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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Who Improved in a Trauma Intervention for HIV-Positive Women with Child Sexual Abuse Histories?
Psychol Trauma
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The Healing Our Women Program, an 11-week integrated trauma/HIV intervention designed for HIV-positive women with child sexual abuse histories, has been found to reduce psychological distress in treatment groups compared to wait-list controls (Chin et al., 2004; Wyatt et al., 2011). This study examines the characteristics of participants who improved vs. those who did not improve among participants who received the active intervention (N=78) at post, three-, and six-month follow-up. Logistic regression analyses conducted post-intervention and at three- and six-month followups examined demographic characteristics, treatment attendance, AIDS diagnosis, and total trauma burden as possible predictors of improvement. Results indicated that at post-test, total trauma burden was significantly associated with improvement. At three-month follow-up, none of the variables discriminated the groups. At six-month follow-up, total trauma burden was again significantly related to improvement. The results suggest that the intervention is most appropriate for women with high trauma burdens. Future HIV interventions should go beyond the "one size fits all" approach" and consider the "fit" between intervention and participants.
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Associations between intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress symptom severity in a multiethnic sample of men with histories of childhood sexual abuse.
Violence Vict
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Little research exists identifying risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among men with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who have been exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV).
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Biopsychosocial predictors of psychological functioning among African American breast cancer survivors.
J Psychosoc Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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This study examined the relationships of biological and psychosocial predictors as contributing factors to the psychological functioning among breast cancer survivors. A sample of (N = 155) African American breast cancer survivors were recruited from California. A general linear model was utilized to examine the relationships. Biological and psychosocial risk factors were significant predictors for anxiety and depression. These predictors can be viewed as contributing factors to the psychological well-being of this cohort. Anxiety and depression are often under-recognized and subsequently undertreated in survivors. Understanding the predictors of depression and anxiety is necessary for incorporating a multidisciplinary approach to address this problem.
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[Association between psychological stress and metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].
Rev Med Chil
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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An association between psychological stress and metabolic control can occur in patients with diabetes.
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Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.
Cult Health Sex
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.
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Depression Among Black Bisexual Men With Early and Later Life Adversities.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R2 = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p < .001, and chronic stress, R2 = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p < .001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = -.154, t(111) = -2.82, p < .01, and chronic stress, b = -.019, t(111) = -3.759, p < .01. Mens early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMWs early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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A comparison of MSM stigma, HIV stigma and depression in HIV-positive Latino and African American men who have sex with men (MSM).
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Little research has examined differences in HIV stigma versus MSM stigma and the role of these stigmas in depression for HIV-positive Latino and African American men who have sex with men (MSM), subgroups disproportionately impacted by HIV in the US. MSM stigma, HIV stigma, depression, stress and social support were examined among HIV-positive Latino (n = 100) and African American (n = 99) MSM patients at five HIV clinics in Los Angeles County, California. In multiple regression models, Latino MSM had higher HIV stigma scores (p = 0.002) but lower MSM stigma scores (p < 0.001) compared to African American MSM. General support and stress were associated with HIV stigma (p < 0.001), but not MSM stigma. Both HIV stigma (p < 0.0001) and MSM stigma (p < 0.0001) were associated with depression. These data underscore the differences in experienced stigma for Latino and African American MSM and can be used to shape effective stigma reduction programs and behavioral counseling.
