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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparative Analysis of Protein Glycosylation Pathways in Humans and the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans.
Int J Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Protein glycosylation pathways are present in all kingdoms of life and are metabolic pathways found in all the life kingdoms. Despite sharing commonalities in their synthesis, glycans attached to glycoproteins have species-specific structures generated by the presence of different sets of enzymes and acceptor substrates in each organism. In this review, we present a comparative analysis of the main glycosylation pathways shared by humans and the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: N-linked glycosylation, O-linked mannosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorage. The knowledge of similarities and divergences between these metabolic pathways could help find new pharmacological targets for C. albicans infection.
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Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes.
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Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.
Meat Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.
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The number needed to offend: a cross-sectional study of potential offensiveness of rheumatic diagnostic labels.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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This study aims to explore the different connotations and potential offensiveness of ten mechanistic labels in newly referred Mexican patients with rheumatic symptoms as well as in Mexican and Canadian rheumatologists. Patients with musculoskeletal complaints newly referred for a rheumatology assessment were interviewed consecutively before they saw the rheumatologist. Patients were asked to choose one of nine feelings provoked by ten different illness mechanism labels. Rheumatologists gave a medical diagnosis after seeing the patients. Mexican and Canadian rheumatologists were invited to answer a structured questionnaire about their feelings at the moment they identified each of the ten different provided scenarios. Patients and rheumatologists feelings were classified as "offended" or "nonoffended." The "offensive score" was used to calculate a "number needed to offend" (NNO). One hundred and fifty patients were included. Inherited, immunological, and inflammatory labels had the fewest negative connotations (NNOs 17, 12, and 14, respectively), and psychological, functional, idiopathic, and sleep disturbance labels had the most (NNO 2 and 3, respectively). Functional labels were almost four times more offensive than organic labels. Stratified by rheumatologist diagnosis, patients with functional disorders were more accepting of organic-based mechanistic labels. A higher potential to offend was observed when patients with functional somatic conditions were given functional mechanistic labels (NNOs 1 to 4). The survey was completed by 186 Mexican rheumatologists and 71 Canadian rheumatologists. Primarily functional disorders such as somatization and anxiety had a high potential to evoke offensive feelings (NNOs 3 to 7). No significant differences in the NNO were found between Mexican and Canadian rheumatologists. Getting or giving mechanistic/explanatory labels is emotional. Both patients and rheumatologists experienced offended feelings with functional or idiopathic labels.
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The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.
Rev Iberoam Micol
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii) is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).
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Differential virulence of Candida glabrata glycosylation mutants.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The fungus Candida glabrata is an important and increasingly common pathogen of humans, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Despite this, little is known about the attributes that allow this organism to cause disease or its interaction with the host immune system. However, in common with other fungi, the cell wall of C. glabrata is the initial point of contact between the host and pathogen, and as such, it is likely to play an important role in mediating interactions and hence virulence. Here, we show both through genetic complementation and polysaccharide structural analyses that C. glabrata ANP1, MNN2, and MNN11 encode functional orthologues of the respective Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannosyltransferases. Furthermore, we show that deletion of the C. glabrata Anp1, Mnn2, and Mnn11 mannosyltransferases directly affects the structure of the fungal N-linked mannan, in line with their predicted functions, and this has implications for cell wall integrity and consequently virulence. C. glabrata anp1 and mnn2 mutants showed increased virulence, compared with wild-type (and mnn11) cells. This is in contrast to Candida albicans where inactivation of genes involved in mannan biosynthesis has usually been linked to an attenuation of virulence. In the long term, a better understanding of the attributes that allow C. glabrata to cause disease will provide insights that can be adopted for the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches.
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Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii GDA1 and functional characterization of the encoded guanosine diphosphatase activity.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Sporothrix schenckii is a fungal pathogen of humans and the etiological agent of sporotrichosis. In fungi, proper protein glycosylation is usually required for normal composition of cell wall and virulence. Upon addition of precursor oligosaccharides to nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, glycans are further modified by Golgi-glycosyl transferases. In order to add sugar residues to precursor glycans, nucleotide diphosphate sugars are imported from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen, the sugar is transferred to glycans, and the resulting nucleoside diphosphate is dephosphorylated by the nucleoside diphosphatase Gda1 before returning to cytosol. Here, we isolated the open reading frame SsGDA1 from a S. schenckii genomic DNA library. In order to confirm the function of SsGda1, we performed complementation assays in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gda1? null mutant. Our results indicated that SsGDA1 restored the nucleotide diphosphatase activity to wild-type levels and therefore is a functional ortholog of S. cerevisiae GDA1.
