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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamic response of CoSb2O6 trirutile-type oxides in a CO2 atmosphere at low-temperatures.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Experimental work on the synthesis of the CoSb2O6 oxide and its CO2 sensing properties is presented here. The oxide was synthesized by a microwave-assisted colloidal method in presence of ethylenediamine after calcination at 600 °C. This CoSb2O6 oxide crystallized in a tetragonal structure with cell parameters a = 4.6495 and c = 9.2763 Å, and space group P4(2)/mnm. To prove its physical, chemical and sensing properties, the oxide was subjected to a series of tests: Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and impedance (Z) measurements. Microstructures, like columns, bars and hollow hemispheres, were observed. For the CO2 sensing test, a thick film of CoSb2O6 was used, measuring the impedance variations on the presence of air/CO2 flows (0.100 sccm/0.100 sccm) using AC (alternating current) signals in the frequency-range 0.1-100 kHz and low relative temperatures (250 and 300 °C). The CO2 sensing results were quite good.
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Patience is a virtue: an argument for delayed surgical intervention in fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Recently, the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased. In cases of fulminant infection, surgery is a viable therapeutic option but associated with high mortality. We sought to examine factors associated with mortality in a large sample of patients with severe CDI that underwent surgery. A retrospective study was conducted in patients with severe CDI undergoing colectomy. Demographics, risk factors, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory data, and time between admission/diagnosis of CDI and colectomy were collected. Conventional markers of severity were evaluated as predictors of mortality. Sixty-four cases were included for analysis. The overall observed mortality rate was 45.3 per cent. Few conventional markers of severity were significantly associated with mortality. Risk factors that correlated with postsurgical mortality were vasopressor use (odds ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 9.92) and shorter time between diagnosis and surgery (median time, 2 vs 3 days, P = 0.009). This study suggests that a delay in surgery after diagnosis of severe CDI may improve overall outcomes. The finding regarding timing of surgery is contrary to traditional teaching and may be the result of improved medical treatment and stabilization before surgery. Consideration should be given to the importance of timing of colectomy in fulminant CDI, whereas prospective studies should be conducted to elucidate causal relationships.
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[Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].
Rev. Biol. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not show any disturbance effects, but the increasing economic development of Manzanillo, as one of the main commercial ports of Mexico, its proximity to the reef, and the burgeoning number of tourists, may have some ecosystem impacts, for which management and conservation plans for Colima coastline are highly recommended.
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Testing the genetic predictions of a biogeographical model in a dominant endemic Eastern Pacific coral (Porites panamensis) using a genetic seascape approach.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The coral fauna of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) is depauperate and peripheral; hence, it has drawn attention to the factors allowing its survival. Here, we use a genetic seascape approach and ecological niche modeling to unravel the environmental factors correlating with the genetic variation of Porites panamensis, a hermatypic coral endemic to the ETP. Specifically, we test if levels of diversity and connectivity are higher among abundant than among depauperate populations, as expected by a geographically relaxed version of the Abundant Center Hypothesis (rel-ACH). Unlike the original ACH, referring to a geographical center of distribution of maximal abundance, the rel-ACH refers only to a center of maximum abundance, irrespective of its geographic position. The patterns of relative abundance of P. panamensis in the Mexican Pacific revealed that northern populations from Baja California represent its center of abundance; and southern depauperate populations along the continental margin are peripheral relative to it. Genetic patterns of diversity and structure of nuclear DNA sequences (ribosomal DNA and a single copy open reading frame) and five alloenzymatic loci partially agreed with rel-ACH predictions. We found higher diversity levels in peninsular populations and significant differentiation between peninsular and continental colonies. In addition, continental populations showed higher levels of differentiation and lower connectivity than peninsular populations in the absence of isolation by distance in each region. Some discrepancies with model expectations may relate to the influence of significant habitat discontinuities in the face of limited dispersal potential. Environmental data analyses and niche modeling allowed us to identify temperature, water clarity, and substrate availability as the main factors correlating with patterns of abundance, genetic diversity, and structure, which may hold the key to the survival of P. panamensis in the face of widespread environmental degradation.
