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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for broad-range identification of fungal pathogens.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Early and accurate identification of these pathogens is central to direct therapy and to improve overall outcome. PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was evaluated as a novel means for identification of fungal pathogens. Using a database grounded by 60 ATCC reference strains, a total of 394 clinical fungal isolates (264 molds and 130 yeasts) were analyzed by PCR/ESI-MS; results were compared to phenotypic identification, and discrepant results were sequence confirmed. PCR/ESI-MS identified 81.4% of molds to either the genus or species level, with concordance rates of 89.7% and 87.4%, respectively, to phenotypic identification. Likewise, PCR/ESI-MS was able to identify 98.4% of yeasts to either the genus or species level, agreeing with 100% of phenotypic results at both the genus and species level. PCR/ESI-MS performed best with Aspergillus and Candida isolates, generating species-level identification in 94.4% and 99.2% of isolates, respectively. PCR/ESI-MS is a promising new technology for broad-range detection and identification of medically important fungal pathogens that cause invasive mycoses.
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Genomic signature-based identification of influenza A viruses using RT-PCR/electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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The emergence and rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1pdm) in humans highlights the importance of enhancing the capability of existing influenza surveillance systems with tools for rapid identification of emerging and re-emerging viruses. One of the new approaches is the RT-PCR electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) technology, which is based on analysis of base composition (BC) of RT-PCR amplicons from influenza "core" genes. Combination of the BC signatures represents a "genomic print" of an influenza A virus.
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New technology for rapid molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.
Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Technologies for the correct and timely diagnosis of bloodstream infections are urgently needed. Molecular diagnostic methods have yet to have a major impact on the diagnosis of bloodstream infections; however, new methods are being developed that are beginning to address key issues. In this article, we discuss the key needs and objectives of molecular diagnostics for bloodstream infections and review some of the currently available methods and how these techniques meet key needs. We then focus on a new method that combines nucleic acid amplification with mass spectrometry in a novel approach to molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.
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Genotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans.
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Extraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Ticks harbor numerous bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that can cause serious infections in humans and domestic animals. Active surveillance of the tick vector can provide insight into the frequency and distribution of important pathogens in the environment. Nucleic-acid based detection of tick-borne bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens requires the extraction of both DNA and RNA (total nucleic acids) from ticks. Traditional methods for nucleic acid extraction are limited to extraction of either DNA or the RNA from a sample. Here we present a simple bead-beating based protocol for extraction of DNA and RNA from a single tick and show detection of Borrelia burgdorferi and Powassan virus from individual, infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. We determined expected yields for total nucleic acids by this protocol for a variety of adult tick species. The method is applicable to a variety of arthropod vectors, including fleas and mosquitoes, and was partially automated on a liquid handling robot.
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Application of the Ibis-T5000 pan-Orthopoxvirus assay to quantitatively detect monkeypox viral loads in clinical specimens from macaques experimentally infected with aerosolized monkeypox virus.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus, causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. A previously described pan-Orthopoxvirus assay, based on a broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), was evaluated for its ability to detect MPXV from spiked human and aerosol-infected cynomolgous macaque (Macaca fascicularis) samples. Detection of MPXV DNA from macaque tissue, blood, and spiked human blood by the PCR/ESI-MS pan-Orthopoxvirus assay was comparable, albeit at slightly higher levels, to the current gold standard method of real-time PCR with the pan-Orthopoxvirus assay and had a limit of detection of 200 plaque-forming units. Furthermore, the platform was able to distinguish MPXV and vaccinia viruses that were spiked into macaque blood samples at various concentrations. This platform provides a new tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopoxviral loads during vaccine or antiviral studies, but also could provide rapid identification during natural outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks.
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Rapid identification of vector-borne flaviviruses by mass spectrometry.
Mol. Cell. Probes
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Flaviviruses are a highly diverse group of RNA viruses classified within the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne, requiring a mosquito or tick vector. Several flaviviruses are highly pathogenic to humans; however, their high genetic diversity and immunological relatedness makes them extremely challenging to diagnose. In this study, we developed and evaluated a broad-range Flavivirus assay designed to detect both tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses by using RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) on the Ibis T5000 platform. The assay was evaluated with a panel of 13 different flaviviruses. All samples were correctly identified to the species level. To determine the limit of detection for the mosquito-borne primer sets, serial dilutions of RNA from West Nile virus (WNV) were assayed and could be detected down to an equivalent viral titer of 0.2 plaque-forming units/mL. Analysis of flaviviruses in their natural biological background included testing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that were laboratory-infected with dengue-1 virus. The assay accurately identified the virus within infected mosquitoes, and we determined the average viral genome per mosquito to be 2.0 x 10(6). Using human blood, serum, and urine spiked with WNV and mouse blood and brain tissues from Karshi virus-infected mice, we showed that these clinical matrices did not inhibit the detection of these viruses. Finally, we used the assay to test field-collected Ixodes scapularis ticks collected from sites in New York and Connecticut. We found 16/322 (5% infection rate) ticks positive for deer tick virus, a subtype of Powassan virus. In summary, we developed a single high-throughput Flavivirus assay that could detect multiple tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses and thus provides a new analytical tool for their medical diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance.