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Differential adaptation of Candida albicans in vivo modulates immune recognition by dectin-1.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The ?-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is a member of the C-type lectin family and functions as an innate pattern recognition receptor in antifungal immunity. In both mouse and man, Dectin-1 has been found to play an essential role in controlling infections with Candida albicans, a normally commensal fungus in man which can cause superficial mucocutaneous infections as well as life-threatening invasive diseases. Here, using in vivo models of infection, we show that the requirement for Dectin-1 in the control of systemic Candida albicans infections is fungal strain-specific; a phenotype that only becomes apparent during infection and cannot be recapitulated in vitro. Transcript analysis revealed that this differential requirement for Dectin-1 is due to variable adaptation of C. albicans strains in vivo, and that this results in substantial differences in the composition and nature of their cell walls. In particular, we established that differences in the levels of cell-wall chitin influence the role of Dectin-1, and that these effects can be modulated by antifungal drug treatment. Our results therefore provide substantial new insights into the interaction between C. albicans and the immune system and have significant implications for our understanding of susceptibility and treatment of human infections with this pathogen.
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Reporters for the analysis of N-glycosylation in Candida albicans.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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A large proportion of Candida albicans cell surface proteins are decorated post-translationally by glycosylation. Indeed N-glycosylation is critical for cell wall biogenesis in this major fungal pathogen and for its interactions with host cells. A detailed understanding of N-glycosylation will yield deeper insights into host-pathogen interactions. However, the analysis of N-glycosylation is extremely challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these structures. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce this complexity and facilitate the analysis of N-glycosylation, we have developed new synthetic C. albicans reporters that carry a single N-linked glycosylation site derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2. These glycosylation reporters, which carry C.albicans Hex1 or Sap2 signal sequences plus carboxy-terminal FLAG? and His? tags, were expressed in C.albicans from the ACT1 promoter. The reporter proteins were successfully secreted and hyperglycosylated by C.albicans cells, and their outer chain glycosylation was dependent on Och1 and Pmr1, which are required for N-mannan synthesis, but not on Mnt1 and Mnt2 which are only required for O-mannosylation. These reporters are useful tools for the experimental dissection of N-glycosylation and other related processes in C.albicans, such as secretion.
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Topology of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases SLC1 and ALE1 and related membrane-bound O-acyltransferases (MBOATs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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In yeast, phosphatidic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for all glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols, is made de novo by the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases Ale1p and Slc1p. Ale1p belongs to the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, which contains many enzymes acylating lipids but also others that acylate secretory proteins residing in the lumen of the ER. A histidine present in a very short loop between two predicted transmembrane domains is the only residue that is conserved throughout the MBOAT gene family. The yeast MBOAT proteins of known function comprise Ale1p, the ergosterol acyltransferases Are1p and Are2p, and Gup1p, the last of which acylates lysophosphatidylinositol moieties of GPI anchors on ER lumenal GPI proteins. C-terminal topology reporters added to truncated versions of Gup1p yield a topology predicting a lumenal location of its uniquely conserved histidine 447 residue. The same approach shows that Ale1p and Are2p also have the uniquely conserved histidine residing in the ER lumen. Because these data raised the possibility that phosphatidic acid could be made in the lumen of the ER, we further investigated the topology of the second yeast 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, Slc1p. The location of C-terminal topology reporters, microsomal assays probing the protease sensitivity of inserted tags, and the accessibility of natural or artificially inserted cysteines to membrane-impermeant alkylating agents all indicate that the most conserved motif containing the presumed active site histidine of Slc1p is oriented toward the ER lumen, whereas other conserved motifs are cytosolic. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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Analytical modeling for the bending resonant frequency of multilayered microresonators with variable cross-section.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Multilayered microresonators commonly use sensitive coating or piezoelectric layers for detection of mass and gas. Most of these microresonators have a variable cross-section that complicates the prediction of their fundamental resonant frequency (generally of the bending mode) through conventional analytical models. In this paper, we present an analytical model to estimate the first resonant frequency and deflection curve of single-clamped multilayered microresonators with variable cross-section. The analytical model is obtained using the Rayleigh and Macaulay methods, as well as the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Our model is applied to two multilayered microresonators with piezoelectric excitation reported in the literature. Both microresonators are composed by layers of seven different materials. The results of our analytical model agree very well with those obtained from finite element models (FEMs) and experimental data. Our analytical model can be used to determine the suitable dimensions of the microresonators layers in order to obtain a microresonator that operates at a resonant frequency necessary for a particular application.
