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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effective response to cholera outbreaks.
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Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which might shed light onto the enzymatic machineries that are involved in its production of biogenic amines.
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Three-component lysine/ornithine decarboxylation system in Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Lactic acid bacteria play a pivotal role in many food fermentations and sometimes represent a health threat due to the ability of some strains to produce biogenic amines that accumulate in foods and cause trouble following ingestion. These strains carry specific enzymatic systems catalyzing the uptake of amino acid precursors (e.g., ornithine and lysine), the decarboxylation inside the cell, and the release of the resulting biogenic amines (e.g., putrescine and cadaverine). This study aimed to identify the system involved in production of cadaverine from lysine, which has not been described to date for lactic acid bacteria. Strain Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (formerly called Lactobacillus sp. 30a) produces both putrescine and cadaverine. The sequencing of its genome showed that the previously described ornithine decarboxylase gene was not associated with the gene encoding an ornithine/putrescine exchanger as in other bacteria. A new hypothetical decarboxylation system was detected in the proximity of the ornithine decarboxylase gene. It consisted of two genes encoding a putative decarboxylase sharing sequence similarities with ornithine decarboxylases and a putative amino acid transporter resembling the ornithine/putrescine exchangers. The two decarboxylases were produced in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized in vitro, whereas the transporter was heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. The overall data led to the conclusion that the two decarboxylases and the transporter form a three-component decarboxylation system, with the new decarboxylase being a specific lysine decarboxylase and the transporter catalyzing both lysine/cadaverine and ornithine/putrescine exchange. To our knowledge, this is an unprecedented observation of a bacterial three-component decarboxylation system.
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pSEUDO, a genetic integration standard for Lactococcus lactis.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Plasmid pSEUDO and derivatives were used to show that llmg_pseudo_10 in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its homologous locus in L. lactis IL1403 are suitable for chromosomal integrations. L. lactis MG1363 and IL1403 nisin-induced controlled expression (NICE) system derivatives (JP9000 and IL9000) and two general stress reporter strains (NZ9000::PhrcA-GFP and NZ9000::PgroES-GFP) enabling in vivo noninvasive monitoring of cellular fitness were constructed.
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A novel screening system for secretion of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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High-level production of secretory proteins in Bacillus subtilis leads to a stress response involving the two-component system CssRS and its target genes htrA and htrB. Here, we used this sensing system in a reporter strain in which gfp is under control of P(htrA) , the secretion stress responsive promoter of htrA. Overexpression of heterologous secretory proteins in this strain results in green fluorescent cells, which can be separated from non-secreting, low fluorescent cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Using this principle, genomic libraries of uncharacterized prokaryotic organisms, expressed in the reporter strain, can be screened for genes encoding secretory proteins.
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Characterization of the tyramine-producing pathway in Sporolactobacillus sp. P3J.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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A sporulated lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolated from cider must was shown to harbour the tdc gene encoding tyrosine decarboxylase. The isolate belonged to the Sporolactobacillus genus and may correspond to a novel species. The ability of the tdc-positive strain, Sporolactobacillus sp. strain P3J, to produce tyramine in vitro was demonstrated by using HPLC. A 7535 bp nucleotide sequence harbouring the putative tdc gene was determined. Analysis of the obtained sequence showed that four tyramine production-associated genes [tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (tyrS), tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc), tyrosine permease (tyrP) and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (nhaC)] were present and were organized as already described in other tyramine-producing LAB. This operon was surrounded by genes showing the highest identities with mobile elements: a putative phage terminase and a putative transposase (downstream and upstream, respectively), suggesting that the tyramine-forming trait was acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Transcription analyses of the tdc gene cluster suggested that tyrS and nhaC are expressed as monocistronic genes while tdc would be part of a polycistronic mRNA together with tyrP. The presence of tyrosine in the culture medium induced the expression of all genes except for tyrS. A clear correlation was observed between initial tyrosine concentration and tyramine production combined with an increase in the final pH reached by the culture. Finally, cloning and expression of the tyrP gene in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that its product catalyses the exchange of tyrosine and tyramine.
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HdcB, a novel enzyme catalysing maturation of pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylases are produced as proenzymes that mature by cleavage followed by formation of the pyruvoyl prosthetic group. The histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524 that consists of the pyruvoyl-dependent histidine decarboxylase HdcA and the histidine/histamine exchanger HdcP was functionally expressed in Lactococcus lactis. The operon encoding the pathway contains in addition to the hdcA and hdcP genes a third gene hdcB. Expression of different combinations of the genes in L. lactis and Escherichia coli followed by analysis of the protein products demonstrated the involvement of HdcB in the cleavage of the HdcA proenzyme. The HdcA proenzyme and HdcB protein were purified to homogeneity and cleavage and activation of the histidine decarboxylase activity was demonstrated in vitro. Substoichiometric amounts of HdcB were required to cleave HdcA showing that HdcB functions as an enzyme. In agreement, expression levels of HdcB in the cells were low relative to those of HdcA. The turnover number of HdcB in vitro was extremely low (0.05 min?¹) which was due to a very slow association/dissociation of the enzyme/substrate complex. In fact, HdcB was shown to co-purify both with the HdcA S82A mutant that mimics the proenzyme and with the mature HdcA complex.
