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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Attention-based classification pattern, a research domain criteria framework, in youths with bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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The National Institute of Mental Health has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. Instead of using disorder categories as the basis for grouping individuals, the RDoC suggests finding relevant dimensions that can cut across traditional disorders. Our aim was to use the RDoC's framework to study patterns of attention deficit based on results of Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT II) in youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), BD+ADHD and controls.
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Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD.
Dongmei Yu, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf, Benjamin M Neale, Lea K Davis, Eric R Gamazon, Eske M Derks, Patrick Evans, Christopher K Edlund, Jacquelyn Crane, Jesen A Fagerness, Lisa Osiecki, Patience Gallagher, Gloria Gerber, Stephen Haddad, Cornelia Illmann, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine Mayerfeld, Sampath Arepalli, Cristina Barlassina, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, Gabriel Bedoya Berrió, O Joseph Bienvenu, Donald W Black, Michael H Bloch, Helena Brentani, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Desmond D Campbell, Carolina Cappi, Julio C Cardona Silgado, Maria C Cavallini, Denise A Chavira, Sylvain Chouinard, Edwin H Cook, M R Cookson, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette Cullen, Daniele Cusi, Richard Delorme, Damiaan Denys, Yves Dion, Valsama Eapen, Karin Egberts, Peter Falkai, Thomas Fernandez, Eduardo Fournier, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Donald Gilbert, Simon L Girard, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Edna Grünblatt, John Hardy, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Luis D Herrera, Dianne M Hezel, Pieter J Hoekstra, Joseph Jankovic, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Anuar I Konkashbaev, Barbara Kremeyer, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Chunyu Liu, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Sara Lupoli, Fabio Macciardi, Wolfgang Maier, Paolo Manunta, Maurizio Marconi, James T McCracken, Sandra C Mesa Restrepo, Rainald Moessner, Priya Moorjani, Jubel Morgan, Heike Muller, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, Erika Nurmi, William Cornejo Ochoa, Roel A Ophoff, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Scott L Rauch, Tobias Renner, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark A Riddle, Mary M Robertson, Roxana Romero, Maria C Rosário, David Rosenberg, Stephan Ruhrmann, Chiara Sabatti, Erika Salvi, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Susan K Service, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, Eric Strengman, Jay A Tischfield, Maurizio Turiel, Ana V Valencia Duarte, Homero Vallada, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Mike Weale, Robert Weiss, Jens R Wendland, Herman G M Westenberg, Yin Yao Shugart, Ana G Hounie, Euripedes C Miguel, Humberto Nicolini, Michael Wagner, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Danielle C Cath, William McMahon, Danielle Posthuma, Ben A Oostra, Gerald Nestadt, Guy A Rouleau, Shaun Purcell, Michael A Jenike, Peter Heutink, Gregory L Hanna, David V Conti, Paul D Arnold, Nelson B Freimer, S Evelyn Stewart, James A Knowles, Nancy J Cox, David L Pauls.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD.
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Genome-wide DNA methylation profile of leukocytes from melanoma patients with and without CDKN2A mutations.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, accounting for up to 75% of skin cancer deaths. A small proportion of melanoma cases can be ascribed to the presence of highly penetrant germline mutations, and approximately 40% of hereditary melanoma cases are caused by CDKN2A mutations. The current study sought to investigate whether the presence of germline CDKN2A mutations or the occurrence of cutaneous melanoma would result in constitutive genome-wide DNA methylation changes. The leukocyte methylomes of two groups of melanoma patients (those with germline CDKN2A mutations and those without CDKN2A mutations) were analyzed together with the profile of a control group of individuals. A pattern of DNA hypomethylation was detected in the CDKN2A-negative patients relative to both CDKN2A-mutated patients and controls. Additionally, we delineated a panel of 90 CpG sites that were differentially methylated in CDKN2A-mutated patients relative to controls. Although we identified a possible constitutive epigenetic signature in CDKN2A-mutated patients, the occurrence of reported SNPs at the detected CpG sites complicated the data interpretation. Thus, further studies are required to elucidate the impact of these findings on melanoma predisposition and their possible effect on the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations.