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Sporothrix schenckii complex and sporotrichosis, an emerging health problem.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Sporothrix schenckii, now named the S. schenckii species complex, has largely been known as the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, which is an acute or chronic subcutaneous mycosis of humans and other mammals. Gene sequencing has revealed the following species in the S. schenckii complex: Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix luriei, Sporothrix mexicana and S. schenckii. The increasing number of reports of Sporothrix infection in immunocompromised patients, mainly the HIV-infected population, suggests sporotrichosis as an emerging global health problem concomitant with the AIDS pandemic. Molecular studies have demonstrated a high level of intraspecific variability. Components of the S. schenckii cell wall that act as adhesins and immunogenic inducers, such as a 70-kDa glycoprotein, are apparently specific to this fungus. The main glycan peptidorhamnomannan cell wall component is the only O-linked glycan structure known in S. schenckii. It contains an ?-mannobiose core followed by one ?-glucuronic acid unit, which may be mono- or di-rhamnosylated. The oligomeric structure of glucosamine-6-P synthase has led to a significant advance in the development of antifungals targeted to the enzymes catalytic domain in S. schenckii.
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2D-immunoblotting analysis of Sporothrix schenckii cell wall.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting (2D-immunoblotting) with anti-Sporothrix schenckii antibodies to identify antigenic proteins in cell wall preparations obtained from the mycelial and yeast-like morphologies of the fungus. Results showed that a 70-kDa glycoprotein (Gp70) was the major antigen detected in the cell wall of both morphologies and that a 60-kDa glycoprotein was present only in yeast-like cells. In addition to the Gp70, the wall from filament cells showed four proteins with molecular weights of 48, 55, 66 and 67 kDa, some of which exhibited several isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first 2D-immunoblotting analysis of the S. schenckii cell wall.
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Recognition and blocking of innate immunity cells by Candida albicans chitin.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Chitin is a skeletal cell wall polysaccharide of the inner cell wall of fungal pathogens. As yet, little about its role during fungus-host immune cell interactions is known. We show here that ultrapurified chitin from Candida albicans cell walls did not stimulate cytokine production directly but blocked the recognition of C. albicans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and murine macrophages, leading to significant reductions in cytokine production. Chitin did not affect the induction of cytokines stimulated by bacterial cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), indicating that blocking was not due to steric masking of specific receptors. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and Mincle (the macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) were not required for interactions with chitin. Dectin-1 was required for immune blocking but did not bind chitin directly. Cytokine stimulation was significantly reduced upon stimulation of PBMCs with heat-killed chitin-deficient C. albicans cells but not with live cells. Therefore, chitin is normally not exposed to cells of the innate immune system but is capable of influencing immune recognition by blocking dectin-1-mediated engagement with fungal cell walls.
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Melanin externalization in Candida albicans depends on cell wall chitin structures.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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The fungal pathogen Candida albicans produces dark-pigmented melanin after 3 to 4 days of incubation in medium containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as a substrate. Expression profiling of C. albicans revealed very few genes significantly up- or downregulated by growth in l-DOPA. We were unable to determine a possible role for melanin in the virulence of C. albicans. However, we showed that melanin was externalized from the fungal cells in the form of electron-dense melanosomes that were free or often loosely bound to the cell wall exterior. Melanin production was boosted by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the medium, indicating a possible association between melanin production and chitin synthesis. Melanin externalization was blocked in a mutant specifically disrupted in the chitin synthase-encoding gene CHS2. Melanosomes remained within the outermost cell wall layers in chs3Delta and chs2Delta chs3Delta mutants but were fully externalized in chs8Delta and chs2Delta chs8Delta mutants. All the CHS mutants synthesized dark pigment at equivalent rates from mixed membrane fractions in vitro, suggesting it was the form of chitin structure produced by the enzymes, not the enzymes themselves, that was involved in the melanin externalization process. Mutants with single and double disruptions of the chitinase genes CHT2 and CHT3 and the chitin pathway regulator ECM33 also showed impaired melanin externalization. We hypothesize that the chitin product of Chs3 forms a scaffold essential for normal externalization of melanosomes, while the Chs8 chitin product, probably produced in cell walls in greater quantity in the absence of CHS2, impedes externalization.