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Conceptualizing Health Consequences of Hurricane Katrina From the Perspective of Socioeconomic Status Decline.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Objective: The long-term health impact of acute unemployment and socioeconomic resource deficit has not been shown to be unique from the effects of stable socioeconomic status (SES) and serious life circumstances, such as trauma. This study examined associations between these acute socioeconomic declines and health of hurricane survivors, independent of prehurricane SES and hurricane trauma. Method: Participants were 215 African American adults (60% female, mean age = 39 years) living in the Greater New Orleans area at the time of Hurricane Katrina and survey 4 years later. The survey included prehurricane SES measures (i.e., education and neighborhood poverty level); acute unemployment and deficits in access to SES resources following Hurricane Katrina; and posthurricane health events (i.e., cardiometabolic events, chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]). Results: Acute unemployment was associated with odds of experiencing a cardiometabolic event (odds ratio [OR] = 5.65, p < .05), MDD (OR = 2.76, p < .05) and chronic pain (OR = 2.76, p < .05), whereas acute socioeconomic resource deficit was associated with odds of chronic pain (OR = 1.93, p < .001) and MDD (OR = 1.19, p < .05). Associations were independent of prehurricane SES, hurricane trauma, potentially chronic SES resource deficits, and current unemployment. Conclusions: This study shows that acute socioeconomic decline following a natural disaster can create long-term health disparities beyond those created by prehurricane SES level and traumatic hurricane experiences. Findings suggest that early intervention postdisaster to reduce pervasive socioeconomic disruption may reduce the long-term health impact of disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Response to citalopram is not associated with SLC6A4 genotype in African-Americans and Caucasians with major depression.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Ethnic differences in genotype frequency provide a natural condition for assessing the contribution of gene variations to the causes and treatments of disease. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether ethnic variations in allele frequencies of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) of the SLC6A4 gene were related to the response to the treatment of depression.
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Do social support, stress, disclosure and stigma influence retention in HIV care for Latino and African American men who have sex with men and women?
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Limited research has examined the role that social support, stress, stigma and HIV disclosure play in retention in HIV care for African Americans and Latinos. Among 398 Latino and African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and women, the major predictor of retention in HIV care was disclosure of HIV status to more social network members (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9). Among those who had disclosed (n = 334), female gender (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) and disclosure of HIV status to more network members (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) was associated with retention in HIV care. General stress was associated with retention in care (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.3) for African American MSM who had disclosed. More MSM-stigma was associated with poorer retention (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8, 0.9) for Latino MSM. Interventions that help patients safely disclose their HIV status to more social network members may improve HIV care retention as would social network counseling for Latino MSM to reduce MSM-stigma.
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Support and undermining in interpersonal relationships are associated with symptom improvement in a trial of antidepressant medication.
Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of chronic stress, social undermining, and social support with symptom reduction and remission in depressed patients treated with antidepressant medication (citalopram), and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by ethnicity. A sample of 301 treatment-seeking adult patients with non-psychotic depression, including 169 African American and 132 Caucasian men and women, were enrolled in an eight week, dose-escalation clinical trial. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, consistent with expectations, more baseline social support was associated with greater symptom reduction and higher likelihood of remission, especially at higher levels of social undermining. Additionally, increases in social support from baseline to last visit were associated with more symptom reduction and higher likelihood of remission. However, contrary to expectations, higher levels of baseline social undermining were associated with more symptom reduction in Caucasians, but not in African Americans. Results supported the treatment-enhancing effect of available social support at the beginning of treatment and over the course of treatment. Efforts to enhance social support for patients on antidepressants should be considered as part of comprehensive treatment.
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Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African-American and Latina women.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with histories of CSA. After controlling for nonsexual childhood adversity and adult burden (i.e., chronic stress), severe CSA overall was associated with higher depression scores, especially among Latinas who disclosed their abuse. Depression symptoms among African-American women were highest in those who disclosed and reported high levels of self-blame at the time of the incident. The link between depression and specific peri- and post-CSA factors in minority women may help guide future interventions.
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Religiosity and treatment response to antidepressant medication: A prospective multi-site clinical trial.
Ment Health Relig Cult
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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The present study examined the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and treatment response to antidepressant medication (citalopram). One-hundred and forty-eight Caucasian and African-American adults with uncomplicated major depression were treated with citalopram (20-60mg/day) over an 8-week period in a prospective multi-site clinical trial. Treatment response was assessed weekly with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Religiosity (i.e., religious behaviours) and spirituality (i.e., spiritual well-being) were assessed at Week 3. No significant associations between spirituality and treatment response were found; however, there was a strong curvilinear relationship between religiosity and treatment response. Compared to lower or higher levels of religiosity, a moderate level of religiosity was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of remission and greater reduction in severity of depression. This association was independent of social support, ethnicity, gender, education, and baseline depression severity. A moderate amount of religiosity appears to be independently associated with an enhanced treatment response to citalopram.