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Identification of pathogenic Vibrio species by multilocus PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and its application to aquatic environments of the former soviet republic of Georgia.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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The Ibis T5000 is a novel diagnostic platform that couples PCR and mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed an assay that can identify all known pathogenic Vibrio species and field-tested it using natural water samples from both freshwater lakes and the Georgian coastal zone of the Black Sea. Of the 278 total water samples screened, 9 different Vibrio species were detected, 114 (41%) samples were positive for V. cholerae, and 5 (0.8%) samples were positive for the cholera toxin A gene (ctxA). All ctxA-positive samples were from two freshwater lakes, and no ctxA-positive samples from any of the Black Sea sites were detected.
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Detection and identification of Ehrlichia species in blood by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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Rapid detection and identification of Ehrlichia species improves clinical outcome for patients suspected of ehrlichiosis. We describe an assay that employs multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to detect and identify Ehrlichia species directly from blood specimens. The results were compared to those of a colorimetric microtiter PCR enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) used as a diagnostic assay. Among 213 whole-blood samples collected from patients who were clinically suspected of ehrlichiosis from 1 May to 1 August 2008 at Vanderbilt University Hospital, 40 were positive for an Ehrlichia species by PCR/ESI-MS, giving a positive rate of 18.8%. In comparison to the PCR-EIA, PCR/ESI-MS possessed a sensitivity, a specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 95.0%, 98.8%, 95.0%, and 98.8%, respectively. The 38 specimens that were positive for Ehrlichia by both PCR/ESI-MS and the PCR-EIA were further characterized to the species level, with 100% agreement between the two assays. In addition, Rickettsia rickettsii was detected by PCR/ESI-MS from four specimens that were confirmed retrospectively by serology and PCR-EIA. In three specimens, the PCR/ESI-MS assay identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, and Staphylococcus aureus; these were confirmed by culture and/or clinical diagnosis as being clinically relevant. From specimen processing to result reporting, the PCR/ESI-MS assay can be completed within 6 h, providing another laboratory tool for the diagnosis of ehrlichiosis. Moreover, this system may provide rapid detection and identification of additional pathogens directly from blood specimens.
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Pathogen profiling: rapid molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus by PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and correlation with phenotype.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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There are few diagnostic methods that readily distinguish among community-acquired methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, now frequently transmitted within hospitals. We describe a rapid and high-throughput method for bacterial profiling of staphylococcal isolates. The method couples PCR to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and is performed on a platform suitable for use in a diagnostic laboratory. This profiling technology produces a high-resolution genetic signature indicative of the presence of specific genetic elements that represent distinctive phenotypic features. The PCR/ESI-MS signature accurately identified genotypic determinants consistent with phenotypic traits in well-characterized reference and clinical isolates of S. aureus. Molecular identification of the antibiotic resistance genes correlated strongly with phenotypic in vitro resistance. The identification of toxin genes correlated with independent PCR analyses for the toxin genes. Finally, isolates were correctly classified into genotypic groups that correlated with genetic clonal complexes, repetitive-element-based PCR patterns, or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types. The high-throughput PCR/ESI-MS assay should improve clinical management of staphylococcal infections.
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Rapid molecular genotyping and clonal complex assignment of Staphylococcus aureus isolates by PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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We describe a high-throughput assay using PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to determine the genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The primer sets used in the PCR/ESI-MS assay were designed to amplify the same genes analyzed in multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The method was used to identify the clonal complex and USA type of each isolate and is suitable for use in a clinical or public-health setting. The method was validated using a panel of diverse isolates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that were previously characterized by MLST and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Clinical isolates from two geographically distinct hospitals were characterized, and the clustering results were in agreement with those for repetitive-element PCR and PFGE. The PCR/ESI-MS method enables genotyping of over 180 samples of S. aureus per day in an automated fashion.
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Usefulness of multilocus polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify a diverse panel of bacterial isolates.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Polymerase chain reaction electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was tested for its ability to accurately identify a blinded panel of 156 diverse bacterial isolates, mostly human and/or animal pathogens. Here, 142/156 (91%) isolates were correctly identified to the genus level and 115/156 (74%) were correctly identified to the species level. Only 9% were misidentified. This study shows that multilocus PCR/ESI-MS has the potential to be a useful technique for identifying a broad range of bacteria.