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Phosphorylation regulates polarisation of chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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The ability to undergo polarised cell growth is fundamental to the development of almost all walled organisms. Fungi are characterised by yeasts and moulds, and both cellular forms have been studied extensively as tractable models of cell polarity. Chitin is a hallmark component of fungal cell walls. Chitin synthesis is essential for growth, viability and rescue from many conditions that impair cell-wall integrity. In the polymorphic human pathogen Candida albicans, chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) synthesises the majority of chitin in the cell wall and is localised at the tips of growing buds and hyphae, and at the septum. An analysis of the C. albicans phospho-proteome revealed that Chs3 can be phosphorylated at Ser139. Mutation of this site showed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are required for the correct localisation and function of Chs3. The kinase Pkc1 was not required to target Chs3 to sites of polarised growth. This is the first report demonstrating an essential role for chitin synthase phosphorylation in the polarised biosynthesis of fungal cell walls and suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of this class of glycosyl-transferase enzyme.
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A biphasic innate immune MAPK response discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in epithelial cells.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Discriminating between commensal and pathogenic states of opportunistic pathogens is critical for host mucosal defense and homeostasis. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is also a constituent of the normal oral flora and grows either as yeasts or hyphae. We demonstrate that oral epithelial cells orchestrate an innate response to C. albicans via NF-?B and a biphasic MAPK response. Activation of NF-?B and the first MAPK phase, constituting c-Jun activation, is independent of morphology and due to fungal cell wall recognition. Activation of the second MAPK phase, constituting MKP1 and c-Fos activation, is dependent upon hypha formation and fungal burdens and correlates with proinflammatory responses. Such biphasic response may allow epithelial tissues to remain quiescent under low fungal burdens while responding specifically and strongly to damage-inducing hyphae when burdens increase. MAPK/MKP1/c-Fos activation may represent a "danger response" pathway that is critical for identifying and responding to the pathogenic switch of commensal microbes.
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Purification and biochemical characterisation of endoplasmic reticulum alpha1,2-mannosidase from Sporothrix schenckiil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Alpha 1,2-mannosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 47 participate in N-glycan biosynthesis. In filamentous fungi and mammalian cells, alpha1,2-mannosidases are present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex and are required to generate complex N-glycans. However, lower eukaryotes such Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain only one alpha1,2-mannosidase in the lumen of the ER and synthesise high-mannose N-glycans. Little is known about the N-glycan structure and the enzyme machinery involved in the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Here, a membrane-bound alpha-mannosidase from S. schenckii was solubilised using a high-temperature procedure and purified by conventional methods of protein isolation. Analytical zymograms revealed a polypeptide of 75 kDa to be responsible for enzyme activity and this purified protein was recognised by anti-alpha1,2-mannosidase antibodies. The enzyme hydrolysed Man(9)GlcNAc(2) into Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B and was inhibited preferentially by 1-deoxymannojirimycin. This alpha1,2-mannosidase was localised in the ER, with the catalytic domain within the lumen of this compartment. These properties are consistent with an ER-localised alpha1,2-mannosidase of glycosyl hydrolase family 47. Our results also suggested that in contrast to other filamentous fungi, S. schenckii lacks Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases and therefore, the processing of N-glycans by alpha1,2-mannosidases is similar to that present in lower eukaryotes.
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A multifunctional mannosyltransferase family in Candida albicans determines cell wall mannan structure and host-fungus interactions.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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The cell wall proteins of fungi are modified by N- and O-linked mannosylation and phosphomannosylation, resulting in changes to the physical and immunological properties of the cell. Glycosylation of cell wall proteins involves the activities of families of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-located glycosyl transferases whose activities are difficult to infer through bioinformatics. The Candida albicans MNT1/KRE2 mannosyl transferase family is represented by five members. We showed previously that Mnt1 and Mnt2 are involved in O-linked mannosylation and are required for virulence. Here, the role of C. albicans MNT3, MNT4, and MNT5 was determined by generating single and multiple MnTDelta null mutants and by functional complementation experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CaMnt3, CaMnt4, and CaMnt5 did not participate in O-linked mannosylation, but CaMnt3 and CaMnt5 had redundant activities in phosphomannosylation and were responsible for attachment of approximately half of the phosphomannan attached to N-linked mannans. CaMnt4 and CaMnt5 participated in N-mannan branching. Deletion of CaMNT3, CaMNT4, and CaMNT5 affected the growth rate and virulence of C. albicans, affected the recognition of the yeast by human monocytes and cytokine stimulation, and led to increased cell wall chitin content and exposure of beta-glucan at the cell wall surface. Therefore, the MNT1/KRE2 gene family participates in three types of protein mannosylation in C. albicans, and these modifications play vital roles in fungal cell wall structure and cell surface recognition by the innate immune system.
