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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Assessment of Atherosclerosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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-Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) suffer immunodeficiency due to defects in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and concomitant reduction in reactive oxygen intermediates. This may result in a reduction in atherosclerotic injury.
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Mobilization characteristics and strategies to improve hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization and collection in patients with chronic granulomatous disease and severe combined immunodeficiency.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) may be collected by apheresis of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) for use in gene therapy trials. CD34+ cell mobilization has not been well characterized in such patients.
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An AAVS1-Targeted Minigene Platform for Correction of iPSCs From All Five Types of Chronic Granulomatous Disease.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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There are five genetic forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), resulting from mutations in any of five subunits of phagocyte oxidase, an enzyme complex in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages that produces microbicidal reactive oxygen species. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from peripheral blood CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells of patients with each of five CGD genotypes. We used zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) targeting the AAVS1 safe harbor site together with CGD genotype-specific minigene plasmids with flanking AAVS1 sequence to target correction of iPSC representing each form of CGD. We achieved targeted insertion with constitutive expression of desired oxidase subunit in 70-80% of selected iPSC clones. Neutrophils and macrophages differentiated from corrected CGD iPSCs demonstrated restored oxidase activity and antimicrobial function against CGD bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Granulibacter bethesdensis. Using a standard platform that combines iPSC generation from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells and ZFN mediated AAVS1 safe harbor minigene targeting, we demonstrate efficient generation of genetically corrected iPSCs using an identical approach for all five genetic forms of CGD. This safe harbor minigene targeting platform is broadly applicable to a wide range of inherited single gene metabolic disorders.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.195.
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Paravertebral mushroom: identification of a novel species of Phellinus as a human pathogen in chronic granulomatous disease.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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We describe a case of paravertebral abscess caused by a Phellinus sp. in a boy with chronic granulomatous disease. Sequence-based identification of this mold, a new agent of disease, suggests a close relation to Phellinus umbrinellus.
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Release of cystic fibrosis airway inflammatory markers from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-stimulated human neutrophils involves NADPH oxidase-dependent extracellular DNA trap formation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are characterized by bacterial infections, excess mucus production, and robust neutrophil recruitment. The main CF airway pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Neutrophils are not capable of clearing the infection. Neutrophil primary granule components, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE), are inflammatory markers in CF airways, and their increased levels are associated with poor lung function. Identifying the mechanism of MPO and HNE release from neutrophils is of high clinical relevance for CF. In this article, we show that human neutrophils release large amounts of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Bacteria are entangled in NETs and colocalize with extracellular DNA. MPO, HNE, and citrullinated histone H4 are all associated with DNA in Pseudomonas-triggered NETs. Both laboratory standard strains and CF isolates of P. aeruginosa induce DNA, MPO, and HNE release from human neutrophils. The increase in peroxidase activity of neutrophil supernatants after Pseudomonas exposure indicates that enzymatically active MPO is released. P. aeruginosa induces a robust respiratory burst in neutrophils that is required for extracellular DNA release. Inhibition of the cytoskeleton prevents Pseudomonas-initiated superoxide production and DNA release. NADPH oxidase inhibition suppresses Pseudomonas-induced release of active MPO and HNE. Blocking MEK/ERK signaling results in only minimal inhibition of DNA release induced by Pseudomonas. Our data describe in vitro details of DNA, MPO, and HNE release from neutrophils activated by P. aeruginosa. We propose that Pseudomonas-induced NET formation is an important mechanism contributing to inflammatory conditions characteristic of CF airways.
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Recommendations for live viral and bacterial vaccines in immunodeficient patients and their close contacts.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The present uncertainty of which live viral or bacterial vaccines can be given to immunodeficient patients and the growing neglect of societal adherence to routine immunizations has prompted the Medical Advisory Committee of the Immune Deficiency Foundation to issue recommendations based on published literature and the collective experience of the committee members. These recommendations address the concern for immunodeficient patients acquiring infections from healthy subjects who have not been immunized or who are shedding live vaccine-derived viral or bacterial organisms. Such transmission of infectious agents can occur within the hospital, clinic, or home or at any public gathering. Collectively, we define this type of transmission as close-contact spread of infectious disease that is particularly relevant in patients with impaired immunity who might have an infection when exposed to subjects carrying vaccine-preventable infectious diseases or who have recently received a live vaccine. Immunodeficient patients who have received therapeutic hematopoietic stem transplantation are also at risk during the time when immune reconstitution is incomplete or while they are receiving immunosuppressive agents to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease. This review recommends the general education of what is known about vaccine-preventable or vaccine-derived diseases being spread to immunodeficient patients at risk for close-contact spread of infection and describes the relative risks for a child with severe immunodeficiency. The review also recommends a balance between the need to protect vulnerable subjects and their social needs to integrate into society, attend school, and benefit from peer education.
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A phase 1 clinical trial of long-term, low-dose treatment of WHIM syndrome with the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor, which is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stem cell mobilization in cancer and administered for that indication at 0.24 mg/kg, has been shown in short-term (1- to 2-week) phase 1 dose-escalation studies to correct neutropenia and other cytopenias in WHIM syndrome. However, long-term safety and long-term hematologic and clinical efficacy data are lacking. Here we report results from the first long-term clinical trial of plerixafor in any disease, in which 3 adults with WHIM syndrome self-injected 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg (4% to 8% of the FDA-approved dose) subcutaneously twice daily for 6 months. Circulating leukocytes were durably increased throughout the trial in all patients, and this was associated with fewer infections and improvement in warts in combination with imiquimod; however, immunoglobulin levels and specific vaccine responses were not fully restored. No drug-associated side effects were observed. These results provide preliminary evidence for the safety and clinical efficacy of long-term, low-dose plerixafor in WHIM syndrome and support its continued study as mechanism-based therapy in this disease. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier for this study is NCT00967785.