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Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4), lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3) and bone marrow (BM, n = 4) obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01). Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF) and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF). Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs.
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Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.
Lauren M McGrath, Dongmei Yu, Christian Marshall, Lea K Davis, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Bingbin Li, Carolina Cappi, Gloria Gerber, Aaron Wolf, Frederick A Schroeder, Lisa Osiecki, Colm O'Dushlaine, Andrew Kirby, Cornelia Illmann, Stephen Haddad, Patience Gallagher, Jesen A Fagerness, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, O Joseph Bienvenu, Donald W Black, Michael H Bloch, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Danielle C Cath, Maria C Cavallini, Sylvain Chouinard, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette Cullen, Richard Delorme, Damiaan Denys, Eske M Derks, Yves Dion, Maria C Rosário, Valsama Eapen, Patrick Evans, Peter Falkai, Thomas V Fernandez, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Edna Grünblatt, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Luis D Herrera, Ana G Hounie, Joseph Jankovic, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Gholson J Lyon, Fabio Macciardi, Wolfgang Maier, James T McCracken, William McMahon, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, Benjamin M Neale, Erika Nurmi, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark Riddle, Mary M Robertson, David Rosenberg, Guy A Rouleau, Stephan Ruhrmann, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, Jay A Tischfield, Homero Vallada, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Jens R Wendland, Yin Yao Shugart, Euripedes C Miguel, Humberto Nicolini, Ben A Oostra, Rainald Moessner, Michael Wagner, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Peter Heutink, Gerald Nestadt, Nelson Freimer, Tracey Petryshen, Danielle Posthuma, Michael A Jenike, Nancy J Cox, Gregory L Hanna, Helena Brentani, Stephen W Scherer, Paul D Arnold, S Evelyn Stewart, Carol A Mathews, James A Knowles, Edwin H Cook, David L Pauls, Kai Wang, Jeremiah M Scharf.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date.
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An inherited small microdeletion at 15q13.3 in a patient with early- onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Copy number variations (CNVs) have been previously associated with several different neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study consisted of a pilot genome-wide screen for CNVs in a cohort of 16 patients with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 12 mentally healthy individuals, using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on 44K arrays. A small rare paternal inherited microdeletion (?64 kb) was identified in chromosome 15q13.3 of one male patient with very early onset OCD. The father did not have OCD. The deletion encompassed part of the FMN1 gene, which is involved with the glutamatergic system. This finding supports the hypothesis of a complex network of several genes expressed in the brain contributing for the genetic risk of OCD, and also supports the glutamatergic involvement in OCD, which has been previously reported in the literature.
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MicroRNAs discriminate familial from sporadic non-BRCA1/2 breast carcinoma arising in patients ?35 years.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The influence of genetic factors may contribute to the poor prognosis of breast cancer (BC) at a very young age. However BRCA1/2 mutations could not explain the majority of cases arising in these patients. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in biological processes associated with BC. Therefore, we investigated differences in miRs expression between tumors from young patients (?35 years) with sporadic or familial history and non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Thirty-six young Brazilian patients were divided into 2 groups: sporadic (NF-BC) or familial breast cancer (F-BC). Most of the samples were classified as luminal A and B and the frequency of subtypes did not differ between familial or sporadic cases. Using real time qPCR and discriminant function analysis, we identified 9 miRs whose expression levels rather than miR identity can discriminate between both patient groups. Candidate predicted targets were determined by combining results from miRWalk algorithms with mRNA expression profiles (n?=?91 differently expressed genes). MiR/mRNA integrated analysis identified 91 candidate genes showing positive or negative correlation to at least 1 of the 9 miRs. Co-expression analysis of these genes with 9 miRs indicated that 49 differentially co-expressed miR-gene interactions changes in F-BC tumors as compared to those of NF-BC tumors. Out of 49, 17 (34.6%) of predicted miR-gene interactions showed an inverse correlation suggesting that miRs act as post-transcriptional regulators, whereas 14 (28.6%) miR-gene pairs tended to be co-expressed in the same direction indicating that the effects exerted by these miRs pointed to a complex level of target regulation. The remaining 18 pairs were not predicted by our criteria suggesting involvement of other regulators. MiR-mRNA co-expression analysis allowed us to identify changes in the miR-mRNA regulation that were able to distinguish tumors from familial and sporadic young BC patients non-carriers of BRCA mutations.