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Biochemical characterization of Candida albicans alpha-glucosidase I heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Protein glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications present in the eukaryotic cell. The N-linked glycosylation is a biosynthetic pathway where an oligosaccharide is added to asparagine residues within the endoplasmic reticulum. Upon addition of the N-linked glycan to nascent proteins, alpha-glucosidase I removes the outermost alpha1,2-glucose unit from the N-linked core Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2). We have previously demonstrated that the endoplasmic reticulum ?-glucosidase I is required for normal cell wall composition, and virulence of the human pathogen Candida albicans. In spite of the importance of this enzyme for normal cell biology, little is known about its structure and the amino acids participating in enzyme catalysis. Here, a DNA fragment corresponding to the 3-end fragment of C. albicans CWH41, the encoding gene for ?-glucosidase I, was expressed in a bacterial system and the recombinant peptide showed alpha-glucosidase activity, despite lacking 419 amino acids from the N-terminal end. The biochemical characterisation of the recombinant enzyme showed that presence of hydroxyl groups at carbons 3 and 6, and orientation of hydroxyl moiety at C-2 are important for glucose recognition. Additionally, results suggest that cysteine rather than histidine residues are involved in the catalysis by the recombinant enzyme.
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Protein glycosylation in Candida.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Candidiasis is a significant cause of invasive human mycosis with associated mortality rates that are equivalent to, or worse than, those cited for most cases of bacterial septicemia. As a result, considerable efforts are being made to understand how the fungus invades host cells and to identify new targets for fungal chemotherapy. This has led to an increasing interest in Candida glycobiology, with an emphasis on the identification of enzymes essential for glycoprotein and adhesion metabolism, and the role of N- and O-linked glycans in host recognition and virulence. Here, we refer to studies dealing with the identification and characterization of enzymes such as dolichol phosphate mannose synthase, dolichol phosphate glucose synthase and processing glycosidases and synthesis, structure and recognition of mannans and discuss recent findings in the context of Candida albicans pathogenesis.
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Mononuclear and polynuclear copper(II) complexes derived from pyridylalkylaminomethylphenol polypodal ligands.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Four mononuclear complexes [Cu(HL(1))Cl]PF(6).CH(3)OH (1), [Cu(HSL(1))Cl]PF(6).0.75H(2)O (2), [Cu(HL(2))Cl]PF(6).CH (3)OH (3), [Cu(HSL(2))Cl]PF(6).1.5CH(3)OH (4), and two polynuclear complexes [Cu (2)(SL(2))(2)](PF(6))(2).2CH(3)OH (5) and {Cu[Cu(SL(2))(Cl)](2)}(PF(6))(2) (6) (HL(1): 2-[(bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-amino)methyl]-4-methylphenol; HSL(1): 2-[(bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino) methyl]-4-methyl-6-(methyl-thio)phenol; HL(2): 2-[(2-pyridylmethyl)(2-pyridylethyl)-aminomethyl)]-4-methylphenol; HSL(2): 2-[(2-pyridylmethyl)(2-pyridylethyl)amino-methyl]-4-methyl-6-(methylthio)phenol were obtained and characterized. The crystal structures of the mononuclear complexes 1-4 show the copper centers in a square-base pyramidal environment with the phenolic oxygen coordinated at the axial position. Dinuclear complex 5 has two copper centers with different geometry and bridged by phenoxo oxygens; one of the copper atoms is square pyramidal while the other can be described with a highly distorted octahedral geometry with a long Cu-S distance (2.867 A). Density functional theory calculations were used to obtain the reported structure of 6, since single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were not isolated. Magnetic studies done for 5 and 6 show an antiferromagnetic behavior for 5 (J = -134 cm(-1)) and a ferromagnetic behavior for 6 (J = +11.9 cm(-1)). Redox potentials for the mononuclear complexes were measured by cyclic voltammetry; the values show the effect of the chelating ring size (-213 mV and -142 mV for Cu-HL(1) and Cu-HL(2), respectively) and the presence of the thiomethyl substituent (-213 mV and -184 mV for Cu-HL(1) and Cu-HSL(1), respectively).
