Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising antitumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells, we developed expansion and transduction protocols that allow for the generation of sufficient numbers of CAR-expressing canine T cells for future clinical studies in dogs within 2 weeks of ex vivo culture. To evaluate the functionality of CAR-expressing canine T cells, we targeted HER2(+) OS. We demonstrate that canine OS is positive for HER2, and that canine T cells expressing a HER2-specific CAR with human-derived transmembrane and CD28.? signaling domains recognize and kill HER2(+) canine OS cell lines in an antigen-dependent manner. To reduce the potential immunogenicity of the CAR, we evaluated a CAR with canine-derived transmembrane and signaling domains, and found no functional difference between human and canine CARs. Hence, we have successfully developed a strategy to generate CAR-expressing canine T cells for future preclinical studies in dogs. Testing T-cell therapies in an immunocompetent, outbred animal model may improve our ability to predict their safety and efficacy before conducting studies in humans.
Random telegraph signals corresponding to activated charge traps were observed with liquid-gated CNT FETs. The high signal-to-noise ratio that we observe demonstrates that single electron charge sensing is possible with CNT FETs in liquids at room temperature. We have characterized the gate-voltage dependence of the random telegraph signals and compared to theoretical predictions. The gate-voltage dependence clearly identifies the sign of the activated trapped charge.
The majority of lymphocytes activated at mucosal sites receive instructions to home back to the local mucosa, but a portion also seed distal mucosa sites. By seeding distal sites with antigen-specific effector or memory lymphocytes, the foundation is laid for the animal's mucosal immune system to respond with a secondary response should to this antigen be encountered at this site in the future. The common mucosal immune system has been studied quite extensively in rodent models but less so in large animal models such as the pig. Reasons for this paucity of reported induction of the common mucosal immune system in this species may be that distal mucosal sites were examined but no induction was observed and therefore it was not reported. However, we suspect that the majority of investigators simply did not sample distal mucosal sites and therefore there is little evidence of immune response induction in the literature. It is our hope that more pig immunologists and infectious disease experts who perform mucosal immunizations or inoculations on pigs will sample distal mucosal sites and report their findings, whether results are positive or negative. In this review, we highlight papers that show that immunization/inoculation using one route triggers mucosal immune system induction locally, systemically, and within at least one distal mucosal site. Only by understanding whether immunizations at one site triggers immunity throughout the common mucosal immune system can we rationally develop vaccines for the pig, and through these works we can gather evidence about the mucosal immune system that may be extrapolated to other livestock species or humans.
Immunotherapy is not a new concept for veterinary medicine; however, adoptive T cell therapy is a new area of research in humans and canines alike. In humans, T cell therapy has been used against many different tumor histologies, including lymphoma, melanoma, and colon cancer. Although in dogs this approach has currently only been applied to lymphoma, other tumor types are under investigation. There are many different strategies used to take advantage of cell-mediated antitumor properties of T cells. This review will discuss many of the current strategies used in both humans and canines in regards to adoptive T cell therapy.
By definition, soluble antigens ingested orally trigger mucosal tolerance such that any subsequent re-exposure by a systemic route results in suppression of immunity. We propose that antigens introduced in extreme early life can readily traverse the gut wall and therefore circumvent induction of mucosal tolerance and instead induce immunity. Piglets were drenched with low-doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 5mg or 0.05 mg) alone, OVA plus adjuvants (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and PCEP polyphosphazene) or saline within 6h of birth. At 28 days of age, they were administered 10mg OVA plus 1:1 Montanide adjuvant (or saline) via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route or via the oral route. Serum was obtained on day 28 and day 49 to measure OVA-specific antibodies titres. All piglets boosted orally with OVA plus Montanide, regardless of prior OVA exposure, failed to induce immunity. As expected, piglets drenched with saline but boosted via the i.p. route with OVA plus Montanide showed significant induction of anti-OVA IgA, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 relative to saline control piglets. Newborn animals drenched with 5mg or 0.05 mg OVA failed to induce oral immunity. A second intramuscular injection in adulthood triggered immunity in the piglets that were drenched with 0.05 mg OVA and boosted initially by the i.p. route suggesting that some systemic lymphocytes were primed despite initial lack of induction of humoral immunity. In contrast, piglets orally immunized with 5mg or 0.05 mg OVA plus adjuvants resulted in significant induction of anti-OVA IgA (5mg only), IgM, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 in serum relative to saline control piglets as well as significant induction of anti-OVA IgA, IgM (5mg only) IgG, IgG1 (5mg only) or IgG2 relative to piglets drenched with OVA alone. These data clearly show that the response was sensitive to the oral vaccine components and was not simply a response to the i.p. immunization at day 28. This work demonstrates that newborn piglets respond to oral antigens with immunity if re-exposure to the antigen occurs via a systemic route and if adjuvants are included with the oral vaccine administered at birth. These results should be further explored to establish whether early life oral vaccination can be exploited to protect this susceptible population against infectious diseases.
Poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) has shown great potential as a vaccine adjuvant, but the mechanisms that mediate its adjuvant activity have not been investigated. Previously, we had reported the potential of PCEP to induce cytokines and chemokines at the site of injection. Hence, we hypothesized that PCEP creates strong immuno-competent environment leading to recruitment of immune cells at the injection site. Intramuscular injection of mice with PCEP induced significant recruitment of neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and lymphocytes at the site of injection as well as in the draining lymph nodes. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the majority of the recruited immune cells took up and/or were associated with PCEP at the injection site, with lymphocytes taking up PCEP in lesser quantity. Further, confocal analysis revealed intracytoplasmic lysosomal localization of PCEP in recruited immune cells. These observations suggest that recruitment of distinct immune cells to the site of injection site may be an important mechanism by which PCEP potentiates immune responses to antigens.
