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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations Among Parental Education, Home Environment Quality, Effortful Control, and Preacademic Knowledge.
J Appl Dev Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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This study used a longitudinal design to examine whether effortful control mediated the associations of parental education and home environment quality with preacademic knowledge in toddlers and young preschoolers. The sample consisted of 226 children (2 to 4 years of age at T1) from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. Parents provided data on parent education and home environment quality. Children completed effortful control, early literacy, and early math assessments. T2 effortful control partially mediated the associations of T1 parental education and T1 home environment quality with T3 emergent literacy after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early literacy. T2 effortful control partially mediated the association between T1 parental education and T3 emergent math after accounting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, T1 effortful control, and T2 early math. Prior to entry into preschool, parental education and home environment quality may shape effortful control which in turn influences preacademic knowledge.
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Jumping to Conclusions, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Delusional Beliefs in First Episode Psychosis.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Background: The "jumping to conclusions" (JTC) data-gathering bias is implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis but has only recently been studied in first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study, we set out to establish the relationship of JTC in FEP with delusions and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: One hundred and eight FEP patients and 101 age-matched controls completed assessments of delusions, general intelligence (IQ), working memory (WM), and JTC (the probabilistic reasoning "beads" task). Results: Half the FEP participants jumped to conclusions on at least 1 task, compared with 25% of controls (OR range 2.1 to 3.9; 95% CI range 1.5 to 8.0, P values ? .02). JTC was associated with clinical, but not nonclinical delusion severity, and with neuropsychological functioning, irrespective of clinical status. Both IQ and delusion severity, but not WM, were independently associated with JTC in the FEP group. Conclusions: JTC is present in FEP. The specific association of JTC with clinical delusions supports a state, maintaining role for the bias. The associations of JTC with neuropsychological functioning indicate a separable, trait aspect to the bias, which may confer vulnerability to psychosis. The work has potential to inform emerging interventions targeting reasoning biases in early psychosis.
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Depression and depression treatment in women with spinal cord injury.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Research has documented high rates of depression in people with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, most SCI research is conducted with predominantly male study participants. Additional research is needed on depression and depression treatment among women with SCI.
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Can short-term fasting protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity?
World J Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of several types of cancer. However the use is limited by cardiotoxicity. Despite extensive investigation into the mechanisms of toxicity and preventative strategies, Dox-induced cardiotoxicity still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Thus, continued research into preventative strategies is vital. Short-term fasting has proven to be cardioprotective against a variety of insults. Despite the potential, only a few studies have been conducted investigating its ability to prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. However, all show proof-of-principle that short-term fasting is cardioprotective against Dox. Fasting affects a plethora of cellular processes making it difficult to discern the mechanism(s) translating fasting to cardioprotection, but may involve suppression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling with stimulated autophagy. It is likely that additional mechanisms also contribute. Importantly, the literature suggests that fasting may enhance the antitumor activity of Dox. Thus, fasting is a regimen that warrants further investigation as a potential strategy to prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Future research should aim to determine the optimal regimen of fasting, confirmation that this regimen does not interfere with the antitumor properties of Dox, as well as the underlying mechanisms exerting the cardioprotective effects.
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Doxorubicin alters the mitochondrial dynamics machinery and mitophagy in the liver of treated animals.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but known to cause cardiac and hepatic toxicity. Mechanisms of toxicity have not been clearly identified, but shown to involve oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, antioxidant supplementation has only shown modest protection from Dox-induced toxicity in clinical trials. Therefore, further research is required to discern alternative mechanisms that may also play an important role in Dox-induced toxicity. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in Dox-induced hepatic toxicity, which has not yet been investigated. Six-week-old male F344 rats were injected IP with 20 mg/kg of Dox or saline. Once administered, both groups of animals were fasted with no food or water until sacrifice 24 h later. Dox decreased content of primary regulators of mitochondrial fusion (OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2) with no effect on regulators of fission (DRP1 and FIS1), thus shifting the balance favoring mitochondrial fission. Moreover, it was determined that mitochondrial fission was likely not coupled to cell proliferation or cytochrome c release leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling. Rather, mitochondrial fission may be coupled to mitophagy and may be an adaptive response to protect against Dox-induced hepatic toxicity. This is the first study to report the role of altered mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy machinery in Dox-induced hepatic injury.