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Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation of myeloid dendritic cells by Deoxynucleic acids from Candida albicans.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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The innate immune system of humans recognizes the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans via sugar polymers present in the cell wall, such as mannan and beta-glucan. Here, we examined whether nucleic acids from C. albicans activate dendritic cells. C. albicans DNA induced interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40) production and CD40 expression by murine bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells (BM-DCs) in a dose-dependent manner. BM-DCs that lacked Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and dectin-1, which are pattern recognition receptors for fungal cell wall components, produced IL-12p40 at levels comparable to the levels produced by BM-DCs from wild-type mice, and DNA from a C. albicans pmr1Delta null mutant, which has a gross defect in mannosylation, retained the ability to activate BM-DCs. This stimulatory effect disappeared completely after DNase treatment. In contrast, RNase treatment increased production of the cytokine. A similar reduction in cytokine production was observed when BM-DCs from TLR9(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were used. In a luciferase reporter assay, NF-kappaB activation was detected in TLR9-expressing HEK293T cells stimulated with C. albicans DNA. Confocal microscopic analysis showed similar localization of C. albicans DNA and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) in BM-DCs. Treatment of C. albicans DNA with methylase did not affect its ability to induce IL-12p40 synthesis, whereas the same treatment completely eliminated the ability of CpG-ODN to induce IL-12p40 synthesis. Finally, impaired clearance of this fungal pathogen was not found in the kidneys of TLR9(-/-) mice. These results suggested that C. albicans DNA activated BM-DCs through a TLR9-mediated signaling pathway using a mechanism independent of the unmethylated CpG motif.
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Loss of mannosylphosphate from Candida albicans cell wall proteins results in enhanced resistance to the inhibitory effect of a cationic antimicrobial peptide via reduced peptide binding to the cell surface.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The outermost layer of the Candida albicans cell wall is enriched with mannosylated glycoproteins. We have used a range of isogenic glycosylation mutants of C. albicans, which are defective to varying degrees in cell wall protein mannosylation, to investigate the role of the outermost layer of the yeast cell wall in mediating the fungicidal action of the cationic, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin S3(1-16) [DsS3(1-16)]. The degree of phosphomannan loss, and concomitant reduction in surface negative charge, from the series of glycosylation mutants correlated with reduced levels of peptide binding to the cells. In turn, the reduced peptide binding correlated with enhanced resistance to DsS3(1-16). To ascertain whether DsS3(1-16) binds to negatively charged phosphate, we studied the effect of exogenous glucosamine 6-phosphate, and glucosamine hydrochloride as a negative control, on the antifungal efficacy of DsS3(1-16). Glucosamine 6-phosphate retarded the efficacy of DsS3(1-16), and this was attributed to the presence of phosphate, because addition of identical concentrations of glucosamine hydrochloride had little detrimental effect on peptide efficacy. Fluorescence microscopy with DsS3(1-16) tagged with fluorescein revealed that the peptide binds to the outer surface of the yeast cell, supporting our previous conclusion that the presence of exterior phosphomannan is a major determinant of the antifungal potency of DsS3(1-16). The binding of the peptide to the cell surface was a transient event that was followed by apparent localization of DsS3(1-16) in the vacuole or dissemination throughout the entire cytosol. The presence of glucosamine 6-phosphate clearly reduced the proportion of cells in the population that showed complete cytosolic staining, implying that the binding and entry of the peptide into the cytosol is significantly reduced due to the exogenous phosphate sequestering the peptide and reducing the amount of peptide able to bind to the surface phosphomannan. In conclusion, we present evidence that an antimicrobial peptide, similar to those employed by cells of the human immune system, has evolved to recognize molecular patterns on the surface of pathogens in order to maximize efficacy.
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Bypassing pathogen-induced inflammasome activation for the regulation of interleukin-1beta production by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Interleukin (IL)-1beta has an important role in antifungal defense mechanisms. The inflammasome is thought to be required for caspase-1 activation and processing of the inactive precursor pro-IL-1beta. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways of IL-1beta production induced by Candida albicans in human monocytes.
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Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.
Meat Sci.
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Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.
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Isolation and functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii ROT2, the encoding gene for the endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II.