Macrophages respond to their microenvironment and develop polarized functions critical for orchestrating appropriate inflammatory responses. Classical (M1) activation eliminates pathogens while alternative (M2) activation promotes regulation and repair. M1 macrophage activation is strongly associated with suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) expression in vitro, but the functional consequences of this are unclear and the role of SOCS3 in M1-macrophage polarization in vivo remains controversial. To address these questions, we defined the characteristics and function of SOCS3-expressing macrophages in vivo and identified potential mechanisms of SOCS3 action. Macrophages infiltrating inflamed glomeruli in a model of acute nephritis show significant up-regulation of SOCS3 that co-localizes with the M1-activation marker, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Numbers of SOCS3(hi) -expressing, but not SOCS1(hi) -expressing, macrophages correlate strongly with the severity of renal injury, supporting their inflammatory role in vivo. Adoptive transfer of SOCS3-short interfering RNA-silenced macrophages into a peritonitis model demonstrated the importance of SOCS3 in driving production of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and nitric oxide, while curtailing expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and SOCS1. SOCS3-induced pro-inflammatory effects were due, at least in part, to its role in controlling activation and nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-?B and activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. We show for the first time that SOCS3 also directs the functions of human monocyte-derived macrophages, including efficient M1-induced cytokine production (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23, IL-12), attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity and ability of antigen-loaded macrophages to drive T-cell responses. Hence, M1-associated SOCS3 was a positive regulator of pro-inflammatory responses in our rodent models and up-regulated SOCS3 is essential for effective M1-macrophage activation and function in human macrophages.
Activated T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming which promotes glycolytic flux and lactate production as well as elevated production of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and other carbohydrates (i.e. induction of biomass) even in the presence of oxygen. Activated T cells show induced expression of, among other things, Glucose Transporter 1 and several glycolytic enzymes, including ADP-Dependent Glucokinase and the low affinity isoform Pyruvate Kinase-M2 (which promote glycolytic flux), as well Glutamine Transporters and Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 2 which make available glutamate and glycerol-3-phosphate as mitochondrial energy sources. Intracellular leucine concentrations critically regulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling to promote Th1, Th2, and Th17 CD4(+) T effector cell differentiation. In contrast, T regulatory (Treg) cells are generated when AMP-Activating Protein Kinase signaling is activated and mTOR activation is suppressed. Unlike effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, Tregs and memory T cells oxidize fatty acids for fuel. Effector and memory T cells perform different functions and thus show distinct metabolic profiles which are exquisitely controlled by cellular signaling. Upon activation, T cells express the insulin and leptin receptors on their surface and become sensitive to insulin signaling and nutrient availability and show changes in differentiation. Thus, metabolism and nutrient availability influence T cell activation and function.
Inflammatory diseases are a significant burden on global healthcare systems, and tackling these diseases is a major focus of modern medicine. Key to many inflammatory diseases is the cytokine, Interleukin-1 (IL-1). Due to its apical role in initiating the inflammatory response, dysregulated IL-1 signalling results in a number of pathologies. Treatment of inflammatory diseases with anti-IL-1 therapies has offered many therapeutic benefits, however current therapies are protein based, with all the accompanying limitations. The non-conventional pathways involved in IL-1 signalling provide a number of potential therapeutic targets for clinical intervention and this has led to the exploitation of a number of model organisms for the study of IL-1 biology. Murine models have long been used to study IL-1 processing and release, but do not allow direct visualisation in vivo. Recently, fish models have emerged as genetically tractable and optically transparent inflammatory disease models. These models have raised questions on the evolutionary origins of the IL-1 family and the conservation in its processing and activation. Here we review the current understanding of IL-1 evolution in fish and discuss the study of IL-1 processing in these models.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability.
Thrombin and hypoxia are important players in breast cancer progression. Breast cancers often develop drug resistance, but mechanisms linking thrombin and hypoxia to drug resistance remain unresolved. Our studies using Doxorubicin (DOX) resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells reveals a mechanism linking DOX exposure with hypoxic induction of DOX resistance. Global expression changes between parental and DOX resistant MCF7 cells were examined. Westerns, Northerns and immunocytochemistry were used to validate drug resistance and differentially expressed genes. A cluster of genes involved in the anticoagulation pathway, with Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor 1 (TFPI1) the top hit, was identified. Plasmids overexpressing TFPI1 were utilized, and 1% O2 was used to test the effects of hypoxia on drug resistance. Lastly, microarray datasets from patients with drug resistant breast tumors were interrogated for TFPI1 expression levels. TFPI1 protein levels were found elevated in 3 additional DOX resistant cells lines, from humans and rats, indicating evolutionarily conservation of the effect. Elevated TFPI1 in DOX resistant cells was active, as thrombin protein levels were coincidentally low. We observed elevated HIF1? protein in DOX resistant cells, and in cells with forced expression of TFPI1, suggesting TFPI1 induces HIF1?. TFPI1 also induced c-MYC, c-SRC, and HDAC2 protein, as well as DOX resistance in parental cells. Growth of cells in 1% O2 induced elevated HIF1?, BCRP and MDR-1 protein, and these cells were resistant to DOX. Our in vitro results were consistent with in vivo patient datasets, as tumors harboring increased BCRP and MDR-1 expression also had increased TFPI1 expression. Our observations are clinically relevant indicating that DOX treatment induces an anticoagulation cascade, leading to inhibition of thrombin and the expression of HIF1?. This in turn activates a pathway leading to drug resistance.