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White matter integrity as a predictor of response to treatment in first episode psychosis.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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The integrity of brain white matter connections is central to a patients ability to respond to pharmacological interventions. This study tested this hypothesis using a specific measure of white matter integrity, and examining its relationship to treatment response using a prospective design in patients within their first episode of psychosis. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 63 patients with first episode psychosis and 52 healthy control subjects (baseline). Response was assessed after 12 weeks and patients were classified as responders or non-responders according to treatment outcome. At this second time-point, they also underwent a second diffusion tensor imaging scan. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to assess fractional anisotropy as a marker of white matter integrity. At baseline, non-responders showed lower fractional anisotropy than both responders and healthy control subjects (P < 0.05; family-wise error-corrected), mainly in the uncinate, cingulum and corpus callosum, whereas responders were indistinguishable from healthy control subjects. After 12 weeks, there was an increase in fractional anisotropy in both responders and non-responders, positively correlated with antipsychotic exposure. This represents one of the largest, controlled investigations of white matter integrity and response to antipsychotic treatment early in psychosis. These data, together with earlier findings on cortical grey matter, suggest that grey and white matter integrity at the start of treatment is an important moderator of response to antipsychotics. These findings can inform patient stratification to anticipate care needs, and raise the possibility that antipsychotics may restore white matter integrity as part of the therapeutic response.
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Cortical folding defects as markers of poor treatment response in first-episode psychosis.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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At present, no reliable predictors exist to distinguish future responders from nonresponders to treatment during the first episode of psychosis. Among potential neuroimaging predictors of treatment response, gyrification represents an important marker of the integrity of normal cortical development that may characterize, already at illness onset, a subgroup of patients with particularly poor outcome.
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Evaluating a Spinal Cord Injury-Specific Model of Depression and Quality of Life.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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To determine whether demographic, injury, health, and functional factors similarly have the same predictive relation with both somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression, as well as whether somatic and nonsomatic symptoms of depression have the same association with quality of life (QOL).
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Longitudinal mediators of achievement in mathematics and reading in typical and atypical development.
J Exp Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Longitudinal studies of neurodevelopmental disorders that are diagnosed at or before birth and are associated with specific learning difficulties at school-age provide one method for investigating developmental precursors of later-emerging academic disabilities. Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with particular problems in mathematics, in contrast to well-developed word reading. Children with SBM (n=30) and typically developing children (n=35) were used to determine whether cognitive abilities measured at 36 and 60months of age mediated the effect of group on mathematical and reading achievement outcomes at 8.5 and 9.5years of age. A series of multiple mediator models showed that: visual-spatial working memory at 36months and phonological awareness at 60months partially mediated the effect of group on math calculations, phonological awareness partially mediated the effect of group on small addition and subtraction problems on a test of math fluency, and visual-spatial working memory mediated the effect of group on a test of math problem solving. Groups did not differ on word reading, and phonological awareness was the only mediator for reading fluency and reading comprehension. The findings are discussed with reference to theories of mathematical development and disability and with respect to both common and differing cognitive correlates of math and reading.
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Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program.
Dev Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers behaviors and childrens social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although childrens performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in childrens cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Longitudinal mediators of social problem solving in spina bifida and typical development.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The current study examined the role of early executive functions (EF) and social language (SL) as well as responsive parenting as mediators of the effect of group on social problem-solving skills at 7 years of age for children with spina bifida and typically developing children.
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Depressive symptoms in women with physical disabilities: identifying correlates to inform practice.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To examine correlates of depressive symptomatology in a sample of women with diverse physical disabilities to inform practice of modifiable risk factors that warrant attention and intervention.
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Cannabis users have higher premorbid IQ than other patients with first onset psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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A number of studies have reported that patients with psychosis who use cannabis have better cognitive performance than those who do not. This is surprising as cannabis can impair cognition in healthy subjects. An obvious question is whether the better current performance of psychotic patients who have used cannabis is a reflection of their having a higher premorbid IQ than those psychotic patients who havent used cannabis.
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Effect of preschool working memory, language, and narrative abilities on inferential comprehension at school-age in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and typically developing children.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) are more likely to display a pattern of good-decoding/poor comprehension than their neurologically intact peers. The goals of the current study were to (1) examine the cognitive origins of one of the component skills of comprehension, bridging inferences, from a developmental perspective and (2) to test the effects of those relations on reading comprehension achievement. Data from a sample of children with SBM and a control group (n = 78) who participated in a longitudinal study were taken from age 36-month and 9.5-year time points. A multiple mediation model provided evidence that three preschool cognitive abilities (working memory/inhibitory control, oral comprehension, narrative recall), could partially explain the relation between group and bridging inference skill. A second mediation model supported that each of the 36-month abilities had an indirect effect on reading comprehension through bridging inference skill. Findings contribute to an understanding of both typical and atypical comprehension development, blending theories from the developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological literature.