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Generation of functionally mature neutrophils from induced pluripotent stem cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent stem cells established from somatic cells. The capability of iPSCs to differentiate into any mature cell lineage under the appropriate conditions allows for modeling of cell processes as well as disease states. Here, we describe an in vitro method for generating functional mature neutrophils from human iPSCs. We also describe assays for testing these differentiated cells for neutrophil characteristics and functions by morphology, cell surface markers, production of reactive oxygen species, microbial killing, and mobilization of neutrophils to an inflammatory site in an in vivo immunodeficient mouse infusion model.
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The role of neutrophils in the immune system: an overview.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Neutrophils, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), have long been considered as the short-lived, nonspecific white cells that form pus-and also happen to kill invading microbes. Indeed, neutrophils were often neglected (and largely not considered) as immune cells. This historic view of neutrophils has changed considerably over the past several decades, and we know now that, in addition to playing the predominant role in the clearance of bacteria and fungi, they play a major role in shaping the host response to infection and immune system homeostasis. The change in our view of the role of neutrophils in the immune system has been due in large part to the study of these cells in vitro. Such work has been made possible by new and/or improved methods and approaches used to investigate neutrophils. These methods are the focus of this volume.
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Enhancers are major targets for murine leukemia virus vector integration.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Retroviral vectors have been used in successful gene therapies. However, in some patients, insertional mutagenesis led to leukemia or myelodysplasia. Both the strong promoter/enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors and the vector-specific integration site preferences played an important role in these adverse clinical events. MLV integration is known to prefer regions in or near transcription start sites (TSS). Recently, BET family proteins were shown to be the major cellular proteins responsible for targeting MLV integration. Although MLV integration sites are significantly enriched at TSS, only a small fraction of the MLV integration sites (<15%) occur in this region. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we created a high-resolution genome-wide integration map of more than one million integration sites from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a clinically relevant MLV-based vector. The integration sites form ?60,000 tight clusters. These clusters comprise ?1.9% of the genome. The vast majority (87%) of the integration sites are located within histone H3K4me1 islands, a hallmark of enhancers. The majority of these clusters also have H3K27ac histone modifications, which mark active enhancers. The enhancers of some oncogenes, including LMO2, are highly preferred targets for integration without in vivo selection.
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Human syndromes of immunodeficiency and dysregulation are characterized by distinct defects in T-cell receptor repertoire development.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Human immunodeficiencies characterized by hypomorphic mutations in critical developmental and signaling pathway genes allow for the dissection of the role of these genes in the development of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and the correlation of alterations of the TCR repertoire with diverse clinical phenotypes.
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Gastrointestinal histopathology in chronic granulomatous disease: a study of 87 patients.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a rare genetic immunodeficiency, mimics other inflammatory bowel diseases. We report GI pathology from 87 CGD patients seen at the NIH Clinical Center, with vague to severe clinical symptoms, in whom biopsies (313) had been evaluated (esophagus [23], stomach [71], small bowel [52] including duodenum [39], ileum [12], and jejunum [1], and colon [167]). Additionally reviewed was GI tissue from 15 autopsies. In our patient cohort, the mean age was 22 years (age range, 3 to 44 y; 2:1 male to female ratio). There were pathologic changes in 83/87 (95%) patients; with colon being the most commonly involved site and esophagus the least. There were microgranulomas in 53/87 (61%), pigmented macrophages in 64/87 (74%), tissue eosinophilia in 31/87 (36%), and chronic and/or acute inflammation in 57/87 (66%) patients. A subset of patients had villous shortening in the duodenum (8/39) and ileum (5/12). We identify microgranulomas in 76/167 (46%) colon, 12/52 (23%) small bowel, and 4/71 (6%) gastric biopsies; pigmented macrophages in 109/167 (65%) colon and 7/52 (13%) small bowel biopsies and 14/15 autopsies; chronic and/or acute inflammation in 97/167 (58%) colon, 13/52 (25%) small bowel, 42/71 (59%) gastric, and 5/23 (22%) esophageal biopsies; tissue eosinophilia in 43/167 (26%) colon, 7/52 (13%) small bowel, and 2/71 (3%) gastric biopsies. Only 4/87 (5%) patients had normal histology. No infectious etiology was identified in the majority of inflammatory lesions. We found that mild to severe GI pathology was common in CGD. In addition, microgranulomas, pigmented macrophages, and eosinophilia are not associated with acute (neutrophilic) inflammation.
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CXCR4/IgG-expressing plasma cells are associated with human gastrointestinal tissue inflammation.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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We previously reported abnormalities in circulating B cells in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and those with HIV infection. Gastrointestinal complications are common to both diseases and likely involve perturbation of immune cells, including plasma cells (PCs). IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in the human body, with roles in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. IgA is produced primarily by PCs residing in mucosal tissues that are also thought to circulate in the blood.
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Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.
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B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is elevated in chronic granulomatous disease.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an inherited defect in superoxide production leading to life-threatening infections, granulomas, and, possibly, abnormal immunoglobulin concentrations. We investigated whether factors controlling antibody production, such as B-cell activating factor (BAFF), were altered in CGD. CGD subjects had significantly increased mean (2.3-fold, p < 0.0001) plasma concentrations of BAFF compared to healthy donors. Patients on IFN-? treatment had significantly higher BAFF concentrations compared with CGD patients not taking IFN-? (1.6-fold, p < 0.005). Leukocytes from CGD subjects produced normal amounts of BAFF in response to IFN-? or G-CSF in vitro. Expression of BAFF-R and TACI was significantly reduced on CGD B cells. Elevated BAFF in CGD correlated with CRP (R = 0.44), ESR (R = 0.49), and IgM (R = 0.47) and increased rapidly in healthy subjects following intravenous endotoxin administration. These findings suggest that elevated BAFF in CGD subjects and healthy donors is a consequence of acute and chronic inflammation.
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The role of surgery in the management of patients with refractory chronic granulomatous disease colitis.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immunodeficiency complicated by dysregulated inflammation and granulomatous complications of the GI tract. The management of chronic granulomatous disease colitis presents the dilemma of an immunocompromised host requiring immunosuppressive therapy which can potentiate fatal infections.