Interleukin-1, the gate-keeper of inflammation, is the apical cytokine in a signalling cascade that drives the early response to injury or infection. Expression, processing and secretion of IL-1 is tightly controlled, whilst dysregulated IL-1 signalling has been implicated in a number of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to complications of infection. Our understanding of these processes comes from in vitro monocytic cell culture models as lines or primary isolates where a range and spectra of IL-1 secretion mechanisms have been described. We therefore investigated whether zebrafish embryos provide a suitable in vivo model for studying IL-1 mediated inflammation. Structurally, zebrafish IL-1? shares a beta-sheet rich trefoil structure with its human counterpart. Functionally, leukocyte expression of IL-1? was detectable only following injury, which activated leukocytes throughout zebrafish embryos. Migration of macrophages and neutrophils was attenuated by caspase-1 and P2X7 inhibitors, which similarly inhibited the activation of NF-?B at the site of injury. Zebrafish offer a new and versatile model to study the IL-1? pathway in inflammatory disease and should offer unique insights into IL-1 biology in vivo.
Sulfite oxidase (SO) is an essential molybdoenzyme for humans, catalyzing the final step in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids and lipids, which is the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. The catalytic site of SO consists of a molybdenum ion bound to the dithiolene sulfurs of one molybdopterin (MPT) molecule, carrying two oxygen ligands, and is further coordinated by the thiol sulfur of a conserved cysteine residue. We have exchanged four non-active site cysteines in the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) binding domain of human SO (SOMD) with serine using site-directed mutagenesis. This facilitated the specific replacement of the active site Cys207 with selenocysteine during protein expression in Escherichia coli. The sulfite oxidizing activity (kcat/KM) of SeSOMD4Ser was increased at least 1.5-fold, and the pH optimum was shifted to a more acidic value compared to those of SOMD4Ser and SOMD4Cys(wt). X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed a Mo(VI)-Se bond length of 2.51 Å, likely caused by the specific binding of Sec207 to the molybdenum, and otherwise rather similar square-pyramidal S/Se(Cys)O2Mo(VI)S2(MPT) site structures in the three constructs. The low-pH form of the Mo(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of SeSOMD4Ser was altered compared to those of SOMD4Ser and SOMD4Cys(wt), with g1 in particular shifted to a lower magnetic field, due to the Se ligation at the molybdenum. In contrast, the Mo(V) EPR signal of the high-pH form was unchanged. The substantially stronger effect of substituting selenocysteine for cysteine at low pH as compared to high pH is most likely due to the decreased covalency of the Mo-Se bond.
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin and leptin signalling, rendering it an attractive drug target for treatment of obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, some studies suggest caution when targeting macrophage-PTP1B, due to its potential anti-inflammatory role. We assessed the role of macrophage-PTP1B in inflammation and whole body metabolism using myeloid-cell (LysM)-PTP1B-knockout mice (LysM-PTP1B). LysM-PTP1B mice were protected against LPS-induced endotoxemia and hepatic damage, associated with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo. In vitro, LPS-treated LysM-PTP1B bone-marrow-derived-macrophages (BMDMs) displayed increased IL10 mRNA expression, with a concomitant decrease in TNF? mRNA levels. These anti-inflammatory effects were associated with increased LPS- and IL10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in LysM-PTP1B BMDMs. Chronic inflammation induced by high-fat (HF)-feeding led to equally beneficial effects of macrophage-PTP1B deficiency; LysM-PTP1B mice exhibited improved glucose- and insulin tolerance, protection against LPS-induced hyperinsulinemia, decreased macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and decreased liver damage. HF-fed LysM-PTP1B mice had increased basal and LPS-induced IL10 levels, associated with elevated splenic STAT3 phosphorylation, IL10 mRNA expression, and expansion of cells expressing myeloid markers. These increased IL10 levels negatively correlated with circulating insulin and ALT levels. Our studies implicate myeloid-PTP1B in negative regulation of STAT3/IL10-mediated signalling, highlighting its inhibition as a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic target in obesity.
The current review focuses on pre- and post-natal development of intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in pig. IgA production is influenced by intrinsic genetic factors in the foetus as well as extrinsic environmental factors during the post-natal period. At birth, piglets are exposed to new antigens through maternal colostrums/milk as well as exogenous microbiota. This exposure to new antigens is critical for the proper development of the gut mucosal immune system and is characterized mainly by the establishment of IgA response. A second critical period for neonatal intestinal immune system development occurs at weaning time when the gut environment is exposed to new dietary antigens. Neonate needs to establish oral tolerance and in the absence of protective milk need to fight potential new pathogens. To improve knowledge about the immune response in the neonates, it is important to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors which influence the intestinal immune system development and to elucidate their mechanism of action.
Previous investigations in newborn lambs determined that adenovirus-mediated expression of antigen to a localized region of the gut induced antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immunity. These experiments were limited in that the localized region of the gut to which antigen was introduced was sterile and the influence of colostrum on the antigen was not assessed but they do suggest that mucosal vaccines may be an effective vaccination strategy to protect neonatal lambs. We propose that persistent oral antigen exposure introduced in extreme early life can induce immunity in lambs, despite the presence of commensal bacteria and colostrum.