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Origin of the putrescine-producing ability of the coagulase-negative bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis 2015B.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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A multiplex PCR method, aimed at the detection of genes associated with biogenic amine production, identified the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase in 1 of 15 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The ability of the positive strain, S. epidermidis 2015B, to produce putrescine in vitro was demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this strain, the odc gene was detected on plasmid DNA, suggesting that the ability to form putrescine is carried by a mobile element, which explains the fact that the trait is strain dependent within the S. epidermidis species. A 6,292-bp nucleotide sequence harboring the putative odc gene was determined. S. epidermidis ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) showed 60 to 65% sequence identity with known ODCs of Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria. Downstream of the odc gene, a gene encoding a putative amino acid transporter was found that shared 59% sequence identity with the ornithine/putrescine exchanger (PotE) of Escherichia coli. Cloning and expression of the potE gene of S. epidermis 2015B in Lactococcus lactis demonstrated that the gene product transported ornithine and putrescine into the cells and efficiently exchanged putrescine for ornithine. Analysis of the flanking regions showed high identity levels with different S. epidermidis plasmid sequences, which would confirm the plasmidic location of the odc operon. It follows that the odc and potE gene pair encodes a putrescine-producing pathway in S. epidermis 2015B that was acquired through horizontal gene transfer.
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Copper stress affects iron homeostasis by destabilizing iron-sulfur cluster formation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Copper and iron are essential elements for cellular growth. Although bacteria have to overcome limitations of these metals by affine and selective uptake, excessive amounts of both metals are toxic for the cells. Here we investigated the influences of copper stress on iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis, and we present evidence that copper excess leads to imbalances of intracellular iron metabolism by disturbing assembly of iron-sulfur cofactors. Connections between copper and iron homeostasis were initially observed in microarray studies showing upregulation of Fur-dependent genes under conditions of copper excess. This effect was found to be relieved in a csoR mutant showing constitutive copper efflux. In contrast, stronger Fur-dependent gene induction was found in a copper efflux-deficient copA mutant. A significant induction of the PerR regulon was not observed under copper stress, indicating that oxidative stress did not play a major role under these conditions. Intracellular iron and copper quantification revealed that the total iron content was stable during different states of copper excess or efflux and hence that global iron limitation did not account for copper-dependent Fur derepression. Strikingly, the microarray data for copper stress revealed a broad effect on the expression of genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (suf genes) and associated pathways such as cysteine biosynthesis and genes coding for iron-sulfur cluster proteins. Since these effects suggested an interaction of copper and iron-sulfur cluster maturation, a mutant with a conditional mutation of sufU, encoding the essential iron-sulfur scaffold protein in B. subtilis, was assayed for copper sensitivity, and its growth was found to be highly susceptible to copper stress. Further, different intracellular levels of SufU were found to influence the strength of Fur-dependent gene expression. By investigating the influence of copper on cluster-loaded SufU in vitro, Cu(I) was found to destabilize the scaffolded cluster at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, by interfering with iron-sulfur cluster formation, copper stress leads to enhanced expression of cluster scaffold and target proteins as well as iron and sulfur acquisition pathways, suggesting a possible feedback strategy to reestablish cluster biogenesis.
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Copper acquisition is mediated by YcnJ and regulated by YcnK and CsoR in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Copper is an essential cofactor for many enzymes, and at over a threshold level, it is toxic for all organisms. To understand the mechanisms underlying copper homeostasis of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, we have performed microarray studies under copper-limiting conditions. These studies revealed that the ycnJ gene encodes a protein that plays an important role in copper metabolism, as it shows a significant, eightfold upregulation under copper-limiting conditions and its disruption causes a growth-defective phenotype under copper deprivation as well as a reduced intracellular content of copper. Native gel shift experiments with the periplasmic N-terminal domain of the YcnJ membrane protein (135 residues) disclosed its strong affinity to Cu(II) ions in vitro. Inspection of the upstream sequence of ycnJ revealed that the ycnK gene encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, whose deletion caused an elevated expression of ycnJ, especially under conditions of copper excess. Further studies demonstrated that the recently identified copper efflux regulator CsoR also is involved in the regulation of ycnJ expression, leading to a new model for copper homeostasis in B. subtilis.
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Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of secondary amino acid transporters of Lactococcus lactis.