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Short communication: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV-infected populations. In resource-limited settings, vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect HIV disease progression and mortality in pregnant women, and also increases mother-to-child HIV transmission and mortality in their infants. This study sought to investigate vitamin D status in HIV-infected women compared to healthy controls in a high-income country setting and determine variables associated with vitamin D deficiency. We prospectively enrolled 40 women/infant pairs (16 HIV-infected women/HIV-exposed infant pairs and 24 uninfected/unexposed pairs). In serum cord blood, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were suboptimal (<30?ng/ml) in 100% of subjects from both groups. White race, non-Hispanic ethnicity was the only variable associated with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, especially among HIV-infected women and their infants, deserves further investigation, as it may have a negative impact on maternal and infant health.
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Dissemination of a pSCFS3-like cfr-carrying plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates recovered from hospitals in Ohio.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Nineteen linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from two medical institutions in northeast Ohio and an S. aureus cfr index strain previously collected in the same facilities during the 2007 SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program were investigated for the genetic basis of oxazolidinone resistance and the location of cfr. S. aureus isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The location of cfr was determined by Southern blotting and hybridization. Plasmid sequencing was performed using the 454 Life Sciences (Roche) GS-FLX DNA platform. The two S. aureus isolates showed unique PFGE patterns but were multilocus sequence type 5 (ST5) and spa type t002, whereas the S. aureus index strain was ST239 and t037. Southern blot and hybridization experiments showed that cfr was plasmid located and that the S. epidermidis isolates, one of the S. aureus isolates, and the S. aureus index strain shared an identical cfr-carrying plasmid (39.3 kb). Sequencing results confirmed these findings. A 10-kb fragment containing cfr showed the highest identity (99.9%) to a 9.5-kb fragment of plasmid pSCFS3 from a bovine Staphylococcus lentus isolate from Germany. In addition, these 39.3-kb plasmids from human S. epidermidis and S. aureus exhibited BglII restriction profiles very similar to that observed for plasmid pSCFS3. The cfr-carrying plasmid detected in the remaining S. aureus isolate (7.9 kb) was distinct and showed the highest identity to the chromosomal cfr integrate found in the chromosomal DNA of a Proteus vulgaris isolate from a pig in China.
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Randomized trial comparing dose reduction and growth factor supplementation for management of hematological side effects in HIV/hepatitis C virus patients receiving pegylated-interferon and ribavirin.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), current standard treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, are frequently associated with neutropenia and anemia, leading to high treatment discontinuation rates in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of intervening with hematologic growth factors versus dose reductions of standard HCV therapy for the management of treatment-induced hematologic disorders.
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[Ichthyofauna monitoring using higher taxa in Cabo Pulmo National Park, México].
Rev. Biol. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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The uses of biological indicators allow to save time, resources and staff efforts when monitoring programs are conducted. The reef fishes are among the species with biggest potential as indicators since they are conspicuous, easy to identify in the field and have ecological and economical importance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of higher taxa to predict fish ecological indices in Cabo Pulmo reef. We generated multiple stepwise regression equations with species abundance data grouped at genera and family levels as factors, and using ecological indices (H, J, delta*) as dependent variables. To test the efficiency of the models, the expected indexes were compared with those observed in the field during independent test surveys. Results showed that all models were highly significant, and the best fit occurred at genus level to H, while those used for delta*, based on family data level, were less precise. The proportion of variables required to apply prediction models of any ecological index never exceeded 41% of the total taxa (genera or families). In conclusion, the use of regression methods to determine higher taxa indicators is adequate and represents a good potential to be used in monitoring programs. In addition, the use of genera and families as indicators provide logistic benefits as training for monitors is less intense and expensive. Finally, the use of expected-observed comparisons to measure the quality of the evaluations can be useful for managers in order to interpret and communicate results of the scientific endeavors to the society, so they in turn can participate and help to improve and facilitate long-term monitoring at Cabo Pulmo National Park.
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Rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis using 16S rDNA PCR: a comparison of 3 methods.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Few studies address the utility of molecular techniques for diagnosis of infection in synovial fluid (SF). We evaluated 3 different methods using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 63 specimens for the diagnosis of joint infection. SF samples were classified as normal, inflammatory, or septic based on the patients clinical and laboratory results. Samples were analyzed by conventional PCR using primers for the bacterial 16S rDNA gene and by real-time PCR utilizing 2 different sets of primers for the target gene 16S rDNA. PCR results were compared to culture results. All inflammatory and normal SF samples were culture negative. There was concordance with 10 of the 16 septic samples by 2 of the PCR methods. When comparing 3 methods for rapid detection of septic arthritis, real-time PCR using SYBR-Green I and conventional PCR demonstrated favorable test characteristics, but need further study.