Ganglioside GM3 mediates adipocyte insulin resistance, but the role of GM3 in diabetic wound healing, a major cause of morbidity, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GM3 depletion promotes diabetic wound healing and directly activates keratinocyte (KC) insulin pathway signaling. GM3 synthase (GM3S) expression is increased in human diabetic foot skin, ob/ob and diet-induced obese diabetic mouse skin, and in mouse KCs exposed to increased glucose. GM3S knockout in diet-induced obese mice prevents the diabetic wound-healing defect. KC proliferation, migration, and activation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are suppressed by excess glucose in wild-type cells, but increased in GM3S (-/-) KCs with supplemental glucose. Co-immunoprecipitation of IR, IR substrate 1 (IRS-1), and IGF-1R, and increased IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation accompany receptor activation. GM3 supplementation or inhibition of IGF-1R or PI3K reverses the increased migration of GM3S(-/-) KCs, whereas IR knockdown only partially suppresses migration.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 2 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.532.
The ZIC transcription factors are key mediators of embryonic development and ZIC3 is the gene most commonly associated with situs defects (heterotaxy) in humans. Half of patient ZIC3 mutations introduce a premature termination codon (PTC). In vivo, PTC-containing transcripts might be targeted for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). NMD efficiency is known to vary greatly between transcripts, tissues and individuals and it is possible that differences in survival of PTC-containing transcripts partially explain the striking phenotypic variability that characterizes ZIC3-associated congenital defects. For example, the PTC-containing transcripts might encode a C-terminally truncated protein that retains partial function or that dominantly interferes with other ZIC family members. Here we describe the katun (Ka) mouse mutant, which harbours a mutation in the Zic3 gene that results in a PTC. At the time of axis formation there is no discernible decrease in this PTC-containing transcript in vivo, indicating that the mammalian Zic3 transcript is relatively insensitive to NMD, prompting the need to re-examine the molecular function of the truncated proteins predicted from human studies and to determine whether the N-terminal portion of ZIC3 possesses dominant-negative capabilities. A combination of in vitro studies and analysis of the Ka phenotype indicate that it is a null allele of Zic3 and that the N-terminal portion of ZIC3 does not encode a dominant-negative molecule. Heterotaxy in patients with PTC-containing ZIC3 transcripts probably arises due to loss of ZIC3 function alone.
We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998-2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was initially identified as a receptor that bound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related environmental toxicants; however, there is increasing evidence that the AHR is an important new drug target for treating multiple diseases including breast cancer. Treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231 and BT474 breast cancer cells with TCDD or the selective AHR modulator 6-methyl-1,3,-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) inhibited breast cancer cell invasion in a Boyden chamber assay. These results were similar to those previously reported for the antimetastic microRNA-335 (miR-335). Both TCDD and MCDF induced miR-335 in MDA-MB-231 and BT474 cells and this was accompanied by downregulation of SOX4, a miR-335-regulated (inhibited) gene. The effects of TCDD and MCDF on miR-335 and SOX4 expression and interactions of miR-335 with the 3-UTR target sequence in the SOX4 gene were all inhibited in cells transfected with an oligonucleotide (iAHR) that knocks down the AHR, thus confirming AHR-miR-335 interactions. MCDF (40 mg/kg/d) also inhibited lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in a tail vein injection model, showing that the AHR is a potential new target for treating patients with ER-negative breast cancer, a disease where treatment options and their effectiveness are limited.
Valuable information on the active sites of molybdenum enzymes has been provided from both Mo(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). One of three major categories of Mo(V) EPR signals from the molybdenum enzyme sulfite oxidase is the low-pH signal, which forms in the presence of chloride. Two alternative structures for this species have been proposed, one in which the chloride is coordinated directly to Mo and a second in which chloride is held in the arginine-rich basic pocket some 5 Å from Mo. Here we present an independent assessment of the structure of this species by using XAS of the analogous bromide and iodide complexes. We show that there is no evidence of direct Mo-I coordination, and that the data are consistent with a structure in which the halide is bound at ?5 Å from Mo.
Macrophages become activated by their environment and develop polarized functions: classically activated (M1) macrophages eliminate pathogens but can cause tissue injury, whereas alternatively activated (M2) macrophages promote healing and repair. Mechanisms directing polarized activation, especially in vivo, are not understood completely, and here, we examined the role of SOCS proteins. M2 macrophages activated in vitro or elicited by implanting mice i.p. with the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi display a selective and IL-4-dependent up-regulation of SOCS1 but not SOCS3. Using siRNA-targeted knockdown in BMDM, we reveal that the enhanced SOCS1 is crucial for IL-4-induced M2 characteristics, including a high arginase I:iNOS activity ratio, suppression of T cell proliferation, attenuated responses to IFN-?/LPS, and curtailed SOCS3 expression. Importantly, SOCS1 was essential in sustaining the enhanced PI3K activity that drives M2 activation, defining a new regulatory mechanism by which SOCS1 controls M2 polarization. By contrast, for M1 macrophages, SOCS1 was not only an important regulator of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-12, MHC class II, NO), but critically, for M1, we show that SOCS1 also restricted IL-10 secretion and arginase I activity, which otherwise would limit the efficiency of M1 macrophage proinflammatory responses. Together, our results uncover SOCS1, not only as a feedback inhibitor of inflammation but also as a critical molecular switch that tunes key signaling pathways to effectively program different sides of the macrophage balance.