Fungal Biol
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The N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification in eukaryotic cells. During the N-linked glycan synthesis, the precursor Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) is processed by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glucosidases I, II and ?1,2-mannosidase, before transporting to the Golgi complex for further structure modifications. In fungi of medical relevance, as Candida albicans and Aspergillus, it is well known that ER glycosidases are important for cell fitness, cell wall organization, virulence, and interaction with the immune system. Despite this, little is known about these enzymes in Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of human sporotrichosis. This limited knowledge is due in part to the lack of a genome sequence of this organism. In this work we used degenerate primers and inverse PCR approaches to isolate the open reading frame of S. schenckii ROT2, the encoding gene for ? subunit of ER glucosidase II. This S. schenckii gene complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae rot2? mutant; however, when expressed in a C. albicans rot2? mutant, S. schenckii Rot2 partially increased the levels of ?-glucosidase activity, but failed to restore the N-linked glycosylation defect associated to the mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report where a gene involved in protein N-linked glycosylation is isolated from S. schenckii.
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Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii MNT1 and the biochemical and functional characterization of the encoded ?1,2-mannosyltransferase activity.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
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Sporothrix (Sp.) schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that infects humans and animals, and is responsible for the disease named sporotrichosis. The cell wall of this fungus has glycoproteins with a high content of mannose and rhamnose units, which are synthesized by endoplasmic reticulum- and Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases. Little is known about the enzymic machinery involved in the synthesis of these oligosaccharides in Sp. schenckii, or the genes encoding these activities. This is in part because of the lack of an available genome sequence for this organism. Using a partial genomic DNA library we identified SsMNT1, whose predicted product has significant similarity to proteins encoded by members of the Saccharomyces (Sa.) cerevisiae KRE2/MNT1 gene family. In order to biochemically characterize the putative enzyme, SsMNT1 was heterologously expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Recombinant SsMnt1 showed Mn(2+)-dependent mannosyltransferase activity and the ability to recognize as acceptors ?-methyl mannoside, mannose, Man(5)GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharide and a variety of mannobiosides. The characterization of the enzymic products generated by SsMnt1 revealed that the enzyme is an ?1,2-mannosyltransferase that adds up to two mannose residues to the acceptor molecule. Functional complementation studies were performed in Sa. cerevisiae and Candida albicans mutants lacking members of the KRE2/MNT1 gene family, demonstrating that SsMnt1 is involved in both the N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways, but not in phosphomannan elaboration.
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Interactions between macrophages and cell wall oligosaccharides of Candida albicans.
Methods Mol. Biol.
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The fungal cell wall is the armour that protects the cell from changes in the external environment. The wall of Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, is also the immediate point of contact with the host immune system and contains most of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognised by innate immune cells. Along with the use of mutants altered in cell wall composition, the isolation and purification of cell wall components has proven useful in the identification of receptors involved in the sensing of these molecules, and assessment of the relative relevance of ligand-receptor interactions during the sensing of C. albicans by the immune system. Here, we describe protocols for the isolation of cell wall chitin, N-linked and O-linked mannans from C. albicans, and how they can subsequently be used to assess immunological activities such as phagocytosis and cytokine production by myeloid cells.
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Biochemical characterization of recombinant Candida albicans mannosyltransferases Mnt1, Mnt2 and Mnt5 reveals new functions in O- and N-mannan biosynthesis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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The cell surface of Candida albicans is enriched with highly glycosylated mannoproteins that are involved in the interaction with host tissues. N- and O-glycosylation are post-translational modifications that initiate in the endoplasmic reticulum, and finalize in the Golgi. The KRE2/MNT1 family encode a set of multifunctional mannosyltransferases that participate in O-, N- and phosphomannosylation. In order to gain insights into the substrate specificities of these enzymes, recombinant forms of Mnt1, Mnt2, and Mnt5 were expressed in Pichia pastoris and the enzyme activities characterized. Mnt1 and Mnt2 showed a high specificity for ?-methylmannoside and ?1,2-mannobiose as acceptor substrates. Notably, they also used Saccharomyces cerevisiaeO-mannans as acceptors and generated products with more than three mannose residues, suggesting than Mnt1 and Mnt2 could be the mannosyltransferases adding the fourth and fifth mannose residue to the O-mannans in C. albicans. Mnt5 only recognized ?-methylmannoside as acceptor, suggesting that participates in the addition of the second mannose residues to the N-glycan outer chain.
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