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Repair of oxidative DNA damage, cell-cycle regulation and neuronal death may influence the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline associated with a featured neuropathology (neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles). Several studies have implicated oxidative damage to DNA, DNA repair, and altered cell-cycle regulation in addition to cell death in AD post-mitotic neurons. However, there is a lack of studies that systematically assess those biological processes in patients with AD neuropathology but with no evidence of cognitive impairment. We evaluated markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG, H2AX), DNA repair (p53, BRCA1, PTEN), and cell-cycle (Cdk1, Cdk4, Cdk5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, p27Kip1, phospho-Rb and E2F1) through immunohistochemistry and cell death through TUNEL in autopsy hippocampal tissue samples arrayed in a tissue microarray (TMA) composed of three groups: I) "clinical-pathological AD" (CP-AD)--subjects with neuropathological AD (Braak ? IV and CERAD = B or C) and clinical dementia (CDR ? 2, IQCODE>3.8); II) "pathological AD" (P-AD)--subjects with neuropathological AD (Braak ? IV and CERAD = B or C) and without cognitive impairment (CDR 0, IQCODE<3.2); and III) "normal aging" (N)--subjects without neuropathological AD (Braak ? II and CERAD 0 or A) and with normal cognitive function (CDR 0, IQCODE<3.2). Our results show that high levels of oxidative DNA damage are present in all groups. However, significant reductions in DNA repair and cell-cycle inhibition markers and increases in cell-cycle progression and cell death markers in subjects with CP-AD were detected when compared to both P-AD and N groups, whereas there were no significant differences in the studied markers between P-AD individuals and N subjects. This study indicates that, even in the setting of pathological AD, healthy cognition may be associated with a preserved repair to DNA damage, cell-cycle regulation, and cell death in post-mitotic neurons.
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Estrogen-responsive genes overlap with triiodothyronine-responsive genes in a breast carcinoma cell line.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been well established that estrogen plays an important role in the progression and treatment of breast cancer. However, the role of triiodothyronine (T?) remains controversial. We have previously shown its capacity to stimulate the development of positive estrogen receptor breast carcinoma, induce the expression of genes (PR, TGF-alpha) normally stimulated by estradiol (E?), and suppress genes (TGF-beta) normally inhibited by E?. Since T? regulates growth hormones, metabolism, and differentiation, it is important to verify its action on other genes normally induced by E?. Therefore, we used DNA microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells treated with E? and T?. Several genes were modulated by both E? and T? in MCF-7 cells (Student's t-test, P < 0.05). Specifically, we found eight genes that were differentially expressed after treatment with both E? and T?, including amphiregulin, fibulin 1, claudin 6, pericentriolar material 1, premature ovarian failure 1B, factor for adipocyte differentiation-104, sterile alpha motif domain containing 9, and likely ortholog of rat vacuole membrane protein 1 (fold change > 2.0, pFDR < 0.05). We confirmed our microarray results by real-time PCR. Our findings reveal that certain genes in MCF-7 cells can be regulated by both E? and T?.
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Autism spectrum disorders: an overview on diagnosis and treatment.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Pervasive developmental disorders are now commonly referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs present with a range of severity and impairments, and often are a cause of severe disability, representing a major public health concern. The diagnostic criteria require delays or abnormal functioning in social interaction, language, and/or imaginative play within the first 3 years of life, resulting in a deviation from the developmental pattern expected for the age. Because establishing a diagnosis of ASD is possible as early as 18-24 months of age, clinicians should strive to identify and begin intervention in children with ASD as soon as signs are manifest. Increasing efforts are underway to make ASD screening universal in pediatric healthcare. Given the crucial importance of early identification and multiple modalities of treatment for ASD, this review will summarize the diagnostic criteria, key areas for assessment by clinicians, specific scales and instruments for assessment, and discussion of evidence-based treatment programs and the role of specific drug therapies for symptom management.