It is controversial whether naïve B cells are directly activated in response to TLR9 ligand, CpG ODN. Although bovine blood-derived CD21(+) B cells express TLR9 and proliferate in response to CpG in mixed-cell populations, purified bovine B cells do not proliferate significantly in response to CpG ODN, even when the B cell receptor is engaged. When co-cultured with CD14(+) myeloid cells and/or B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine produced by activated myeloid cells, there was a significant increase in CpG-specific B cell proliferation, and the number of large B cells in general or positive for CD25, all of which are markers for B cell activation. These data suggest that activated myeloid cells and BAFF prime B cells for significant CpG-specific activation. Understanding the signals required to mediate efficient CpG-induced, antigen-independent and T-cell independent activation of B cells has implications for polyclonal B cell activation and the development of autoimmune diseases.
Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.
To identify prognostic factors in a large group of dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma (HSA) or both. Design-Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study. Animals-71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.
Host defense peptides (HDPs) have long been recognized as microbicidal agents, but their roles as modulators of innate and adaptive immunity have only more recently been appreciated. The study of transgenic animal and tissue models has provided platforms to improve our understanding of the immune modulatory functions of HDPs. Here, the characterization of transgenic animals or tissue models that over-express and/or are deficient for specific HDPs is reviewed. We also attempt to reconcile this data with evidence from human studies monitoring HDP expression at constitutive levels and/or in conjunction with inflammation, infection models, or disease states. We have excluded activities ascribed to HDPs derived exclusively from in vitro experiments. An appreciation of the way that HDPs promote innate immunity or influence the adaptive immune response is necessary in order to exploit their therapeutic or adjuvant potential and to open new perspectives in understanding the basis of immunity. The potential applications for HDPs are discussed.
The various lamellar phases of dipalmitoylphosphadtidylcholine bilayers with and without cholesterol were used to assess the versatility of the fluorescent probe merocyanine 540 through simultaneous measurements of emission intensity, spectral shape, and steady-state anisotropy. Induction of the crystalline phase (Lc) by pre-incubation at 4°C produced a wavelength dependence of anisotropy which was strong at 15 and 25°C, weak at 38°C, and minimal above the main transition (>~41.5°C) or after returning the temperature from 46 to 25°C. The profile of anisotropy values across this temperature range revealed the ability of the probe to detect crystalline, gel (L?), and liquid crystalline (L?) phases. The temperature dependence of fluorescence intensity was additionally able to distinguish between the ripple (P?) and gel phases. In contrast, the shape of the emission spectrum, quantified as the ratio of merocyanine monomer and dimer peaks (585 and 621 nm), was primarily sensitive to the crystalline and gel phases because dimer fluorescence requires a highly-ordered environment. This requirement also explained the diminution of anisotropy wavelength dependence above 25°C. Repetition of experiments with vesicles containing cholesterol allowed creation of a phase map. Superimposition of data from the three simultaneous measurements provided details about the various phase regions in the map not discernible from any one of the three alone. The results were applied to assessment of calcium-induced membrane changes in living cells.PACS Codes: 87.16.dt.
A 13-year-old, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of a right tarsal mass. Physical examination revealed a 5 cm × 5 cm × 5 cm, soft, fluctuant, subcutaneous tarsal mass. Thoracic radiographs revealed several discrete lung parenchymal lesions. Abdominal ultrasound revealed abnormal architecture to both kidneys. Fungal culture and sensitivity from the subcutaneous mass revealed a uniform growth of Colletotrichum species that was susceptible to itraconazole. Colletotrichum species infection was confirmed in the subcutis and suspected to be disseminated. Colletotrichum species fungal infections in cats have not been previously documented.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease occurring within the artery wall and is an underlying cause of cardiovascular complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Its pathogenesis involves many immune cell types with a well accepted role for monocyte/macrophages. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages are a characteristic feature of plaques and are major players in all stages of plaque development. As well as modulating lipid metabolism, macrophages secrete inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that drive pathogenesis. They also produce proteases and tissue factor that contribute to plaque rupture and thrombosis. Macrophages are however heterogeneous cells and when appropriately activated, they phagocytose cytotoxic lipoproteins, clear apoptotic bodies, secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines and synthesize matrix repair proteins that stabilize vulnerable plaques. Pharmacological modulation of macrophage activity therefore represents a potential therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the different macrophage subsets and their monocyte precursors, and, the implications of these subsets for atherosclerosis. This will present a foundation for highlighting novel opportunities to exploit the heterogeneity of macrophages as important diagnostic and therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis and its associated diseases.
B lymphocytes are well known because of their key role in mediating humoral immune responses. Upon encounter with antigen and on cognate interaction with T cells, they differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, which are critical for protection against a variety of pathogens. In addition to their antibody-production function, B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells and express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of these PRRs with their respective ligands results in cytokine and chemokine secretion and the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules. These events constitute innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation provides a third signal for B cell activation and is essential for optimal antigen-specific antibody responses. In some situations, TLR activation in B cells can result in autoimmunity. The purpose of this review is to provide some insights into the way that TLRs influence innate and adaptive B cell responses.
Ovalbumin (OVA) was labeled with a near infra-red dye (*OVA) and formulated with the host defense peptide indolicidin (Indol), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 1826 (CpG) and/or poly(p-dicarboxylatophenoxy)-phosphazene (PP4). The immunogenicity of these *OVA formulations was evaluated in mice. All double and triple adjuvant combinations elicited strong antibody responses. *OVA formulated with CpG ODN in combination with indolicidin, PP4 or both induced only IFN-?, while formulations with indolicidin and/or PP4 promoted predominantly IL-5 production. Overall, both IgG and IFN-? production was superior when *OVA was combined with CpG/Indol/PP4. Furthermore, mice injected with *OVA formulated with CpG/Indol/PP4 contained detectable *OVA in the injection site two months post immunization. These results indicate that the CpG/Indol/PP4 combination promotes prolonged antigen retention and strong, antigen-specific Th1-biased immune responses.