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Clinical experience in adults and children treated with intravenous peramivir for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) under an Emergency IND program in the United States.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Peramivir, an investigational intravenous neuraminidase inhibitor in Phase 3 trials for hospitalized patients, was made available during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic under the Emergency Investigational New Drug (eIND) regulations. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of all patients for whom peramivir was requested under the eIND.
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Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Difficulties in scaling up theoretical and experimental results have raised controversy over the consequences of biodiversity loss for the functioning of natural ecosystems. Using a global survey of reef fish assemblages, we show that in contrast to previous theoretical and experimental studies, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass) scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (as measured by species and functional richness) in this ecosystem. Our field study also shows a significant and negative interaction between human population density and biodiversity on ecosystem functioning (i.e., for the same human density there were larger reductions in standing biomass at more diverse reefs). Human effects were found to be related to fishing, coastal development, and land use stressors, and currently affect over 75% of the worlds coral reefs. Our results indicate that the consequences of biodiversity loss in coral reefs have been considerably underestimated based on existing knowledge and that reef fish assemblages, particularly the most diverse, are greatly vulnerable to the expansion and intensity of anthropogenic stressors in coastal areas.
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Multicity outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis associated with clonal spread of a cfr-containing strain.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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We report a multicity outbreak of cfr-containing linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in Ohio. Thirty-nine isolates were obtained from 2 hospitals. Two clones with different mechanisms of linezolid resistance were circulating in hospital A. One of these contained the cfr gene, and the other a ribosomal mutation. The clone containing cfr was identical in both hospitals.
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Host-symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral-dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally sensitive symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1(Aiptasia), genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral-algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities.
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Novel FKS mutations associated with echinocandin resistance in Candida species.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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We studied three clinical isolates of Candida spp. (one C. tropicalis isolate and two C. glabrata isolates) from patients with invasive candidiasis. The first isolate emerged during echinocandin treatment, while the others emerged after the same treatment. These strains harbored an amino acid substitution in Fksp never linked before with reduced echinocandin susceptibility in C. tropicalis or in C. glabrata. The molecular mechanism of reduced susceptibility was confirmed using a 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase inhibition assay.
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Performance measure of urinary antigen in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2010
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The Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) urinary antigen (UAg) test is a commonly used assay. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tests actual performance in the clinical setting and determine the effects of renal function, grade of bacteremia, and severity-of-illness scores on its outcome. Patients with pneumococcal bacteremia were retrospectively identified and stratified on the basis of glomerular filtration rates, number of positive blood cultures, and CURB-65 scores. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect that these 3 variables had on test outcomes. SP UAg testing was performed in 65 of 129 patients with pneumococcal bacteremia and was positive in 42 of 65 (64.5%). Impaired renal function was the only variable to have a significant effect on test outcome (P = 0.03). Test performance was less sensitive than prospective studies indicate. Patients with impaired renal function were significantly more likely to have positive UAg tests.
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Safety and outcomes of open-label deferasirox iron chelation therapy for mucormycosis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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We sought to describe the safety profile of open-label, adjunctive deferasirox iron chelation therapy in eight patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis. Deferasirox was administered for an average of 14 days (range, 7 to 21) at 5 to 20 mg/kg of body weight/day. The only adverse effects attributable to deferasirox were rashes in two patients. Deferasirox treatment was not associated with changes in renal or liver function, complete blood count, or transplant immunosuppressive levels. Thus, deferasirox appears safe as an adjunctive therapy for mucormycosis.
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In vitro activities of LTX-109, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, against methicillin-resistant, vancomycin-intermediate, vancomycin-resistant, daptomycin-nonsusceptible, and linezolid-nonsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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LTX-109 and eight other antimicrobial agents were evaluated against 155 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, including strains resistant to vancomycin and strains with decreased susceptibility to daptomycin and linezolid, by microdilution tests to determine MICs. Time-kill assays were performed against representative MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates. LTX-109 demonstrated a MIC range of 2 to 4 ?g/ml and dose-dependent rapid bactericidal activity against S. aureus. This activity was not influenced by resistance to other antistaphylococcal agents.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.