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Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.
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Relations of Childrens Effortful Control and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality to School Attitudes in a Low-Income Sample.
Early Educ Dev
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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RESEARCH FINDINGS: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of childrens effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring (ns = 823, 722, and 758, respectively) for 2 cohorts of 3- to 5-year-olds (collected during 2 different school years). Childrens effortful control was assessed in the fall with parents and teachers reports and 2 behavioral measures. Teacher-child relationship quality was assessed mid-year with teachers reports of closeness and conflict. Attitudes toward school were assessed in late spring using teachers and students reports of school avoidance and liking. Effortful control, in general, was positively correlated with teacher-child closeness and school liking and negatively correlated with conflict and school avoidance. Using structural equation modeling and controlling for sex and ethnicity, we found that effortful control was positively related to teacher-child relationship quality, which in turn was positively related to school attitudes. Furthermore, the relation of effortful control to school attitudes was mediated by teacher-child relationship quality. PRACTICE OR POLICY: Results provide evidence for the importance of relational processes that take place within the classroom context and have implications for teachers and clinicians working to increase school success in ethnic minority and low-income children.
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Mathematical Skills in 3- and 5-Year-Olds with Spina Bifida and Their Typically Developing Peers: A Longitudinal Approach.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1-14).
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Implementation of a user-centered framework in the development of a web-based health information database and call center.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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As healthcare consumers increasingly turn to the World Wide Web (WWW) to obtain health information, it is imperative that health-related websites are user-centered. Websites are often developed without consideration of intended users characteristics, literacy levels, preferences, and information goals resulting in user dissatisfaction, abandonment of the website, and ultimately the need for costly redesign. This paper provides a methodological review of a user-centered framework that incorporates best practices in literacy, information quality, and human-computer interface design and evaluation to guide the design and redesign process of a consumer health website. Following the description of the methods, a case analysis is presented, demonstrating the successful application of the model in the redesign of a consumer health information website with call center. Comparisons between the iterative revisions of the website showed improvements in usability, readability, and user satisfaction.
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Maltreatment clusters among youth in outpatient substance abuse treatment: co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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The purpose of the current study was to describe the use of a brief maltreatment assessment instrument to classify adolescents receiving alcohol or other drug (AOD) treatment services based on the extensiveness and severity of prior maltreatment. This goal is significant because maltreatment reduces the effectiveness of AOD treatment and is associated significantly with co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews were administered to 300 adolescent treatment clients (202 males, 98 females; M = 16.22 years; SD = 1.13 years) to assess childhood maltreatment experiences, past year psychiatric symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors during the past 180 days. Cluster analysis classified adolescents into unique groups via self-reported sexual abuse, physical punishment, and parental neglect/negative home environment. Significant between-cluster differences in psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors were documented using MANOVA and chi-square analyses. More severe maltreatment profiles were associated with higher scores for psychiatric symptoms and unprotected intercourse. Significant heterogeneity and distinct types within this treatment sample of adolescents supports the adaptation of selected prevention efforts to promote HIV/STI risk reduction.
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Early information processing among infants with and without spina bifida.
Infant Behav Dev
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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This study focuses on the development of early visual information processing among infants with spina bifida (SB) compared to typically developing infants using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First infants were evaluated to determine if 18-month old infants (SB=47; Control=40) differed in their ability to shift attention and habituate to two female faces, as well as their responses to composite and novel stimuli. Second, relations between these variables and infant motor and mental functioning were evaluated. The results of the study indicated that difficulties with visual attention skills can be detected as early as 18 months of age among infants with SB. Infants with SB differed significantly from controls on attention getting. Although there were no differences found on habituation and composite tasks, infants with SB differed significantly from controls on their ability to dishabituate. Implications are discussed.
