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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Five-year follow-up of substantia nigra echogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra visualized by transcranial sonography occurs in most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) subjects eventually develop PD and other synucleinopathies. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether in IRBD, transcranial sonography identifies subjects who convert to PD and other synucleinopathies, and whether substantia nigra echogenic size changes with time. It was a prospective study in which 55 IRBD patients underwent transcranial sonography at baseline and were invited to follow-up after 5 years. Patients were assessed by the same experienced sonographer who was blinded to clinical data and baseline transcranial sonography results, and used the same equipment and adjustments. Twenty-one (38.2%) subjects were diagnosed with a synucleinopathy (PD in 11, dementia with Lewy bodies in nine, and multiple system atrophy in one). Sensitivity of baseline substantia nigra hyperechogenicity for the development of a synucleinopathy was 42.1%, specificity 67.7%, positive predictive value 44.4%, negative predictive value 65.6%, and relative risk 1.29. No differences were detected between the first and second examination in mean size of the substantia nigra (0.20?±?0.09 cm(2) vs. 0.19?±?0.07 cm(2) ; P?=?0.777) and in percentage of patients with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (33.3% vs. 42.8%, P?=?0.125). Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra alone is not a useful tool to identify IRBD subjects at risk for the development of PD or a synucleinopathy after 5 years of follow-up. In IRBD, transcranial sonography cannot be used to monitor the degenerative process in the substantia nigra, because echogenicity size remains stable over time. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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Correlation of dopaminergic terminal dysfunction and microstructural abnormalities of the basal ganglia and the olfactory tract in Parkinsons disease.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Signal abnormalities of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract detected either by diffusion tensor imaging, including measurements of mean diffusivity, a parameter of brain tissue integrity, and fractional anisotropy, a parameter of neuronal fibre integrity, or transcranial sonography, were recently reported in the early stages of Parkinsons disease. In this study, changes in the nigral and olfactory diffusion tensor signal, as well as nigral echogenicity, were correlated with clinical scales of motor disability, odour function and putaminal dopamine storage capacity measured with 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography in early and advanced stages of Parkinsons disease. Diffusion tensor imaging, transcranial sonography and positron emission tomography were performed on 16 patients with Parkinsons disease (mean disease duration 3.7 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to 4) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Odour function was measured by the standardized Sniffin Sticks Test. Mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa influx constant, mean nigral echogenicity, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract were identified by region of interest analysis. When compared with the healthy control group, the Parkinsons disease group showed significant signal changes in the caudate and putamen by 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa positron emission tomography, in the substantia nigra by transcranial sonography, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) and in the olfactory tract by mean diffusivity (P < 0.05). Regional mean diffusivity values of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract correlated significantly with putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake (r = -0.52, P < 0.05 and r = -0.71, P < 0.01). Significant correlations were also found between nigral mean diffusivity values and the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.48, P < 0.01) and between mean putaminal 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake and the total odour score (r = 0.58; P < 0.05) as well as the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale motor score (r = -0.53, P < 0.05). This study reports a significant association between increased mean diffusivity signal and decreased 6-[(18)F] fluorolevodopa uptake, indicating that microstructural degradation of the substantia nigra and the olfactory tract parallels progression of putaminal dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinsons disease. Since increases in nigral mean diffusivity signal also correlated with motor dysfunction, diffusion tensor imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for disease progression in future studies of putative disease modifying therapies.
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Risk factors and prodromal markers and the development of Parkinsons disease.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Identification of risk factors and prodromal markers for Parkinsons disease (PD) and the understanding of the point in time of first occurrence is essential for the early detection of incident PD. In this three-center longitudinal, observational study, we evaluated the specific risk for PD associated with single or combinations of risk factors and prodromal markers. In addition, we evaluated which risk factors and prodromal markers emerge at which time before the diagnosis of PD. Of the 1,847 at-baseline PD-free individuals ?50 years, 1,260 underwent the 5-year follow-up assessment. There were 21 cases of incident PD during the study period. Enlarged hyperechogenic substantia nigra was the most frequent baseline sign in individuals developing PD after 3 years (80.0 %) and 5 years (85.7 %) compared to healthy controls (17.5 %) followed by the occurrence of mild parkinsonian signs and hyposmia. Evaluation of the signs at the first follow-up assessment showed that individuals developing PD after two additional years showed the same pattern of signs as individuals who developed PD 3 years after baseline assessment.
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Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity as a marker for Parkinsons disease: a population-based study.
Neurodegener Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The clinical diagnosis of Parkinsons disease (PD) is currently anchored in its cardinal motor symptoms. According to hospital-based studies, an enlarged echogenicity in the area of the substantia nigra (SN) assessed with transcranial sonography (TCS) may represent a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of PD.
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Decreased striatal dopamine transporter uptake and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity as risk markers of synucleinopathy in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder: a prospective study [corrected].