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Transgene-free iPSCs generated from small volume peripheral blood nonmobilized CD34+ cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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A variety of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) present in nonmobilized peripheral blood (PB) would be a convenient target. We report a method for deriving iPSC from PB HSCs using immunobead purification and 2- to 4-day culture to enrich CD34(+) HSCs to 80% ± 9%, followed by reprogramming with loxP-flanked polycistronic (human Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc) STEMCCA-loxP lentivector, or with Sendai vectors. Colonies arising with STEMCCA-loxP were invariably TRA-1-60(+), yielding 5.3 ± 2.8 iPSC colonies per 20 mL PB (n = 17), where most colonies had single-copy STEMCCA-loxP easily excised by transient Cre expression. Colonies arising with Sendai were variably reprogrammed (10%-80% TRA-1-60(+)), with variable yield (6 to >500 TRA-1-60(+) iPSC colonies per 10 mL blood; n = 6). Resultant iPSC clones expressed pluripotent cell markers and generated teratomas. Genomic methylation patterns of STEMCCA-loxP-reprogrammed clones closely matched embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we showed that iPSCs are derived from the nonmobilized CD34(+) HSCs enriched from PB rather than from any lymphocyte or monocyte contaminants because they lack somatic rearrangements typical of T or B lymphocytes and because purified CD14(+) monocytes do not yield iPSC colonies under these reprogramming conditions.
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Diabetes, renal and cardiovascular disease in p47 phox-/- chronic granulomatous disease.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immunodeficiency due to defects in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The X-linked form (gp91 (phox) deficiency) accounts for about 70 % of cases; autosomal recessive p47 (phox) deficiency accounts for about 25 % of cases. We identified a 10 % incidence of diabetes in p47 (phox) deficient CGD, but none in X-linked CGD. Renal and cardiovascular diseases were also higher in p47 (phox) deficiency. p47 (phox) deficient CGD has non-infectious morbidities distinct from those in X-linked CGD.
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Pyocyanin-enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap formation requires the NADPH oxidase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Beyond intracellular killing, a novel neutrophil-based antimicrobial mechanism has been recently discovered: entrapment and killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of extruded nuclear DNA webs decorated with granule proteins. Although NET formation is an important innate immune mechanism, uncontrolled NET release damages host tissues and has been linked to several diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). The major CF airway pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes chronic infection. Pseudomonas imbedded within biofilms is protected against the immune system, but maintains chronic inflammation that worsens disease symptoms. Aberrant NET release from recruited neutrophils was found in CF, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most important Pseudomonas virulence factors is pyocyanin, a redox-active pigment that has been associated with diminished lung function in CF. Here we show that pyocyanin promotes NET formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Most CF Pseudomonas clinical isolates tested produce pyocyanin in vitro. Pyocyanin-derived reactive oxygen species are required for its NET release. Inhibitor experiments demonstrated involvement of Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) in pyocyanin-induced NET formation. Pyocyanin-induced NETs also require the NADPH oxidase because NET release in chronic granulomatous disease neutrophils was greatly reduced. Comparison of neutrophils from gp91phox- and p47phox-deficient patients revealed that pyocyanin-triggered NET formation is proportional to their residual superoxide production. Our studies identify pyocyanin as the first secreted bacterial toxin that enhances NET formation. The involvement of NADPH oxidase in pyocyanin-induced NET formation represents a novel mechanism of pyocyanin toxicity.
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Pegylated siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticle-driven amplification of cancer cell internalization in vivo.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The cell membrane is a critical barrier to effective delivery for many therapeutics, including those which are nanoparticle-based. Improving nanoparticle transport across the cell membrane remains a fundamental challenge. Cancer cells preferentially internalized pegylated calcium phosphate nanoparticles over normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, non-cytotoxic levels of doxorubicin markedly amplified this difference by increasing free unbound caveolin-1 and resulted in enhanced caveolin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis in cancer cells. Engineered pegylated siRNA-loaded triple-shell calcium phosphate nanoconstructs incorporating ultra-low levels of doxorubicin recapitulated these effects and delivered increased numbers of siRNA into cancer cells with target-specific results. Systemic administration of nanoparticles in vivo demonstrated highly preferential entry into tumors, little bystander organ biodistribution, and significant tumor growth arrest. In conclusion, siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles incorporating non-cytotoxic amounts of doxorubicin markedly enhances nanoparticle internalization and results in increased payload delivery with concomitant on-target effects.
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Innate immunity against Granulibacter bethesdensis, an emerging gram-negative bacterial pathogen.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Acetic acid bacteria were previously considered nonpathogenic in humans. However, over the past decade, five genera of Acetobacteraceae have been isolated from patients with inborn or iatrogenic immunodeficiencies. Here, we describe the first studies of the interactions of the human innate immune system with a member of this bacterial family, Granulibacter bethesdensis, an emerging pathogen in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Efficient phagocytosis of G. bethesdensis by normal and CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (CGD PMN) required heat-labile serum components (e.g., C3), and binding of C3 and C9 to G. bethesdensis was detected by immunoblotting. However, this organism survived in human serum concentrations of ?90%, indicating a high degree of serum resistance. Consistent with the clinical host tropism of G. bethesdensis, CGD PMN were unable to kill this organism, while normal PMN, in the presence of serum, reduced the number of CFU by about 50% after a 24-h coculture. This finding, together with the observations that G. bethesdensis was sensitive to H(2)O(2) but resistant to LL-37, a human cationic antimicrobial peptide, suggests an inherent resistance to O(2)-independent killing. Interestingly, 10 to 100 times greater numbers of G. bethesdensis were required to achieve the same level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by Escherichia coli in normal PMN. In addition to the relative inability of the organism to elicit production of PMN ROS, G. bethesdensis inhibited both constitutive and FAS-induced PMN apoptosis. These properties of reduced PMN activation and resistance to nonoxidative killing mechanisms likely play an important role in G. bethesdensis pathogenesis.