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TWIST1 is a molecular marker for a poor prognosis in oral cancer and represents a potential therapeutic target.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Locoregional recurrence and distant metastases are ominous events in patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to identify functional biomarkers that are predictive of OSCC progression to metastasis.
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Breast cancer tissue slices as a model for evaluation of response to rapamycin.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Rapamycin is a selective inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a regulator kinase that integrates growth factors signaling via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway and that has emerged as a novel therapeutic modality in breast cancer (BC). We propose a pre-clinical "ex-vivo" personalized organotypic culture of BC that preserves the microenvironment to evaluate rapamycin-mediated gene expression changes. Freshly excised ductal invasive BC slices, 400 ?m thick (n=30), were cultured in the presence or absence (control) of rapamycin (20 nM) for 24 h. Some slices were formalin-fixed for immunohistochemical determinations and some were processed for microarray analysis. Control slices in culture retained their tissue morphology and tissue viability (detected by BrdU uptake). The percentage of proliferating cells (assessed by Ki67) did not change up to 24 h of treatment. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4EBP1 and p-S6K1 indicated that AKT/mTOR pathway activation was maintained during cultivation. For microarray analysis, slices were divided into two groups, according to the presence/absence of epidermal growth factor receptor-type 2 and analyzed separately. Limited overlap was seen among differentially expressed genes after treatment (P<0.01) in both groups suggesting different responses to rapamycin between these BC subtypes. Ontology analysis indicated that genes involved in biosynthetic processes were commonly reduced by rapamycin. Our network analysis suggested that concerted expression of these genes might distinguish controls from treated slices. Thus, breast carcinoma slices constitute a suitable physiological tool to evaluate the short-term effects of rapamycin on the gene profile of individual BC samples.
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HOXB7 mRNA is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and its knockdown induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Human homeobox genes encode nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors involved in the control of differentiation and proliferation. Currently, the role of these genes in development and tumor progression has been extensively studied. Recently, increased expression of HOXB7 homeobox gene (HOXB7) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) was shown to correlate with an invasive phenotype, lymph node metastasis and worse survival outcomes, but no influence on cell proliferation or viability was detected. In the present study, the effects arising from the knockdown of HOXB7 in PDAC cell lines was investigated.
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Comprehensive analysis of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutation and tumor characterization: a portrait of early-onset breast cancer in Brazil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 genes have been identified as one of the most important disease-causing issues in young breast cancer patients worldwide. The specific defective biological processes that trigger germline mutation-associated and -negative tumors remain unclear. To delineate an initial portrait of Brazilian early-onset breast cancer, we performed an investigation combining both germline and tumor analysis. Germline screening of the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (c.1100delC) and TP53 genes was performed in 54 unrelated patients <35 y; their tumors were investigated with respect to transcriptional and genomic profiles as well as hormonal receptors and HER2 expression/amplification. Germline mutations were detected in 12 out of 54 patients (22%) [7 in BRCA1 (13%), 4 in BRCA2 (7%) and one in TP53 (2%) gene]. A cancer familial history was present in 31.4% of the unrelated patients, from them 43.7% were carriers for germline mutation (37.5% in BRCA1 and in 6.2% in the BRCA2 genes). Fifty percent of the unrelated patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors carried BRCA1 mutations, percentage increasing to 83% in cases with familial history of cancer. Over-representation of DNA damage-, cellular and cell cycle-related processes was detected in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-associated tumors, whereas cell and embryo development-related processes were over-represented in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-negative tumors, suggesting distinct mechanisms driving the tumorigenesis. An initial portrait of the early-onset breast cancer patients in Brazil was generated pointing out that hormone receptor-negative tumors and positive familial history are two major risk factors for detection of a BRCA1 germline mutation. Additionally, the data revealed molecular factors that potentially trigger the tumor development in young patients.