The processing and regulated secretion of IL-1beta are critical points of control of the biological activity of this important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1beta is produced by both monocytes and macrophages, but the rate and mechanism of release differ according to the differentiation status and the origin of these cells. We aimed to study the control of processing and release in human blood monocytes and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced IL-1beta production and release were investigated for dependence upon caspase-1, P2X7 receptor activation, and loss of membrane asymmetry associated with microvesicle shedding. TLR agonists induced P2X7 receptor-dependent IL-1beta release in both monocytes and macrophages; however, only monocytes also showed P2X7 receptor-independent release of mature IL-1beta. Furthermore, in monocytes ATP-mediated PS exposure could be activated independently of IL-1beta production. Release of IL-1beta from monocytes showed selectivity for specific TLR agonists and was accelerated by P2X7 receptor activation. Human monocytes released more IL-1beta/cell than macrophages. These data have important implications for inflammatory diseases that involve monocyte activation and IL-1 release.
Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the physiologically critical conversion of sulfite to sulfate. Enzymatic activity is dependent on the presence of the metal molybdenum complexed with a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor termed molybdopterin. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of SOs from a variety of sources has identified a single conserved Cys residue essential for catalytic activity. The crystal structure of chicken liver sulfite oxidase indicated that this residue, Cys185 in chicken SO, coordinates the Mo atom in the active site. To improve our understanding of the role of this residue in the catalytic mechanism of sulfite oxidase, serine and alanine variants at position 185 of recombinant chicken SO were generated. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies indicate that neither variant is capable of sulfite oxidation. The crystal structure of the C185S variant was determined to 1.9 A resolution and to 2.4 A resolution in the presence of sulfite, and the C185A variant to 2.8 A resolution. The structures of the C185S and C185A variants revealed that neither the Ser or Ala side chains appeared to closely interact with the Mo atom and that a third oxo group replaced the usual cysteine sulfur ligand at the Mo center, confirming earlier extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) work on the human C207S mutant. An unexpected result was that in the C185S variant, in the absence of sulfite, the active site residue Tyr322 became disordered as did the loop region flanking it. In the C185S variant crystallized in the presence of sulfite, the Tyr322 residue relocalized to the active site. The C185A variant structure also indicated the presence of a third oxygen ligand; however, Tyr322 remained in the active site. EXAFS studies of the Mo coordination environment indicate the Mo atom is in the oxidized Mo(VI) state in both the C185S and C185A variants of chicken SO and show the expected trioxodithiolene active site. Density functional theory calculations of the trioxo form of the cofactor reasonably reproducd the Mo horizontal lineO distances of the complex; however, the calculated Mo-S distances were slightly longer than either crystallographic or EXAFS measurements. Taken together, these results indicate that the active sites of the C185S and C185A variants are essentially catalytically inactive, the crystal structures of C185S and C185A variants contain a fully oxidized, trioxo form of the cofactor, and Tyr322 can undergo a conformational change that is relevant to the reaction mechanism. Additional DFT calculations demonstrated that such methods can reasonably reproduce the geometry and bond lengths of the active site.
We generated poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)-phosphazene] (PCPP) microparticles encapsulating ovalbumin (OVA) and CpG of 0.5-2.5 ?m in diameter with an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 63% and 95% respectively. In mice the microparticles generated high antigen-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a titers with higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratios. Whole body in vivo imaging of mice subcutaneously injected with MPs showed several fold increase of OVA and CpG in draining inguinal lymph nodes compared to soluble formulations. We conclude that PCPP MPs are more effective in enhancing immune responses compared to soluble formulations, due to co-delivery of OVA and CpG resulting in a Th1 type of immune response.
Some isoforms of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) distinguish between healthy and damaged or apoptotic cells. This distinction reflects differences in membrane physical properties. Because various sPLA(2) isoforms respond differently to properties of artificial membranes such as surface charge, they should also behave differently as these properties evolve during a dynamic physiological process such as apoptosis. To test this idea, S49 lymphoma cell death was induced by glucocorticoid (6-48 h) or calcium ionophore. Rates of membrane hydrolysis catalyzed by various concentrations of snake venom and human groups IIa, V, and X sPLA(2) were compared after each treatment condition. The data were analyzed using a model that evaluates the adsorption of enzyme to the membrane surface and subsequent binding of substrate to the active site. Results were compared temporally to changes in membrane biophysics and composition. Under control conditions, membrane hydrolysis was confined to the few unhealthy cells present in each sample. Increased hydrolysis during apoptosis and necrosis appeared to reflect substrate access to adsorbed enzyme for the snake venom and group X isoforms corresponding to weakened lipid-lipid interactions in the membrane. In contrast, apoptosis promoted initial adsorption of human groups V and IIa concurrent with phosphatidylserine exposure on the membrane surface. However, this observation was inadequate to explain the behavior of the groups V and IIa enzymes toward necrotic cells where hydrolysis was reduced or absent. Thus, a combination of changes in cell membrane properties during apoptosis and necrosis capacitates the cell for hydrolysis differently by each isoform.