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Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure predict posttraumatic stress symptoms and biomarkers in ethnic minority women.
J Trauma Dissociation
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors were investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure, and other peri- and post-trauma factors.
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Social support, stress and social network characteristics among HIV-positive Latino and African American women and men who have sex with men.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Social support and stress have been poorly characterized for persons with HIV, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities. To address this gap, data on general and HIV-specific support and stress and social network characteristics were collected for 399 African American and Latino women and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles County. African American (mean = 41; SD = 17) and Latina (mean = 40; SD = 19) women reported the highest general support. Stress was also highest for Latina women (mean = 18; SD = 11) and higher compared to Latino and African American MSM. African American and Latina women reported receiving most of their social support and stress from family members, while African American and Latino MSM received their support and stress from friends and providers. Finally, Latina and African American women disclosed their HIV status to more network members and received more HIV-specific support compared to MSM. Interventions are needed to help Latino and African American MSM enhance their support networks to manage a stigmatized illness.
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Trauma and psychosocial predictors of substance abuse in women impacted by HIV/AIDS.
J Behav Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative contributions of trauma, chronic stress burden, depression, anxiety, social support, and social undermining in predicting alcohol and drug abuse, and whether ethnicity moderated these relationships. A multi-ethnic sample of 288 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women was recruited. Multiple group path analysis indicated that greater drug dependence was associated with being HIV+, more depression, and higher chronic burden. Trauma was related only to anxiety. Also, greater alcohol dependence was associated with more depression and more social undermining, and these effects were moderated by ethnicity. African American and Latina women evidenced different relationships between depression, social support and social undermining. Depression, social support and social undermining served as intervening variables in influencing the relationships between the other psychosocial variables and drug and alcohol dependence. The implications of these findings for alcohol and drug abuse research and services are discussed.
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Sources and types of social support that influence engagement in HIV care among Latinos and African Americans.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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The change in HIV from acute to chronic disease due to the introduction of HAART in the mid-1990s increased the importance of its successful management and imposed substantial lifestyle adjustments on HIV-positive people and their support networks. Few studies have examined the sources and types of social support and the areas of care relevant for engagement in HIV treatment among HIV-positive Latinos and African Americans. This paper reports the results of 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews that were conducted with HIV-positive African American and Latino women and men who have sex with men. Formal networks were found to be more critical for engagement in HIV-specific medical care; specifically, study participants relied primarily on health care providers for support in accessing and maintaining illness-specific care. In contrast, informal networks (family and friends) were crucial for other general subsistence care, such as emotional, household-related, and financial support.
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Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: a small randomized controlled trial.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time x treatment condition interaction, p=.02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. Clinical Trials Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00600561.
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Race, racism and health: disparities, mechanisms, and interventions.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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The goals of this special section are to examine the state-of-the-science regarding race/ethnicity and racism as they contribute to health disparities and to articulate a research agenda to guide future research. In the first paper, Myers presents an integrative theoretical framework for understanding how racism, poverty, and other major stressors relate to health through inter-related psychosocial and bio-behavioral pathways. Williams and Mohammed review the evidence concerning associations between racism and health, addressing the multiple levels at which racism can operate and commenting on important methodological issues. Klonoff provides a review and update of the literature concerning ethnicity-related disparities in healthcare, and addresses factors that may contribute to these disparities. Brondolo and colleagues consider racism from a stress and coping perspective, and review the literature concerning racial identity, anger coping, and social support as potential moderators of the racism-health association. Finally, Castro and colleagues describe an ecodevelopmental model that can serve as an integrative framework to examine multi-level social-cultural influences on health and health behavior. In aggregate, the special section papers address theoretical and methodological issues central to understanding the determinants of health disparities, with the aim of providing direction for future research critical to developing effective interventions to reduce these disparities.