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TNF-alpha and melphalan modulate a specific group of early expressed genes in a murine melanoma model.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Cutaneous melanoma displays high morbidity and mortality rates. Isolated limb perfusion with melphalan (Mel) is used for the treatment of non-resectable, locally advanced extremity melanomas. When combined with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) treatment, the complete response varies between 70% and 90%. The mechanisms underlying the effects of Mel and TNF-alpha are not completely understood. We evaluated the impact of systemic Mel and TNF-alpha administration on tumor growth, analyzed the morphological changes promoted by each treatment, and identified early expressed genes in response to Mel and TNF-alpha treatment, either alone or in combination, in a murine melanoma model.
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Detecting dissonance in clinical and research workflow for translational psychiatric registries.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective.
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Gene expression profile in response to doxorubicin-rapamycin combined treatment of HER-2-overexpressing human mammary epithelial cell lines.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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HER-2-positive breast cancers frequently sustain elevated AKT/mTOR signaling, which has been associated with resistance to doxorubicin treatment. Here, we investigated whether rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, increased the sensitivity to doxorubicin therapy in two HER-2-overexpressing cell lines: C5.2, which was derived from the parental HB4a by transfection with HER-2 and SKBR3, which exhibits HER-2 amplification. The epithelial mammary cell line HB4a was also analyzed. The combined treatment using 20 nmol/L of rapamycin and 30 nmol/L of doxorubicin arrested HB4a and C5.2 cells in S to G(2)-M, whereas SKBR3 cells showed an increase in the G(0)-G(1) phase. Rapamycin increased the sensitivity to doxorubicin in HER-2-overexpressing cells by approximately 2-fold, suggesting that the combination displayed a more effective antiproliferative action. Gene expression profiling showed that these results might reflect alterations in genes involved in canonical pathways related to purine metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, protein ubiquitination, and mitochondrial dysfunction. A set of 122 genes modulated by the combined treatment and specifically related to HER-2 overexpression was determined by finding genes commonly regulated in both C5.2 and SKBR3 that were not affected in HB4a cells. Network analysis of this particular set showed a smaller subgroup of genes in which coexpression pattern in HB4a cells was disrupted in C5.2 and SKBR3. Altogether, our data showed a subset of genes that might be more robust than individual markers in predicting the response of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancers to doxorubicin and rapamycin combination.
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Decreased AIRE expression and global thymic hypofunction in Down syndrome.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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The Down syndrome (DS) immune phenotype is characterized by thymus hypotrophy, higher propensity to organ-specific autoimmune disorders, and higher susceptibility to infections, among other features. Considering that AIRE (autoimmune regulator) is located on 21q22.3, we analyzed protein and gene expression in surgically removed thymuses from 14 DS patients with congenital heart defects, who were compared with 42 age-matched controls with heart anomaly as an isolated malformation. Immunohistochemistry revealed 70.48 ± 49.59 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in DS versus 154.70 ± 61.16 AIRE-positive cells/mm(2) in controls (p < 0.0001), and quantitative PCR as well as DNA microarray data confirmed those results. The number of FOXP3-positive cells/mm(2) was equivalent in both groups. Thymus transcriptome analysis showed 407 genes significantly hypoexpressed in DS, most of which were related, according to network transcriptional analysis (FunNet), to cell division and to immunity. Immune response-related genes included those involved in 1) Ag processing and presentation (HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB3, CD1A, CD1B, CD1C, ERAP) and 2) thymic T cell differentiation (IL2RG, RAG2, CD3D, CD3E, PRDX2, CDK6) and selection (SH2D1A, CD74). It is noteworthy that relevant AIRE-partner genes, such as TOP2A, LAMNB1, and NUP93, were found hypoexpressed in DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. These findings on global thymic hypofunction in DS revealed molecular mechanisms underlying DS immune phenotype and strongly suggest that DS immune abnormalities are present since early development, rather than being a consequence of precocious aging, as widely hypothesized. Thus, DS should be considered as a non-monogenic primary immunodeficiency.