J. Bacteriol.
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Fourteen genes encoding putative secondary amino acid transporters were identified in the genomes of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains MG1363 and SK11 and L. lactis subsp. lactis strains IL1403 and KF147, 12 of which were common to all four strains. Amino acid uptake in L. lactis cells overexpressing the genes revealed transporters specific for histidine, lysine, arginine, agmatine, putrescine, aromatic amino acids, acidic amino acids, serine, and branched-chain amino acids. Substrate specificities were demonstrated by inhibition profiles determined in the presence of excesses of the other amino acids. Four knockout mutants, lacking the lysine transporter LysP, the histidine transporter HisP (formerly LysQ), the acidic amino acid transporter AcaP (YlcA), or the aromatic amino acid transporter FywP (YsjA), were constructed. The LysP, HisP, and FywP deletion mutants showed drastically decreased rates of uptake of the corresponding substrates at low concentrations. The same was observed for the AcaP mutant with aspartate but not with glutamate. In rich M17 medium, the deletion of none of the transporters affected growth. In contrast, the deletion of the HisP, AcaP, and FywP transporters did affect growth in a defined medium with free amino acids as the sole amino acid source. HisP was essential at low histidine concentrations, and AcaP was essential in the absence of glutamine. FywP appeared to play a role in retaining intracellularly synthesized aromatic amino acids when these were not added to the medium. Finally, HisP, AcaP, and FywP did not play a role in the excretion of accumulated histidine, glutamate, or phenylalanine, respectively, indicating the involvement of other transporters.
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Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins.
Microb. Cell Fact.
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Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large fermentations. However, production of heterologous proteins still faces limitations.
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Regulation of ykrL (htpX) by Rok and YkrK, a novel type of regulator in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.
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Expression of ykrL of Bacillus subtilis, encoding a close homologue of the Escherichia coli membrane protein quality control protease HtpX, was shown to be upregulated under membrane protein overproduction stress. Using DNA affinity chromatography, two proteins were found to bind to the promoter region of ykrL: Rok, known as a repressor of competence and genes for extracytoplasmic functions, and YkrK, a novel type of regulator encoded by the gene adjacent to ykrL but divergently transcribed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed Rok and YkrK binding to the ykrL promoter region as well as YkrK binding to the ykrK promoter region. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the ykrL promoter regions in related Bacillus species revealed a consensus motif, which was demonstrated to be the binding site of YkrK. Deletion of rok and ykrK in a PykrL-gfp reporter strain showed that both proteins are repressors of ykrL expression. In addition, conditions which activated PykrL (membrane protein overproduction, dissipation of the membrane potential, and salt and phenol stress) point to the involvement of YkrL in membrane protein quality control.
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Improved acid stress survival of Lactococcus lactis expressing the histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Degradative amino acid decarboxylation pathways in bacteria generate secondary metabolic energy and provide resistance against acid stress. The histidine decarboxylation pathway of Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC1524 was functionally expressed in the heterologous host Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, and the benefits of the newly acquired pathway for the host were analyzed. During growth in M17 medium in the pH range of 5-6.5, a small positive effect was observed on the biomass yield in batch culture, whereas no growth rate enhancement was evident. In contrast, a strong benefit for the engineered L. lactis strain was observed in acid stress survival. In the presence of histidine, the pathway enabled cells to survive at pH values as low as 3 for at least 2 h, conditions under which the host cells were rapidly dying. The flux through the histidine decarboxylation pathway in cells grown at physiological pH was under strict control of the electrochemical proton gradient (pmf) across the membrane. Ionophores that dissipated the membrane potential (??) and/or the pH gradient (?pH) strongly increased the flux, whereas the presence of glucose almost completely inhibited the flux. Control of the pmf over the flux was exerted by both ?? and ?pH and was distributed over the transporter HdcP and the decarboxylase HdcA. The control allowed for a synergistic effect between the histidine decarboxylation and glycolytic pathways in acid stress survival. In a narrow pH range around 2.5 the synergism resulted in a 10-fold higher survival rate.
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Evidence of two functionally distinct ornithine decarboxylation systems in lactic acid bacteria.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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Biogenic amines are low-molecular-weight organic bases whose presence in food can result in health problems. The biosynthesis of biogenic amines in fermented foods mostly proceeds through amino acid decarboxylation carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but not all systems leading to biogenic amine production by LAB have been thoroughly characterized. Here, putative ornithine decarboxylation pathways consisting of a putative ornithine decarboxylase and an amino acid transporter were identified in LAB by strain collection screening and database searches. The decarboxylases were produced in heterologous hosts and purified and characterized in vitro, whereas transporters were heterologously expressed in Lactococcus lactis and functionally characterized in vivo. Amino acid decarboxylation by whole cells of the original hosts was determined as well. We concluded that two distinct types of ornithine decarboxylation systems exist in LAB. One is composed of an ornithine decarboxylase coupled to an ornithine/putrescine transmembrane exchanger. Their combined activities results in the extracellular release of putrescine. This typical amino acid decarboxylation system is present in only a few LAB strains and may contribute to metabolic energy production and/or pH homeostasis. The second system is widespread among LAB. It is composed of a decarboxylase active on ornithine and l-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and a transporter that mediates unidirectional transport of ornithine into the cytoplasm. Diamines that result from this second system are retained within the cytosol.
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