Lancet Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) may develop neurodegenerative conditions associated with substantia nigra dysfunction such as Parkinsons disease. In patients with Parkinsons disease, ¹²³I-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane (¹²³I-FP-CIT) SPECT detects striatal dopamine dysfunction resulting from nigral pathology whereas transcranial sonography (TCS) shows increased substantia nigra echogenic size, even before parkinsonism is clinically evident. We postulated that these neuroimaging changes could occur in a proportion of IRBD individuals who might then be at increased risk for development of a neurodegenerative disorder associated with substantia nigra dysfunction.
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Transcranial sonography in essential tremor.
Int. Rev. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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Essential tremor (ET) is the most common adult movement disorder. Especially in early stages the clinical differentiation between essential and Parkinsonian tremor may be a diagnostic challenge. Recent studies have consistently found hyperechogenic alterations in the area of the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) using transcranial sonography (TCS). The present chapter summarizes five studies, which have been performed to investigate SN echogenicity in patients with ET compared with PD patients and healthy control subjects and also includes our own experience. All of the studies published so far have shown that hyperechogenicity of the SN is a typical finding in about 90% of patients with PD, but not in patients with ET. In ET patients, the prevalence of hyperechogenicity is in the range of healthy control subjects or slightly above, which may indicate an increased risk for PD in the subgroup of ET patients with hyperechogenicity, consistent with the increased risk for PD that has been established in ET patient cohorts. As TCS is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, it seems to be a valuable instrument in the differentiation between ET and PD. Future follow-up studies on ET patients with SN hyperechogenicity will reveal whether those with increased echosignal are indeed the ones who may develop PD later in life.
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Enlarged hyperechogenic substantia nigra is related to motor performance and olfaction in the elderly.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Enlarged substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) assessed by transcranial sonography (TCS) may be associated with Parkinsons disease (PD) risk markers such as impaired motor performance and hyposmia. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to define the association between SN+ and these risk markers in a large population older than 50 years without the diagnosis of PD. In three centers (Tuebingen, Homburg, and Innsbruck), 1,839 individuals were examined. The echostatus of the SN was assessed by TCS, motor performance by the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score, and olfactory function with Sniffin Sticks. From the 1,603 subjects included in the analysis, 16.2% were SN+, 23.0% scored above zero in the UPDRS motor section, and 28.0% were hyposmic as defined by less than 75% correctly classified Sniffin Sticks. SN+ was associated with a UPDRS motor score above zero (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08-1.96) and with a lower odor identification capability (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96). The combination of these two features (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.25-3.15) and UPDRS motor scores >or=3 lead to higher OR. It is concluded that SN+, impaired motor performance, and hyposmia are frequently observed in the elderly and in isolation are unspecific and of limited use to predict a subjects risk for PD. Whether the association of SN+ with both impaired motor performance and hyposmia as seen in this study predicts an increased risk for the development of PD needs to be evaluated in the follow-up investigations.
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Midbrain hyperechogenicity in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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Recent studies have reported an increased risk to develop Parkinsons disease (PD) in patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD). Midbrain hyperechogenicity is a common transcranial sonography (TCS) finding in PD and has been suggested as a PD risk-marker in nonparkinsonian subjects. The objective of this study is to assess midbrain echogenicity by TCS in patients with iRBD and compare the findings with the healthy controls. TCS was performed in 55 iRBD patients and in 165 age and sex-matched controls. The area of echogenicity in the SN region in the iRBD group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.001). About 19 (37.3%) of patients with iRBD were found to have SN hyperechogenicity when compared with 16 (10.7%) of the controls (P < 0.001). This is the first case-control study assessing midbrain echogenicity in a large iRBD cohort compared to age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The finding of an increased prevalence of hyperechogenicity in a subgroup of individuals with a priori increased risk for PD supports the potential role of hyperechogenicity as a risk marker for PD. The prospective follow-up of this iRBD cohort is needed to establish if those with midbrain hyperechogenicity will go on to develop clinically defined PD or not.
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Enlarged hyperechogenic substantia nigra as a risk marker for Parkinsons disease.
Mov. Disord.
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SN hyperechogenicity (SN+), determined by transcranial sonography, has been proposed as a risk factor for Parkinsons disease (PD). Recently, we reported a 17.4-fold increased risk for PD in individuals with SN+ older than 50 years within 3 years.
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Is transcranial sonography useful to distinguish scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit patients from Parkinsons disease?
Mov. Disord.
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Approximately 10% of patients clinically diagnosed with early Parkinsons disease (PD) subsequently have normal dopaminergic functional imaging. Transcranial sonography (TCS) has been shown to detect midbrain hyperechogenicity in approximately 90% of Parkinsons disease (PD) patients and 10% of the healthy population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of midbrain hyperechogenicity in patients with suspected parkinsonism and scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD), in comparison to PD patients.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.