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Corticosteroid therapy for liver abscess in chronic granulomatous disease.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Liver abscesses in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are typically difficult to treat and often require surgery. We describe 9 X-linked CGD patients with staphylococcal liver abscesses refractory to conventional therapy successfully treated with corticosteroids and antibiotics. Corticosteroids may have a role in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus liver abscesses in CGD.
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The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor corrects panleukopenia in patients with WHIM syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disorder characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (neutropenia because of impaired egress from the BM); most patients also have severe panleukopenia. Because WHIM syndrome is caused by mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 that result in increased agonist-dependent signaling, we hypothesized that the CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor (Mozobil [Genyzme Corporation], AMD3100), might be an effective treatment. To test this, we enrolled 3 unrelated adult patients with the most common WHIM mutation, CXCR4(R334X), in a phase 1 dose-escalation study. Plerixafor increased absolute lymphocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts in blood to normal without significant side effects in all 3 patients. Peak responses occurred at 3-12 hours after injection and waned by 24 hours after injection which tracked the drugs pharmacokinetics. All 3 cell types increased in a dose-dependent manner with the rank order of responsiveness absolute lymphocyte > monocyte > neutrophil. These data provide the first pharmacologic evidence that panleukopenia in WHIM syndrome is caused by CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling-dependent leukocyte sequestration, and support continued study of plerixafor as mechanism-based therapy in this disease. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00967785.
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AMD3100 is a potent antagonist at CXCR4(R334X) , a hyperfunctional mutant chemokine receptor and cause of WHIM syndrome.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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WHIM is an acronym for a rare immunodeficiency syndrome (OMIM #193670) caused by autosomal dominant mutations truncating the C-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). WHIM mutations may potentiate CXCR4 signalling, suggesting that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CXCR4 antagonist AnorMED3100 (AMD3100) (also known as Plerixafor) may be beneficial in WHIM syndrome. We have tested this at the preclinical level by comparing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and K562 cell lines matched for expression of recombinant wild-type CXCR4 (CXCR4(WT)) and the most common WHIM variant of CXCR4 (CXCR4(R334X)), as well as leucocytes from a WHIM patient with the CXCR4(R334X) mutation versus healthy controls. We found that CXCR4(R334X) mediated modestly increased signalling (~2-fold) in all functional assays tested, but strongly resisted ligand-dependent down-regulation. AMD3100 was equipotent and equieffective as an antagonist at CXCR4(R334X) and CXCR4(WT) . Together, our data provide further evidence that CXCR4(R334X) is a gain-of-function mutation, and support clinical evaluation of AMD3100 as mechanism-based treatment in patients with WHIM syndrome.
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Chronic granulomatous disease: overview and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) still causes significant morbidity and mortality. The difficulty in considering high-risk yet curative treatments, such as allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, lies in the unpredictable courses of both CGD and bone marrow transplantation in different patients. Some patients with CGD can have frequent infections, granulomatous or autoimmune disorders necessitating immunosuppressive therapy, or both but also experience long periods of relative good health. However, the risk of death is clearly higher in patients with CGD of all types, and the complications of CGD short of death can still cause significant morbidity. Therefore, with recent developments and improvements, bone marrow transplantation, previously considered an experimental or high-risk procedure, has emerged as an important option for patients with CGD. We will discuss the complications of CGD that result in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly the most common infections and autoimmune/inflammatory complications, as well as their typical management. We will then discuss the status of bone marrow transplantation.
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Oxidase-deficient neutrophils from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease iPS cells: functional correction by zinc finger nuclease-mediated safe harbor targeting.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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We have developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), a defect of neutrophil microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting from gp91(phox) deficiency. We demonstrated that mature neutrophils differentiated from X-CGD iPSCs lack ROS production, reproducing the pathognomonic CGD cellular phenotype. Targeted gene transfer into iPSCs, with subsequent selection and full characterization to ensure no off-target changes, holds promise for correction of monogenic diseases without the insertional mutagenesis caused by multisite integration of viral or plasmid vectors. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting of a single-copy gp91(phox) therapeutic minigene into one allele of the "safe harbor" AAVS1 locus in X-CGD iPSCs without off-target inserts resulted in sustained expression of gp91(phox) and substantially restored neutrophil ROS production. Our findings demonstrate how precise gene targeting may be applied to correction of X-CGD using zinc finger nuclease and patient iPSCs.
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Geosmithia argillacea: an emerging cause of invasive mycosis in human chronic granulomatous disease.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase that leads to defective production of microbicidal superoxide and other oxidative radicals, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive infections, especially those due to fungi.
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Chronic granulomatous disease: lessons from a rare disorder.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with X-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance involving defects in genes encoding phox proteins, which are the subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This results in failure to produce superoxide anion and downstream antimicrobial oxidant metabolites and to activate antimicrobial proteases. Affected patients are susceptible to severe, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammation characterized by granulomatous enteritis resembling Crohns disease and genitourinary obstruction. Early diagnosis of CGD and rapid treatment of infections are critical. Prophylaxis with antibacterial and mold-active antifungal agents and the administration of interferon-? has significantly improved the natural history of CGD. Currently, the only cure is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), although there remains controversy as to which patients with CGD should get a transplant. Allele-based HLA typing of alternative donors, improved supportive care measures, and use of reduced toxicity conditioning have resulted in event-free survival (EFS) of at least 80% even with an unrelated donor and even better when the patient has no active infections/inflammation. Gene correction of CGD would eliminate the risks of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the immunoablative chemotherapy required for allogeneic HCT. Based on gene therapy trials in patients with SCID-X1, ADA-SCID, and the early experience with CGD, it is clear that at least some degree of myeloablation will be necessary for CGD as there is no inherent selective growth advantage for gene-corrected cells. Current efforts for gene therapy focus on use of lentivector constructs, which are thought to be safer from the standpoint of insertional mutagenesis and more efficient in transducing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).