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Higher cortisol levels are associated with smaller left hippocampal volume in first-episode psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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This study investigated the relationship between cortisol secretion and hippocampal volume in first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Hippocampal volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 24 first-episode psychosis patients and in 18 healthy controls, together with diurnal cortisol levels. Twelve patients received a second MRI scan at 3-month follow-up. Diurnal cortisol levels were inversely correlated with left hippocampal volume in patients, both at baseline and at follow-up, while no correlation was found in controls. Our findings suggest that smaller hippocampal volume in first-episode psychosis can partly be explained by stress-related processes in the brain, as measured by cortisol hyper-secretion.
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The Factor Structure of Effortful Control and Measurement Invariance Across Ethnicity and Sex in a High-Risk Sample.
J Psychopathol Behav Assess
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Measurement invariance of a one-factor model of effortful control (EC) was tested for 853 low-income preschoolers (M age = 4.48 years). Using a teacher-report questionnaire and seven behavioral measures, configural invariance (same factor structure across groups), metric invariance (same pattern of factor loadings across groups), and partial scalar invariance (mostly the same intercepts across groups) were established across ethnicity (European Americans, African Americans and Hispanics) and across sex. These results suggest that the latent construct of EC behaved in a similar way across ethnic groups and sex, and that comparisons of mean levels of EC are valid across sex and probably valid across ethnicity, especially when larger numbers of tasks are used. The findings also support the use of diverse behavioral measures as indicators of a single latent EC construct.
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Mathematical development in spina bifida.
Dev Disabil Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect diagnosed before or at birth that is associated with a high incidence of math disability often without co-occurring difficulties in reading. SB provides an interesting population within which to examine the development of mathematical abilities and disability across the lifespan and in relation to the deficits in visual-spatial processing that are also associated with the disorder. An overview of math and its cognitive correlates in preschoolers, school-age children and adults with SB is presented including the findings from a longitudinal study linking early executive functions in infancy to the development of later preschool and school age math skills. These findings are discussed in relation to socio-historical perspectives on math education and implications for intervention and directions for further research are presented.
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Abnormal cortisol levels during the day and cortisol awakening response in first-episode psychosis: the role of stress and of antipsychotic treatment.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2009
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First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients show hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the mechanisms leading to this are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stress and antipsychotic treatment on diurnal cortisol levels, and on cortisol awakening response, in FEP. Recent stressful events, perceived stress and childhood trauma were collected in 50 FEP patients and 36 healthy controls using structured instruments. Salivary cortisol was obtained at awakening, at 15, 30, and 60min after awakening, and at 12 and 8pm. Patients experienced more recent stressful events, perceived stress and childhood trauma than controls (p<0.001). Patients had a trend for higher diurnal cortisol levels (p=0.055), with those with less than two weeks of antipsychotics showing significantly higher cortisol levels than both patients with more than two weeks of antipsychotics (p=0.005) and controls (p=0.002). Moreover, patients showed a blunted cortisol awakening response compared with controls, irrespectively of antipsychotic treatment (p=0.049). These abnormalities in patients were not driven by the excess of stressors: diurnal cortisol levels were negatively correlated with the number of recent stressful events (r=-0.36, p=0.014), and cortisol awakening response was positively correlated with a history of sexual childhood abuse (r=0.33, p=0.033). No significant correlations were found between perceived stress or severity of symptoms and cortisol levels, either diurnal or in the awakening response. Our study shows that antipsychotics normalize diurnal cortisol hyper-secretion but not the blunted cortisol awakening response in FEP; factors other than the excess of psychosocial stress explain HPA axis abnormalities in FEP.
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Restorative rehabilitation entails a paradigm shift in pediatric incomplete spinal cord injury in adolescence: an illustrative case series.
J Pediatr Rehabil Med
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Physical rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult and pediatric populations has traditionally compensated for paralysis and weakness using wheelchairs, assistive devices, and braces to achieve seated mobility, upright standing, or bracewalking. Recent evidence indicates efficacy of activity-based therapies in adults with SCI, specifically locomotor training (LT), to activate the neuromuscular system below the injury level and improve walking and postural control by restoring pre-morbid movements. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of LT, using repetitive stepping practice on a treadmill and translated to over ground and the community, to meet the unique needs and demands of pediatric, adolescent rehabilitation. Three outpatient adolescents, T5 AIS D, age 15 (primary wheelchair user), T5 AIS C, age 14 (primary wheelchair user), and C2, AIS D, 14 years (primary ambulator), received a standardized protocol of LT 4-5 times per week for 75, 293, and 40 total sessions, respectively, across 1-3 episodes of care. Two adolescents became full-time ambulators, and one adolescent improved locomotor skills, kinematics, and endurance with two individuals lacking significant increases in strength to account for the benefits. Motivational strategies were developmentally specific, parental involvement critical for carryover, and musculoskeletal considerations paramount with growth and maturation. In comparison to adults, adolescents continued musculoskeletal, cognitive, and social growth and maturation necessitate repeated episodes of therapy and bi-annual re-evaluations to identify needs and address new goals. The use of activity-based therapies, i.e. LT, represents a paradigm shift in pediatric rehabilitation towards activation of the neuromuscular system below the lesion via task-specific training and experience, minimizing compensation strategies, and targeting recovery of function achieved via use of pre-morbid movement patterns.