Atherosclerosis is now recognised as a chronic inflammatory disease occurring within the artery wall and ultimately responsible for myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. A crucial step in atherogenesis is the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of large arteries where they differentiate into macrophages and become functionally active. Macrophage accumulation within plaques is a hallmark of all stages of atherosclerosis, indeed recent studies have shown their presence has the potential to act as a non-invasive marker of disease activity and plaque stability. Activated macrophages are major players in all stages of lesion development. They not only accumulate lipids but also express effector molecules that are pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic and chemotactic. Furthermore, they secrete enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix leading to plaque destabilisation and increased risk of rupture. However, macrophages are heterogeneous and when appropriately activated they have the potential to drive tissue remodelling and ultimately vascular repair. Pharmacological modulation of macrophage activities therefore represents an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to give a brief overview of our current understanding of macrophage activation, distribution and function within inflamed tissue. This will provide the basis for highlighting already available and future methods to exploit specifically activated macrophages as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis.
The term occult pneumothorax (OP) describes a pneumothorax that is not suspected on the basis of either clinical examination or initial chest radiography, but is subsequently detected on computed tomography (CT) scan. The optimal management of OP in the blunt trauma setting remains controversial. Some physicians favour placement of a thoracostomy tube for patients with OP, particularly those undergoing positive pressure ventilation (PPV), while others favour close observation without chest drainage. This study was conducted both to determine the incidence of OP and to describe its current treatment status in the blunt trauma population at a Canadian tertiary trauma centre. Of interest were the rates of tube thoracostomy vs. observation without chest drainage and their respective outcomes.
Feedlot cattle in Alberta, Canada, have been identified as reservoirs for Campylobacter jejuni, an important human pathogen. Oligonucleotide DNA microarrays were used as a platform to compare C. jejuni isolates from feedlot cattle and human clinical cases from Alberta. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was performed on 87 isolates (46 bovine, 41 human) obtained within the same geographical regions and time frame. Thirteen CGH clusters were obtained based on overall comparative genomic profile similarity. Nine CGH clusters contained human and cattle isolates, three contained only human isolates, and one contained only cattle isolates. The study isolates clustered regardless of temporal or geographical frameworks. In addition, array genes (n = 1,399) were investigated on a gene-by-gene basis to see if any were unequally distributed between human and cattle sources or between clusters dominated by either human or cattle isolates ("human enriched" versus "cattle enriched"). Using Fishers exact test with the Westfall and Young correction for these comparisons, a small number of differentially distributed genes were identified. Our findings suggest that feedlot cattle and human C. jejuni strains are very similar and may be endemic within Alberta. Further, the common distribution of human clinical and bovine C. jejuni isolates within the same genetically based clusters suggests that dynamic and important transmission routes between cattle and human populations may exist.
Antimicrobial/host defense peptides (A/HDP) are natural compounds that are found in leucocyte cells and on the skin and bodily fluids of birds, reptiles, and mammals. Not only do they possess antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic characteristics but they also stimulate the host immune system to combat infectious diseases and may play a role in the promotion of wound repair. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid-based inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that has also been shown to promote wound healing on skin. The objective of this study was to establish a therapeutic cocktail that protects birds against Escherichia coli-related disease and lesions in broilers. We injected a cocktail of six A/HDPs with or without GABA into 3-wk-old broilers by a subcutaneous or intramuscular route followed 24 hr later by challenge with a field isolate of serogroup O2 E. coli. Birds were examined for 5-6 days post-E. coli challenge and clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic assessments were conducted. Birds that were subcutaneously injected with an A/HDP plus GABA cocktail had significantly higher survival rates and lower levels of bacteremia (P < 0.05), but a similar percentage of the surviving birds had large cellulitis lesions compared to the surviving phosphate-buffered saline-injected control birds. When this cocktail was administered intramuscularly, there was a trend towards protection against E. coli-related death, although the results were not statistically significant and there was no reduction in bacteremia. A significant number of birds had a reduced bacterial load on cellulitis lesions but no reduction in lesion size, which suggests that when the cocktail was administered intramuscularly it failed to protect against cellulitis. These results suggest that the route of administration of the cocktail influences disease outcome. Gene expression analysis was performed to investigate whether the cocktail induced immunomodulatory functions in avian cells that complemented their antimicrobial and anti-endotoxic effects. A/HDP plus GABA mediated temporal induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines but no induction of any of the chemokines under investigation. This cocktail shows potential to protect against E. coli-related death, which is a major economic burden to the poultry industry.
In adult rats, initial exposure to antigens by a mucosal route triggers tolerance such that any subsequent re-exposure, even by a systemic route, results in suppression of immunity. The newborns gut is semi-permeable for a finite period to allow maternal antibodies to enter the newborns circulation. We propose that antigens introduced in extreme early life can readily traverse the gut wall and therefore circumvent induction of mucosal tolerance.
This study examined the establishment of neutrophilic inflammation in humans. We tested the hypotheses that neutrophil recruitment was associated with local CXCL8 production and that neutrophils themselves might contribute to the regulation of the size of the inflammatory response. Humans were challenged i.d. with endotoxin. Biopsies of these sites were examined for cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment by qPCR and IHC. Additional in vitro models of inflammation examined the ability of neutrophils to produce and sequester cytokines relevant to neutrophilic inflammation. i.d. challenge with 15 ng of a TLR4-selective endotoxin caused a local inflammatory response, in which 1% of the total biopsy area stained positive for neutrophils at 6 h, correlating with 100-fold up-regulation in local CXCL8 mRNA generation. Neutrophils themselves were the major source of the early cytokine IL-1?. In vitro, neutrophils mediated CXCL8 but not IL-1? clearance (>90% clearance of ?2 nM CXCL8 over 24 h). CXCL8 clearance was at least partially receptor-dependent and modified by inflammatory context, preserved in models of viral infection but reduced in models of bacterial infection. In conclusion, in a human inflammatory model, neutrophils are rapidly recruited and may regulate the size and outcome of the inflammatory response through the uptake and release of cytokines and chemokines in patterns dependent on the underlying inflammatory stimulus.
Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that lycopene is potentially cardio-protective. Recruitment and activation of T cells in the arterial wall is a critical process during atherogenesis, but the effects of lycopene on T-cell response remain to be elucidated. We aimed to determine whether lycopene could modulate T-cell function and activity.
For many years, central dogma defined multiple sclerosis (MS) as a T cell-driven autoimmune disorder; however, over the past decade there has been a burgeoning recognition that B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of certain MS disease subtypes. B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. This review highlights evidence for antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell involvement in MS pathogenesis.
Adjuvants are critical components of many vaccines but their mechanisms of action are often poorly understood. Understanding the mechanisms of adjuvant activity is critical in defining how innate immunity influenced adaptive immunity. We investigated the capacity of a novel adjuvant, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP), to induce innate immune responses at the site of injection. PCEP induced time-dependent changes in the gene expression of many "adjuvant core response genes" including cytokines, chemokines, innate immune receptors, interferon-induced genes, adhesion molecules and antigen-presentation genes. In addition, PCEP triggered local production of cytokines and the chemokine CCL-2 as indicated by ELISA. Interestingly, PCEP up-regulated the gene expression of the inflammasome receptor, Nlrp3, and induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, and IL-18 at the site of injection. Secretion of these cytokines is predominantly a result of activation of the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex that activates caspase-1, leading to the processing and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that PCEP may modulate antigen-specific immune responses by strongly activating early innate immune responses and promoting a strong immuno-stimulatory environment at the site of injection.
Clinical observations reveal that an augmented pace of T-cell recovery after chemotherapy correlates with improved tumor-free survival, suggesting the add-back of T cells after chemotherapy may improve outcomes. To evaluate adoptive immunotherapy treatment for B-lineage non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we expanded T cells from client-owned canines diagnosed with NHL on artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of human interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21. Graded doses of autologous T cells were infused after CHOP chemotherapy and persisted for 49 days, homed to tumor, and significantly improved survival. Serum thymidine kinase changes predicted T-cell engraftment, while anti-tumor effects correlated with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and granzyme B expression in manufactured T cells. Therefore, chemotherapy can be used to modulate infused T-cell responses to enhance anti-tumor effects. The companion canine model has translational implications for human immunotherapy which can be readily exploited since clinical-grade canine and human T cells are propagated using identical approaches.
The root nodules of certain legumes including Medicago truncatula produce >300 different nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. Medicago NCR antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate the differentiation of the bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid within the legume root nodules. In vitro, NCR AMPs such as NCR247 induced bacteroid features and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. meliloti. The bacterial BacA protein is critical to prevent S. meliloti from being hypersensitive toward NCR AMPs. NCR AMPs are cationic and have conserved cysteine residues, which form disulfide (S-S) bridges. However, the natural configuration of NCR AMP S-S bridges and the role of these in the activity of the peptide are unknown. In this study, we found that either cysteine replacements or S-S bond modifications influenced the activity of NCR247 against S. meliloti. Specifically, either substitution of cysteines for serines, changing the S-S bridges from cysteines 1-2, 3-4 to 1-3, 2-4 or oxidation of NCR247 lowered its activity against S. meliloti. We also determined that BacA specifically protected S. meliloti against oxidized NCR247. Due to the large number of different NCRs synthesized by legume root nodules and the importance of bacterial BacA proteins for prolonged host infections, these findings have important implications for analyzing the function of these novel peptides and the protective role of BacA in the bacterial response toward these peptides.
We previously reported that CD21(+) B cells purified from bovine blood do not respond to CpG-ODN stimulation unless either CD14(+) monocytes or B-cell Activating Factor (BAFF), a cytokine produced by activated monocytes, are present. In this report, we present evidence that CD14(+) monocytes are critical for CpG-specific lymphocyte proliferation within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population but that this response is not mediated by soluble factors produced by CpG-activated monocytes. We further determine that bovine monocytes stimulated with IFN-? induce expression of the BAFF gene and that recombinant IFN-? and BAFF induced robust B cell activation when cultured in the absence of CpG ODN. These data suggest that CpG-stimulated monocytes may indirectly promote B cell activation by promoting release of cytokines and/or other soluble factors from accessory cells which in turn act on CpG-stimulated B cells to promote antigen-independent and T cell independent B cell activation. Understanding the T cell independent signals that induce B cell activation has important implications for understanding B cell development in locations where T cells are limited and in understanding polyclonal B cell activation that may contribute to autoimmune diseases.
Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively.
Blood and cloacal swabs were collected from 100 (66 female, 34 male) wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) molting in northwestern Alaska, USA, 25-28 July 2008, to establish hematologic and serum chemistry reference values and to isolate enteric Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plasma biochemistry and hematology values did not vary significantly by sex or age. Tundra swans had high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and alkaline phosphatase compared with some other avian species (values were up to 7 times greater), possibly indicating capture myopathy. However, concentrations were much lower (up to 8 times lower) than in other waterfowl exposed to similar or more intensive capture methods. White blood cell count and hematocrit values were similar to other waterfowl species, and enteric Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were not present among birds sampled. Our data provide the first biochemical, hematologic, and bacteriologic reference values for wild Tundra Swans.
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