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Residual NADPH oxidase and survival in chronic granulomatous disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2010
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Failure to generate phagocyte-derived superoxide and related reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) is the major defect in chronic granulomatous disease, causing recurrent infections and granulomatous complications. Chronic granulomatous disease is caused by missense, nonsense, frameshift, splice, or deletion mutations in the genes for p22(phox), p40(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox) (autosomal chronic granulomatous disease), or gp91(phox) (X-linked chronic granulomatous disease), which result in variable production of neutrophil-derived ROIs. We hypothesized that residual ROI production might be linked to survival in patients with chronic granulomatous disease.
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Biochemical correction of X-CGD by a novel chimeric promoter regulating high levels of transgene expression in myeloid cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CYBB gene encoding the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox). A recent clinical trial for X-CGD using a spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV)-based ?-retroviral vector has demonstrated clear therapeutic benefits in several patients although complicated by enhancer-mediated mutagenesis and diminution of effectiveness over time due to silencing of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). To improve safety and efficacy, we have designed a lentiviral vector that directs transgene expression primarily in myeloid cells. To this end, we created a synthetic chimeric promoter that contains binding sites for myeloid transcription factors CAAT box enhancer-binding family proteins (C/EBPs) and PU.1, which are highly expressed during granulocytic differentiation. As predicted, the chimeric promoter regulated higher reporter gene expression in myeloid than in nonmyeloid cells, and in human hematopoietic progenitors upon granulocytic differentiation. In a murine model of stem cell gene therapy for X-CGD, the chimeric vector resulted in high levels of gp91(phox) expression in committed myeloid cells and granulocytes, and restored normal NADPH-oxidase activity. These findings were recapitulated in human neutrophils derived from transduced X-CGD CD34(+) cells in vivo, and suggest that the chimeric promoter will have utility for gene therapy of myeloid lineage disorders such as CGD.
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Characterization of retroviral and lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope glycoprotein.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are effective gene delivery vehicles that are being evaluated in clinical trials. Variations in the viral envelope (Env) glycoproteins, which are used to pseudotype retroviral or lentiviral vectors, can alter vector performance, including stability, titers, host range, and tissue tropism. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) is a novel human retrovirus identified in patients with prostate cancer. XMRV targets XPR1 cell surface receptor, which is expressed in a broad range of human tissues including hematopoietic stem cells. Pseudotyping with XMRV Env would allow targeting of XPR1-expressing tissues. Here, we characterized XMRV Env-pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors. Although HIV and MLV vectors were poorly pseudotyped with wild-type XMRV Env, replacement of the C-terminal 11 amino acid residues in the transmembrane domain of XMRV Env with the corresponding 6 amino acid residues of amphotropic MLV Env (XMRV/R(ampho)) significantly increased XMRV Env-pseudotyped HIV and MLV vector titers. The transduction efficiency in human CD34(+) cells when using the XMRV/R(ampho)-pseudotyped HIV vector (10-20%) was comparable to that achieved when using the same infectious units of vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein-pseudotyped vector (25%); thus the modified XMRV Env offers an alternative pseudotyping strategy for XPR1-mediated gene delivery.
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Recurrent Granulibacter bethesdensis infections and chronic granulomatous disease.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by frequent infections, most of which are curable. Granulibacter bethesdensis is an emerging pathogen in patients with CGD that causes fever and necrotizing lymphadenitis. However, unlike typical CGD organisms, this organism can cause relapse after clinical quiescence. To better define whether infections were newly acquired or recrudesced, we use comparative bacterial genomic hybridization to characterize 11 isolates obtained from 5 patients with CGD from North and Central America. Genomic typing showed that 3 patients had recurrent infection months to years after apparent clinical cure. Two patients were infected with the same strain as previously isolated, and 1 was infected with a genetically distinct strain. This organism is multidrug resistant, and therapy required surgery and combination antimicrobial drugs, including long-term ceftriaxone. G. bethesdensis causes necrotizing lymphadenitis in CGD, which may recur or relapse.
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Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages. The leukocyte NADPH oxidase is composed of five subunits, of which the enzymatic component is gp91-phox, also called Nox2. This protein is encoded by the CYBB gene on the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are found in about 70% of all CGD patients. This article lists all mutations identified in CYBB in the X-linked form of CGD. Moreover, apparently benign polymorphisms in CYBB are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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Severe congenital neutropenia resulting from G6PC3 deficiency with increased neutrophil CXCR4 expression and myelokathexis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Mutations in more than 15 genes are now known to cause severe congenital neutropenia (SCN); however, the pathologic mechanisms of most genetic defects are not fully defined. Deficiency of G6PC3, a glucose-6-phosphatase, causes a rare multisystem syndrome with SCN first described in 2009. We identified a family with 2 children with homozygous G6PC3 G260R mutations, a loss of enzymatic function, and typical syndrome features with the exception that their bone marrow biopsy pathology revealed abundant neutrophils consistent with myelokathexis. This pathologic finding is a hallmark of another type of SCN, WHIM syndrome, which is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CXCR4, a chemokine receptor and known neutrophil bone marrow retention factor. We found markedly increased CXCR4 expression on neutrophils from both our G6PC3-deficient patients and G6pc3(-/-) mice. In both patients, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment normalized CXCR4 expression and neutrophil counts. In G6pc3(-/-) mice, the specific CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 rapidly reversed neutropenia. Thus, myelokathexis associated with abnormally high neutrophil CXCR4 expression may contribute to neutropenia in G6PC3 deficiency and responds well to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
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Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4(+) T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
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High levels of Crohns disease-associated anti-microbial antibodies are present and independent of colitis in chronic granulomatous disease.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have overlapping gastrointestinal manifestations. Serum antibodies to intestinal microbial antigens in IBD are thought to reflect a loss of tolerance in the setting of genetically encoded innate immune defects. CGD subjects studied here, with or without colitis, had considerably higher levels of ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-I2, and anti-CBir1, but absent to low pANCA, compared to IBD-predictive cutoffs. Higher antibody levels were not associated with a history of colitis. Except for higher ASCA IgG in subjects <18 years, antibody levels were not age-dependent. In comparison, 7 HIES subjects expressed negative to low antibody levels to all of these antigens; none had colitis. Our results suggest that markedly elevated levels of antimicrobial antibodies in CGD do not correlate with a history of colitis but may reflect a specific defect in innate immunity in the face of chronic antigenic stimulation.