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Unprecedented mass bleaching and loss of coral across 12° of latitude in Western Australia in 2010-11.
PLoS ONE
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Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010-11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA).
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Social disadvantage: cause or consequence of impending psychosis?
Schizophr Bull
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An association between social disadvantage and established psychosis is well documented in the literature, but there remains a lack of data on the social circumstances of patients before they became ill. We investigated whether social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services, is associated with psychosis.
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Sexual dysfunction in people with prodromal or first-episode psychosis.
Br J Psychiatry
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Sexual dysfunction is common in psychotic disorder but it is not clear whether it is intrinsic to the development of the illness or secondary to other factors.
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Acute effects of single-dose aripiprazole and haloperidol on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the human brain.
Hum Brain Mapp
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Antipsychotic drugs act on the dopaminergic system (first-generation antipsychotics, FGA), but some also directly affect serotonergic function (second-generation antipsychotics, SGA) in the brain. Short and long-term effects of these drugs on brain physiology remain poorly understood. Moreover, it remains unclear whether any physiological effect in the brain may be different for FGAs and SGAs. Immediate (+3.30 h) and different effects of single-dose FGA (haloperidol, 3 mg) and a SGA (aripiprazole, 10 mg) on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were explored in the same 20 healthy volunteers using a pulsed continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) sequence (1.5T) in a placebo-controlled, repeated measures design. Both antipsychotics increased striatal rCBF but the effect was greater after haloperidol. Both decreased frontal rCBF, and opposite effects of the drugs were observed in the temporal cortex (haloperidol decreased, aripiprazole increased rCBF) and in the posterior cingulate (haloperidol increased, aripiprazole decreased rCBF). Further increases were evident in the insula, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate after both antipsychotics, in the motor cortex following haloperidol and in the occipital lobe the claustrum and the cerebellum after aripiprazole. Further decreases were observed in the parietal and occipital cortices after aripiprazole. This study suggests that early and different rCBF changes are evident following a single-dose of FGA and SGA. The effects occur in healthy volunteers, thus may be independent from any underlying pathology, and in the same regions identified as structurally and functionally altered in schizophrenia, suggesting a possible relationship between antipsychotic-induced rCBF changes and brain alterations in schizophrenia.
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Is deterioration of IQ a feature of first episode psychosis and how can we measure it?
Schizophr. Res.
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Estimates of pre-morbid IQ are widely used to measure the trajectory of cognitive function and decline in people with schizophrenia. This study examined the usefulness of two indices of decline to identify cognitive subtypes in first episode psychosis, and to determine the specificity of non-IQ neuropsychological impairments in this population. Neuropsychological data were collected from 118 first episode psychosis patients and compared to 118 epidemiologically matched controls. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Information subtest of the WAIS-III were compared as indicators of crystallised intelligence or pre-morbid IQ. Measurement of NART minus current full scale IQ (FSIQ) (where 10 points discrepancy is the decline criterion) did not reveal a large group of individuals with deteriorating IQ patterns. Using the Information subtest and the same decline criteria, a deteriorating patient group emerged (36%) but was matched by a larger deteriorating control group (45%). The deteriorating patient group performed at a low IQ level for tasks that loaded highly on performance ability but a relatively high level for tasks measuring verbal skills. Verbal memory discriminated patients from controls better than IQ. Compared to controls, patients showed large selective impairments of verbal episodic memory (effect size, d=1.4) These data suggest that in first episode populations, caution should be exercised in inferring deterioration of IQ from discrepancies between reading-based and other IQ tests. Rather, sub-groups of patients and controls do show greater verbal aptitude in comparison to performance skills. Memory is generally impaired in first episode patients regardless of IQ.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.