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Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: an integrative review and conceptual model.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among ethnic groups, and the major evidence on the role of exposure to ethnicity- and SES-related stressors on health. We then offer a reciprocal and recursive lifespan meta-model that considers the interaction of ethnicity and SES history as impacting exposure to psychosocial adversities, including ethnicity-related stresses, and mediating biopsychosocial mechanisms that interact to result in hypothesized cumulative biopsychosocial vulnerabilities. Ultimately, group differences in the burden of cumulative vulnerabilities are hypothesized as contributing to differential health status over time. Suggestions are offered for future research on the unique role that ethnicity- and SES-related processes are likely to play as contributors to persistent ethnic health disparities.
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Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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To evaluate the hypothesis that poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) would be more strongly related to cognitive impairment among older than among younger HIV-seropositive adults.
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Maternal familism predicts birthweight and asthma symptoms three years later.
Soc Sci Med
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There are marked ethnic and socioeconomic differences in birthweight and childhood asthma, conditions which may be linked causally or via a third variable. Cultural resources are often credited with diminished health disparities in infancy and childhood among subsets of poor and minority populations; yet direct empirical tests of this hypothesis are needed. In this study, ethnicity, lifespan family socioeconomic position (FSEP), and the cultural resource of familism were compared as predictors of birthweight and expression of asthma symptoms (AE) by age three. Familism and lifespan FSEP were assessed in 4633 socioeconomically disadvantaged African Americans, White Americans, and Latinas upon giving birth, as was offspring birthweight. AE was assessed in offspring through age three. Asthma diagnosis by age three was likelier in very low (? 1500 g) and low (? 2500 g) birthweight infants compared to infants born at average (2501-3999 g) or larger (? 4000 g) birthweights. Asthma risk associated with lower birthweight was higher for Latinos (17-35%) and African Americans (19-23%) than for White Americans (13-14%). As predicted, maternal familism was higher among White Americans than among African Americans and Latinas, an effect that was largely driven by ethnic disparities in lifespan FSEP. Familism predicted continuous birthweight (p = .003) and AE (p = .001) by age three independently of ethnicity and lifespan FSEP accounting for appropriate control variables, including maternal biomedical risk, maternal acculturation, parental marital status, and infant sex. There was a 71-g gain in birthweight for every one-unit increase in familism. The protective effect of familism on AE by age three was strongest for participants of lower lifespan FSEP. Maternal familism is one cultural resource that may reduce reproductive and intergenerational health disparities in both U.S.- and foreign-born Americans. Consistent with our previous work, familism and other nonmaterial resources covary with material resources. Nevertheless, culture is distinguishable from lifespan FSEP and ethnicity, and has health implications beyond associations to ethnicity, lifespan FSEP, and related biomedical and sociodemographic factors.
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Differential predictors of medication adherence in HIV: findings from a sample of African American and Caucasian HIV-positive drug-using adults.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
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Modest or even occasional nonadherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in adverse clinical outcomes. African Americans demonstrate lower rates of adherence than Caucasians or Latinos. Identifying factors that influence medication adherence among African Americans is a critical step toward reducing HIV/AIDS disease progression and mortality. In a sample of 181 African American (n=144) and Caucasian (n=37) HIV-positive drug-using individuals [age (M=42.31; SD=6.6) education (M=13.41; SD=2.1)], we examined the influence of baseline drug use, literacy, neurocognition, depression, treatment-specific social support, and patient satisfaction with health care provider on medication adherence averaged over the course of 6 months (study dates 2002-2006). Our findings suggest differential baseline predictors of medication adherence for African Americans and Caucasians, such that patient satisfaction with provider was the strongest predictor of follow-up medication adherence for African Americans whereas for Caucasians depressive symptoms and treatment-specific social support were predictive of medication adherence (after controlling for duration of drug use).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.