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Tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism in human leukocytes is independent of superoxide and is fully maintained in chronic granulomatous disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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In chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), defective phagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity causes reduced superoxide anion (O(2)(·)) radical production leading to frequent infections as well as granulomas and impaired wound healing indicative of excessive inflammation. Based on recent mouse studies, the lack of O(2)(·)-dependent interferon ? (IFN?)-induced synthesis of kynurenine (kyn), an anti-inflammatory tryptophan metabolite produced by indolamine 2,3 deoxygenase (IDO), was proposed as a cause of hyperinflammation in CGD and this pathway has been considered for clinical intervention. Here, we show that IFN? induces normal levels of kynurenine in cultures of O(2)(·)-deficient monocytes, dendritic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from gp91(PHOX)- or p47(PHOX)-deficient human CGD donors. Kynurenine accumulation was dose- and time-dependent as was that of a downstream metabolite, anthranilic acid. Furthermore, urinary and serum levels of kynurenine and a variety of other tryptophan metabolites were elevated rather than suppressed in CGD donors. Although we did not specifically evaluate kyn metabolism in local tissue or inflamed sites in humans, our data demonstrates that O(2)(·) anion is dispensable for the rate-limiting step in tryptophan degradation, and CGD patients do not appear to have either hematopoietic cell or systemic deficits in the production of the anti-inflammatory kynurenine molecule.
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Hypomorphic Rag mutations can cause destructive midline granulomatous disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Destructive midline granulomatous disease characterized by necrotizing granulomas of the head and neck is most commonly caused by Wegener granulomatosis, natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, cocaine abuse, or infections. An adolescent patient with myasthenia gravis treated with thymectomy subsequently developed extensive granulomatous destruction of midface structures, palate, nasal septum, airways, and epiglottis. His lymphocyte numbers, total immunoglobulin G level, and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire appeared normal. Sequencing of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag1) showed compound heterozygous Rag1 mutations; a novel deletion with no recombinase activity and a missense mutation resulting in 50% Rag activity. His thymus was dysplastic and, although not depleted of T cells, showed a notable absence of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. This distinct Rag-deficient phenotype characterized by immune dysregulation with granulomatous hyperinflammation and autoimmunity, with relatively normal T and B lymphocyte numbers and a diverse TCR repertoire expands the spectrum of presentation in Rag deficiency. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128973.
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A self-inactivating lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy that does not activate LMO2 expression in human T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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To develop safer and more effective vectors for gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), we have evaluated new self-inactivating lentiviral vectors based on the HIV virus. The CL20i4-hgamma(c)-Revgen vector contains the entire human common gamma chain (gamma(c)) genomic sequence driven by the gamma(c) promoter. The CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector uses a promoter fragment from the eukaryotic elongation factor alpha (EF1alpha) gene to express a codon-optimized human gamma(c) cDNA. Both vectors contain a 400-bp insulator fragment from the chicken beta-globin locus within the self-inactivating long-terminal repeat. Transduction of bone marrow cells using either of these vectors restored T, B, and natural killer lymphocyte development and function in a mouse SCID-X1 transplantation model. Transduction of human CD34(+) bone marrow cells from SCID-X1 patients with either vector restored T-cell development in an in vitro assay. In safety studies using a Jurkat LMO2 activation assay, only the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector lacked the ability to transactivate LMO2 protein expression, whereas the CL20i4-hgamma(c)-Revgen vector significantly activated LMO2 protein expression. In addition, the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector has not caused any tumors in transplanted mice. We conclude that the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector may be suitable for testing in a clinical trial based on these preclinical demonstrations of efficacy and safety.
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Hematologically important mutations: the autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (second update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is essential in the process of intracellular pathogen killing by phagocytic leukocytes. Four of the five genes involved in CGD are autosomal; these are CYBA, encoding p22-phox, NCF2, encoding p67-phox, NCF1, encoding p47-phox, and NCF4, encoding p40-phox. This article lists all mutations identified in these genes in the autosomal forms of CGD. Moreover, polymorphisms in these genes are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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Retrovirus gene therapy for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease can achieve stable long-term correction of oxidase activity in peripheral blood neutrophils.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from infection. The first CGD gene therapy trial resulted in only short-term marking of 0.01% to 0.1% of neutrophils. A recent study, using busulfan conditioning and an SFFV retrovirus vector, achieved more than 20% marking in 2 patients with X-linked CGD. However, oxidase correction per marked neutrophil was less than normal and not sustained. Despite this, patients clearly benefited in that severe infections resolved. As such, we initiated a gene therapy trial for X-CGD to treat severe infections unresponsive to conventional therapy. We treated 3 adult patients using busulfan conditioning and an MFGS retroviral vector encoding gp91(phox), achieving early marking of 26%, 5%, and 4% of neutrophils, respectively, with sustained long-term marking of 1.1% and 0.03% of neutrophils in 2 of the patients. Gene-marked neutrophils have sustained full correction of oxidase activity for 34 and 11 months, respectively, with full or partial resolution of infection in those 2 patients. Gene marking is polyclonal with no clonal dominance. We conclude that busulfan conditioning together with an MFGS vector is capable of achieving long-term correction of neutrophil oxidase function sufficient to provide benefit in management of severe infection. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00394316.
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Adenosine A2A receptor activation limits graft-versus-host disease after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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GVHD is a major barrier to broader use of allogenic HSCT for nonmalignancy clinical applications such as the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies and hemoglobinopathies. We show in a murine model of C57BL/6J (H2-k(b)) --> B6D2F1/J (H2-k(b/d)) acute GVHD that when initiated 2 days before transplant, the activation of the adenosine A(2A)R with the selective agonist ATL146e inhibits the weight loss and mortality associated with disease progression. Furthermore, circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IFN-gamma, IL-6, CCL2, KC, and G-CSF, are reduced significantly by 14-day ATL146e treatment. The up-regulation of CD25, CD69, and CD40L expression by donor CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells is inhibited by A(2A)R activation; fewer CD3(+) T cells are found in the liver, skin, and colon of ATL146e-treated mice as compared with vehicle-treated controls; and associated tissue injury is lessened. The delayed administration of ATL146e, beginning 9 days after HSCT, reverses GVHD-associated body weight loss successfully, and improvement is sustained for the duration of treatment. We conclude that the selective activation of the A(2A)R has therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of acute GVHD.
