Biochar has significant potential to improve crop performance. This study examined the effect of biochar application on the photosynthesis and yield of peanut crop grown on two soil types. The commercial peanut cultivar Middleton was grown on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol (Queensland, Australia) amended with a peanut shell biochar gradient (0, 0.375, 0.750, 1.50, 3.00 and 6.00 %, w/w, equivalent up to 85 t ha(-1)) in a glasshouse pot experiment. Biomass and pod yield, photosynthesis-[CO2] response parameters, leaf characteristics and soil properties (carbon, nitrogen (N) and nutrients) were quantified. Biochar significantly improved peanut biomass and pod yield up to 2- and 3-folds respectively in red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. A modest (but significant) biochar-induced improvement of the maximum electron transport rate and saturating photosynthetic rate was observed for red ferrosol. This response was correlated to increased leaf N and accompanied with improved soil available N and biological N fixation. Biochar application also improved the availability of other soil nutrients, which appeared critical in improving peanut performance, especially on infertile redoxi-hydrosol. Our study suggests that application of peanut shell derived biochar has strong potential to improve peanut yield on red ferrosol and redoxi-hydrosol. Biochar soil amendment can affect leaf N status and photosynthesis, but the effect varied with soil type.
Seven flavanones were identified from kino exudate of Corymbia torelliana by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR and UPLC-HR-MS. The study identified seven molecules, namely 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (1), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanone (2), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone (3), 3,4',5-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4), (+)-(2S)-4',5,7-trihydroxy-6-methylflavanone (5), 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (6) and 4',5-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (7) from this eucalypt species. This is the first report of these natural products from C. torelliana kino exudate.
Parastomal hernia is a common complication of ileal conduit formation. Mesh repair of parastomal hernia has lower rate of recurrence than nonmesh techniques but can be time-consuming to perform. The stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique (SMART) is a novel method of rapidly constructing a reinforced stapled stoma. We report the first case utilising this technique in a urologic context. The procedure was performed on a middle-aged female with recurrent parastomal hernia of her ileal conduit. There were no perioperative complications. The resited stoma remained healthy and functioned normally. Longer term data is clearly desirable though this technique deserves consideration in the treatment of urologic parastomal hernias. This case demonstrates that SMART is an easy and convenient procedure for parastomal hernia repair.
This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar ?(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant ?(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant ?(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant ?(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.
Biodiverse environments provide a variety of resources that can be exploited by consumers. While many studies revealed a positive correlation between biodiversity and consumer biomass and richness, only few studies have investigated how resource diversity affects single consumers. To better understand whether a single consumer species benefits from diverse resources, we tested how the protective function of a defensive plant resource (i.e. resin exploited by social bees) varied among different sources and target organisms (predators, parasites and pathogens). To assess synergistic effects, resins from different plant genera were tested separately and in combination. We found that resin diversity is beneficial for bees, with its functional properties depending on the target organisms, type and composition of resin. Different resins showed different effects, and mixtures were more effective than some of the single resins (functional complementarity). We conclude that resins of different plant species target different organisms and act synergistically where combined. Bees that rely on resin for protection benefit more when they have access to diverse resin sources. Loss of biodiversity may in turn destabilize consumer populations due to restricted access to a variety of resources.
Kernel brown centres in macadamia are a defect causing internal discolouration of kernels. This study investigates the effect on the incidence of brown centres in raw kernel after maintaining high moisture content in macadamia nuts-in-shell stored at temperatures of 30°C, 35°C, 40°C and 45°C.
Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 ?g/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+) in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.
Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colonys health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee (Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC?? 19.97 ± 2.67 ?g/ml, mean ± SEM, n?=?4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC?? 12.78 ± 1.82 ?g/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC?? 5.90 ± 0.62 g/ml) or gallic acid (IC?? 5.62 ± 0.35 ?g/ml, P < 0.001). These findings warrant further investigation of the ecological and medicinal properties of this stingless bee cerumen, which may herald a commercial potential for the Australian beekeeping industry.
Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.
Macadamia nuts (nuts-in-shell) are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage.
Macadamia integrifolia, Macadamia tetraphylla and their hybrids are cultivated for their edible kernels. After harvest, nuts-in-shell are partially dried on-farm and sorted to eliminate poor-quality kernels before consignment to a processor. During these operations, kernel quality may be lost. In this study, macadamia nuts-in-shell were sampled at five points of an on-farm postharvest handling chain from dehusking to the final storage silo to assess quality loss prior to consignment. Shoulder damage, weight of pieces and unsound kernel were assessed for raw kernels, and colour, mottled colour and surface damage for roasted kernels.
Previous studies in the mouse have shown that high levels of alpha-globin gene expression in late erythropoiesis depend on long-range, physical interactions between remote upstream regulatory elements and the globin promoters. Using quantitative chromosome conformation capture (q3C), we have now analyzed all interactions between 4 such elements lying 10 to 50 kb upstream of the human alpha cluster and their interactions with the alpha-globin promoter. All of these elements interact with the alpha-globin gene in an erythroid-specific manner. These results were confirmed in a mouse model of human alpha globin expression in which the human cluster replaces the mouse cluster in situ (humanized mouse). We have also shown that expression and all of the long-range interactions depend largely on just one of these elements; removal of the previously characterized major regulatory element (called HS -40) results in loss of all the interactions and alpha-globin expression. Reinsertion of this element at an ectopic location restores both expression and the intralocus interactions. In contrast to other more complex systems involving multiple upstream elements and promoters, analysis of the human alpha-globin cluster during erythropoiesis provides a simple and tractable model to understand the mechanisms underlying long-range gene regulation.
This report is of a round-table discussion held in Cardiff in September 2009 for Cesagen, a research centre within the Genomics Network of the UKs Economic and Social Research Council. The meeting was arranged to explore ideas as to the likely future course of human genomics. The achievements of genomics research were reviewed, and the likely constraints on the pace of future progress were explored. New knowledge is transforming biology and our understanding of evolution and human disease. The difficulties we face now concern the interpretation rather than the generation of new sequence data. Our understanding of gene-environment interaction is held back by our current primitive tools for measuring environmental factors, and in addition, there may be fundamental constraints on what can be known about these complex interactions.
Corymbia species from different sections hybridize readily, with some of increasing economic importance to plantation forestry. This study explores the locations of reproductive barriers between interspecific Corymbia hybrids and investigates the reproductive success of a wide taxonomic range of C. torelliana hybrid crosses.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.