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Identification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Med. Entomol.
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Many organisms, such as insects, filarial nematodes, and ticks, contain heritable bacterial endosymbionts that are often closely related to transmissible tickborne pathogens. These intracellular bacteria are sometimes unique to the host species, presumably due to isolation and genetic drift. We used a polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry assay designed to detect a wide range of vectorborne microorganisms to characterize endosymbiont genetic signatures from Amblyomma americanum (L.), Amblyomma maculatum Koch, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Ixodes scapularis Say, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, Ixodes ricinus (L.), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected at various sites and of different stages and both sexes. The assay combines the abilities to simultaneously detect pathogens and closely related endosymbionts and to identify tick species via characterization of their respective unique endosymbionts in a single test.
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Comparative analysis of two broad-range PCR assays for pathogen detection in positive-blood-culture bottles: PCR-high-resolution melting analysis versus PCR-mass spectrometry.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Detection of pathogens in bloodstream infections is important for directing antimicrobial treatment, but current culture-based approaches can be problematic. Broad-range PCR assays which target conserved genomic motifs for postamplification amplicon analysis permit detection of sepsis-causing pathogens. Comparison of different broad-range assays is important for informing future implementation strategies. In this study, we compared positive-blood-culture bottles processed by PCR coupled to high-resolution melting curve analysis (PCR/HRMA) and PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to microbiology culture results. Genus-level concordance was 90% (confidence interval [CI], 80 to 96%) for PCR/HRMA and 94% (CI, 85 to 98%) for PCR/ESI-MS. Species-level concordance was 90% (CI, 80 to 96%) for PCR/HRMA and 86% (CI, 75 to 93%) for PCR/ESI-MS. Unlike PCR/HRMA, PCR/ESI-MS was able to resolve polymicrobial samples. Our results demonstrated that the two assays have similar overall concordance rates but may have different roles as potential adjunctive tests with standard blood culture, since each method has different capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages.
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Comprehensive biothreat cluster identification by PCR/electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
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Technology for comprehensive identification of biothreats in environmental and clinical specimens is needed to protect citizens in the case of a biological attack. This is a challenge because there are dozens of bacterial and viral species that might be used in a biological attack and many have closely related near-neighbor organisms that are harmless. The biothreat agent, along with its near neighbors, can be thought of as a biothreat cluster or a biocluster for short. The ability to comprehensively detect the important biothreat clusters with resolution sufficient to distinguish the near neighbors with an extremely low false positive rate is required. A technological solution to this problem can be achieved by coupling biothreat group-specific PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). The biothreat assay described here detects ten bacterial and four viral biothreat clusters on the NIAID priority pathogen and HHS/USDA select agent lists. Detection of each of the biothreat clusters was validated by analysis of a broad collection of biothreat organisms and near neighbors prepared by spiking biothreat nucleic acids into nucleic acids extracted from filtered environmental air. Analytical experiments were carried out to determine breadth of coverage, limits of detection, linearity, sensitivity, and specificity. Further, the assay breadth was demonstrated by testing a diverse collection of organisms from each biothreat cluster. The biothreat assay as configured was able to detect all the target organism clusters and did not misidentify any of the near-neighbor organisms as threats. Coupling biothreat cluster-specific PCR to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry simultaneously provides the breadth of coverage, discrimination of near neighbors, and an extremely low false positive rate due to the requirement that an amplicon with a precise base composition of a biothreat agent be detected by mass spectrometry.
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Detection of heartworm infection in dogs via PCR amplification and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of nucleic acid extracts from whole blood samples.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
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To develop and evaluate a rapid and accurate assay involving PCR amplification and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of nucleic acid extracts from whole blood samples for the detection of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs.
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Direct molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease.
PLoS ONE
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Direct molecular tests in blood for early Lyme disease can be insensitive due to low amount of circulating Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. To address this challenge, we have developed a sensitive strategy to both detect and genotype B. burgdorferi directly from whole blood collected during the initial patient visit. This strategy improved sensitivity by employing 1.25 mL of whole blood, a novel pre-enrichment of the entire specimen extract for Borrelia DNA prior to a multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection assay. We evaluated the assay on blood collected at the initial presentation from 21 endemic area patients who had both physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM) and positive two-tiered serology either at the initial visit or at a follow-up visit after three weeks of antibiotic therapy. Results of this DNA analysis showed detection of B. burgdorferi in 13 of 21 patients (62%). In most cases the new assay also provided the B. burgdorferi genotype. The combined results of our direct detection assay with initial physician visit serology resulted in the detection of early Lyme disease in 19 of 21 (90%) of patients at the initial visit. In 5 of 21 cases we demonstrate the ability to detect B. burgdorferi in early Lyme disease directly from whole blood specimens prior to seroconversion.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.