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Impact of CXCR4 inhibition on FLT3-ITD-positive human AML blasts.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FLT3 receptor are associated with a high incidence of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of the CXCR4 receptor in FLT3-ITD-positive AML is correlated with poor outcome, and inhibition of CXCR4 was shown to sensitize AML blasts toward chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of FLT3-ITD on cell proliferation and CXCR4-dependent migration in human hematopoietic progenitor cells and to investigate their response to CXCR4 inhibition.
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Partially corrected X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency: long-term problems and treatment options.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Rapid progress has been made from the identification of the molecular defects causing X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID) to the development of cutting-edge therapeutic approaches such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant and gene therapy for XSCID. Successful treatment of XSCID has created a new population of patients, many of whom are now adolescents and young adults and are facing a variety of chronic problems secondary to partial correction of their underlying disease. This review focuses on the clinical challenges facing these patients (and their caregivers) and provides an overview of some of the treatment options available, including gene therapy.
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Advances in treatment for chronic granulomatous disease.
Immunol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital disorder resulting from a failure of neutrophils to produce oxidases. Patients are therefore prone to recurrent infections from various organisms including fungi and atypical bacteria. The mortality in patients with the X-linked form of CGD, the most common type, ranges from 3% to 5% per year and although management of infections has improved with advances in antimicrobial therapies, better methods are needed to be able to cure these patients. Peripheral blood stem cell or bone marrow transplantation, while curative, is not widely used due to the episodic nature of the infections and the belief by many that conservative management is preferable to the risks of transplantation. Still, as will be discussed, improvements in the field are making allogenic transplantation more desirable and tilting the risk benefit ratio in favor of this modality. Additionally, gene therapy, which has been a long touted method to cure CGD, has within the last 5-10 years become more and more of a reality and may be realized by the end of this decade.
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In vivo selection of hematopoietic progenitor cells and temozolomide dose intensification in rhesus macaques through lentiviral transduction with a drug resistance gene.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Major limitations to gene therapy using HSCs are low gene transfer efficiency and the inability of most therapeutic genes to confer a selective advantage on the gene-corrected cells. One approach to enrich for gene-modified cells in vivo is to include in the retroviral vector a drug resistance gene, such as the P140K mutant of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT*). We transplanted 5 rhesus macaques with CD34+ cells transduced with lentiviral vectors encoding MGMT* and a fluorescent marker, with or without homeobox B4 (HOXB4), a potent stem cell self-renewal gene. Transgene expression and common integration sites in lymphoid and myeloid lineages several months after transplantation confirmed transduction of long-term repopulating HSCs. However, all animals showed only a transient increase in gene-marked lymphoid and myeloid cells after O6-benzylguanine (BG) and temozolomide (TMZ) administration. In 1 animal, cells transduced with MGMT* lentiviral vectors were protected and expanded after multiple courses of BG/TMZ, providing a substantial increase in the maximum tolerated dose of TMZ. Additional cycles of chemotherapy using 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) resulted in similar increases in gene marking levels, but caused high levels of nonhematopoietic toxicity. Inclusion of HOXB4 in the MGMT* vectors resulted in no substantial increase in gene marking or HSC amplification after chemotherapy treatment. Our data therefore suggest that lentivirally mediated gene transfer in transplanted HSCs can provide in vivo chemoprotection of progenitor cells, although selection of long-term repopulating HSCs was not seen.
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Efficient construction of producer cell lines for a SIN lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy by concatemeric array transfection.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Retroviral vectors containing internal promoters, chromatin insulators, and self-inactivating (SIN) long terminal repeats (LTRs) may have significantly reduced genotoxicity relative to the conventional retroviral vectors used in recent, otherwise successful clinical trials. Large-scale production of such vectors is problematic, however, as the introduction of SIN vectors into packaging cells cannot be accomplished with the traditional method of viral transduction. We have derived a set of packaging cell lines for HIV-based lentiviral vectors and developed a novel concatemeric array transfection technique for the introduction of SIN vector genomes devoid of enhancer and promoter sequences in the LTR. We used this method to derive a producer cell clone for a SIN lentiviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein, which when grown in a bioreactor generated more than 20 L of supernatant with titers above 10(7) transducing units (TU) per milliliter. Further refinement of our technique enabled the rapid generation of whole populations of stably transformed cells that produced similar titers. Finally, we describe the construction of an insulated, SIN lentiviral vector encoding the human interleukin 2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2RG) gene and the efficient derivation of cloned producer cells that generate supernatants with titers greater than 5 x 10(7) TU/mL and that are suitable for use in a clinical trial for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1).
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WHIM syndrome: congenital immune deficiency disease.
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome is characterized by susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection-induced warts and carcinomas; neutropenia, B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinema-related infections; and bone marrow myelokathexis (myeloid hyperplasia with apoptosis). The purpose of this report is to review new findings about WHIM.
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Adenosine A?A receptor agonist-mediated increase in donor-derived regulatory T cells suppresses development of graft-versus-host disease.
