of the dynamic nature of the enzyme during catalysis and the binding of protoporphyrin IX and heme, little is known about how metal is delivered to the active site and how chelation occurs. Analysis of all ferrochelatase structures available to date reveals the existence of several solvent-filled channels that originate at the protein surface and continue to the active site. These channels have been proposed to provide a route for substrate entry, water entry, and proton exit during the catalytic cycle. To begin to understand the functions of these channels, we investigated in vitro and in vivo a number of variants that line these solvent-filled channels. Data presented herein support the role of one of these channels, which originates at the surface residue H240, in the delivery of iron to the active site. Structural studies of the arginyl variant of the conserved residue F337, which resides at the back of the active site pocket, suggest that it not only regulates the opening and closing of active site channels but also plays a role in regulating the enzyme mechanism. These data provide insight into the movement of the substrate and water into and out of the active site and how this movement is coordinated with the reaction mechanism.
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One ring to rule them all: trafficking of heme and heme synthesis intermediates in the metazoans.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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The appearance of heme, an organic ring surrounding an iron atom, in evolution forever changed the efficiency with which organisms were able to generate energy, utilize gasses and catalyze numerous reactions. Because of this, heme has become a near ubiquitous compound among living organisms. In this review we have attempted to assess the current state of heme synthesis and trafficking with a goal of identifying crucial missing information, and propose hypotheses related to trafficking that may generate discussion and research. The possibilities of spatially organized supramolecular enzyme complexes and organelle structures that facilitate efficient heme synthesis and subsequent trafficking are discussed and evaluated. Recently identified players in heme transport and trafficking are reviewed and placed in an organismal context. Additionally, older, well established data are reexamined in light of more recent studies on cellular organization and data available from newer model organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cell Biology of Metals.
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Heme utilization in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermal cells is facilitated by heme-responsive gene-2.
J. Biol. Chem.
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The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is a heme auxotroph that requires the coordinated actions of HRG-1 heme permeases to transport environmental heme into the intestine and HRG-3, a secreted protein, to deliver intestinal heme to other tissues including the embryo. Here we show that heme homeostasis in the extraintestinal hypodermal tissue was facilitated by the transmembrane protein HRG-2. Systemic heme deficiency up-regulated hrg-2 mRNA expression over 200-fold in the main body hypodermal syncytium, hyp 7. HRG-2 is a type I membrane protein that binds heme and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and apical plasma membrane. Cytochrome heme profiles are aberrant in HRG-2-deficient worms, a phenotype that was partially suppressed by heme supplementation. A heme-deficient yeast strain, ectopically expressing worm HRG-2, revealed significantly improved growth at submicromolar concentrations of exogenous heme. Taken together, our results implicate HRG-2 as a facilitator of heme utilization in the Caenorhabditis elegans hypodermis and provide a mechanism for the regulation of heme homeostasis in an extraintestinal tissue.
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