J. Immunol.
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant complication of allogeneic transplantation. We previously reported that the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) specific agonist, ATL146e, decreases the incidence and severity of GVHD in a mouse transplant model. There is increasing interest in treatments that increase CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress GVHD. Our current study found in vitro that A(2A)R selective agonists enhanced TGF-?-induced generation of mouse Tregs 2.3- to 3-fold. We demonstrated in vivo suppression of GVHD with specific A(2A)R agonists in two different murine GVHD transplant models associated with profound increases in both circulating and target tissue Tregs of donor origin. Three different A(2A)R agonists of differing potency, ATL146e, ATL370, and ATL1223, all significantly inhibited GVHD-associated weight loss and mortality. At the same time, Tregs shown to be of donor origin increased 5.1- to 7.4-fold in spleen, 2.7- to 4.6-fold in peripheral blood, 2.3- to 4.7-fold in colon, and 3.8- to 4.6-fold in skin. We conclude that specific activation of A(2A)R inhibits acute GVHD through an increase of donor-derived Tregs. Furthermore, the increased presence of Tregs in target tissues (colon and skin) of A(2A)R-specific agonist-treated mice is likely the mechanistic basis for the anti-inflammatory effect preventing acute GVHD.
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Humans with chronic granulomatous disease maintain humoral immunologic memory despite low frequencies of circulating memory B cells.
Blood
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CD27(+) memory B cells are reduced in the blood of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) for reasons and consequences that remain unclear. Here we confirm not only decreased CD27(+) but also IgG(+) B cells in the blood of CGD patients compared with healthy donors (HDs). However, among IgG(+) B cells, the ratio of CD27(-) to CD27(+) was significantly higher in CGD patients compared with HDs. Similar to conventional memory B cells, CD27(-)IgG(+) B cells of CGD patients expressed activation markers and had undergone somatic hypermutation, albeit at levels lower than their CD27(+) counterparts. Functional analyses revealed slight reductions in frequencies of total IgG but not influenza-specific memory B-cell responses, as measured by Elispot in CGD patients compared with HDs. Serum IgG levels and influenza-specific antibodies were also normal in these CGD patients. Finally, we provide evidence that influenza-specific memory B cells can be present within the CD27(-)IgG(+) B-cell compartment. Together, these findings show that, despite reduced circulating CD27(+) memory B cells, CGD patients maintain an intact humoral immunologic memory, with potential contribution from CD27(-) B cells.
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Serologic reactivity to the emerging pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Granulibacter bethesdensis is a recently described member of the Acetobacteraceae family that has been isolated from patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Its pathogenesis, environmental reservoir(s), and incidence of infection among CGD patients and the general population are unknown.
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WHIM syndrome caused by a single amino acid substitution in the carboxy-tail of chemokine receptor CXCR4.
Blood
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WHIM syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, immunodeficiency disorder so-named because it is characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis (defective neutrophil egress from the BM). Gain-of-function mutations that truncate the C-terminus of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by 10-19 amino acids cause WHIM syndrome. We have identified a family with autosomal dominant inheritance of WHIM syndrome that is caused by a missense mutation in CXCR4, E343K (1027G ? A). This mutation is also located in the C-terminal domain, a region responsible for negative regulation of the receptor. Accordingly, like CXCR4(R334X), the most common truncation mutation in WHIM syndrome, CXCR4(E343K) mediated approximately 2-fold increased signaling in calcium flux and chemotaxis assays relative to wild-type CXCR4; however, CXCR4(E343K) had a reduced effect on blocking normal receptor down-regulation from the cell surface. Therefore, in addition to truncating mutations in the C-terminal domain of CXCR4, WHIM syndrome may be caused by a single charge-changing amino acid substitution in this domain, E343K, that results in increased receptor signaling.
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Gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease.
Meth. Enzymol.
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Mutations in phagocyte NADPH oxidase cause CGD, resulting in recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant can cure CGD, but most patients lack a suitable donor. We conducted a clinical trial of ex vivo autologous HSC gene transfer as salvage therapy for three patients with X-linked CGD (X-CGD) who had incurable infection. Patients received nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning and then were infused with amphotropic MFGS-gp91phox murine retrovirus vector-transduced autologous HSC, resulting in early gene marking and high-level oxidase function correction of 24%, 5%, and 4% of circulating neutrophils. Subjects #1 and #3 fully resolved infection and have maintained gene marking at 5 years at 0.7% and 0.03% oxidase-normal neutrophils. Subject #2 lost gene marking by 4 weeks and at 6 months succumbed to his infection. The two surviving subjects have normal blood count and bone marrow exam, with no evidence for clonal dominance of vector inserts. We conclude that gene therapy salvage treatment for severe infection unresponsive to conventional therapy can provide life-saving clinical benefit to CGD patients lacking a suitable donor. We are developing lentivectors for our next generation gene therapy of CGD. We are also exploring novel alternate approaches to gene therapy using zinc finger nuclease-mediated gene targeting of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from CGD patients.
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Myeloablative transplantation using either cord blood or bone marrow leads to immune recovery, high long-term donor chimerism and excellent survival in chronic granulomatous disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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The curative potential of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic granulomatous disease depends on availability of a suitable donor, successful donor engraftment, and maintenance of long-term donor chimerism. Twelve consecutive children (median age, 59.5 months; range, 8-140 months) with severe chronic granulomatous disease (serious bacterial/fungal infections pretransplantation; median, 3; range, 2-9) received myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using sibling bone marrow ([SibBM]; n = 5), unrelated cord blood (UCB; n = 6), and sibling cord blood (n = 1) at our center between 1997 and 2010. SibBM and sibling cord blood were HLA matched at 6/6, whereas UCB were 5/6 (n = 5) or 6/6 (n = 1). Recipients of SibBM were conditioned with busulfan and cyclophosphamide ± anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), whereas 6 of 7 cord blood recipients received fludarabine/busulfan/cyclophosphamide/ATG. Seven patients received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilized granulocyte transfusions from directed donors. The first 2 UCB recipients had primary graft failure but successfully underwent retransplantation with UCB. Highest acute graft-versus-host disease was grade III (n = 1). Extensive chronic graft-vs-host disease developed in 3 patients. All patients are alive with median follow-up of 70.5 months (range, 12-167 months) with high donor chimerism (>98%, n = 10; 94%, n = 1; and 92%, n = 1). Myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation led to correction of neutrophil dysfunction, durable donor chimerism, excellent survival, good quality of life, and low incidence of graft-vs-host disease regardless of graft source.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.