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Hippocampal CA3 transcriptome signature correlates with initial precipitating injury in refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Prolonged febrile seizures constitute an initial precipitating injury (IPI) commonly associated with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (RMTLE). In order to investigate IPI influence on the transcriptional phenotype underlying RMTLE we comparatively analyzed the transcriptomic signatures of CA3 explants surgically obtained from RMTLE patients with (FS) or without (NFS) febrile seizure history. Texture analyses on MRI images of dentate gyrus were conducted in a subset of surgically removed sclerotic hippocampi for identifying IPI-associated histo-radiological alterations.
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Poly (A)+ transcriptome assessment of ERBB2-induced alterations in breast cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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We report the first quantitative and qualitative analysis of the poly (A)? transcriptome of two human mammary cell lines, differentially expressing (human epidermal growth factor receptor) an oncogene over-expressed in approximately 25% of human breast tumors. Full-length cDNA populations from the two cell lines were digested enzymatically, individually tagged according to a customized method for library construction, and simultaneously sequenced by the use of the Titanium 454-Roche-platform. Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis followed by experimental validation confirmed novel genes, splicing variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and gene fusions indicated by RNA-seq data from both samples. Moreover, comparative analysis showed enrichment in alternative events, especially in the exon usage category, in ERBB2 over-expressing cells, data indicating regulation of alternative splicing mediated by the oncogene. Alterations in expression levels of genes, such as LOX, ATP5L, GALNT3, and MME revealed by large-scale sequencing were confirmed between cell lines as well as in tumor specimens with different ERBB2 backgrounds. This approach was shown to be suitable for structural, quantitative, and qualitative assessment of complex transcriptomes and revealed new events mediated by ERBB2 overexpression, in addition to potential molecular targets for breast cancer that are driven by this oncogene.
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Gene expression analysis of blastemal component reveals genes associated with relapse mechanism in Wilms tumour.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Wilms tumour (WT) is a paediatric kidney tumour, composed of blastemal, epithelial and stromal cells, with a relapse rate of approximately 15%. Long-term survival for patients with relapse remains approximately 50%. Current clinical and molecular research is directed towards identifying prognostic factors to define the minimal and intensive therapy for successful treatment of children with low and high risk of relapse, respectively. Blastemal component presents a high level of aggressiveness and responsiveness to chemotherapy. To identify molecular prognostic markers that are predictive of chemotherapy sensitivity in tumour relapse, blastemal-enriched samples from stage III and IV WT, from patients with relapse or without relapse, were analysed for 4608 human genes immobilised on a customised cDNA platform. These analyses revealed 69 differentially expressed genes, and the top nine genes were further evaluated by qRT-PCR in the initial WT samples. TSPAN3, NCOA6, CDO1, MPP2 and MCM2 were confirmed to be down-regulated in relapse WT, and TSPAN3 and NCOA6 were also validated in an independent sample group. Protein expression of MCM2 and NCOA6 were observed in 38% (13 out of 34) and 28% (9 out of 32), respectively, of independent stage III and IV WT blastema samples, without association with relapse. However, a significant association between MCM2 positive staining and chemotherapy as first treatment suggests the involvement of MCM2 with drug metabolism in WT blastemal cells.
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Transcriptome signature of the adult mouse choroid plexus.
Fluids Barriers CNS
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Although the gene expression profile of several tissues in humans and in rodent animal models has been explored, analysis of the complete choroid plexus (CP) transcriptome is still lacking. A better characterization of the CP transcriptome can provide key insights into its functions as one of the barriers that separate the brain from the periphery and in the production of cerebrospinal fluid.
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Influence of the interaction between nodal fibroblast and breast cancer cells on gene expression.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Our aim was to evaluate the interaction between breast cancer cells and nodal fibroblasts, by means of their gene expression profile. Fibroblast primary cultures were established from negative and positive lymph nodes from breast cancer patients and a similar gene expression pattern was identified, following cell culture. Fibroblasts and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231, MDA-MB435, and MCF7) were cultured alone or co-cultured separated by a porous membrane (which allows passage of soluble factors) for comparison. Each breast cancer lineage exerted a particular effect on fibroblasts viability and transcriptional profile. However, fibroblasts from positive and negative nodes had a parallel transcriptional behavior when co-cultured with a specific breast cancer cell line. The effects of nodal fibroblasts on breast cancer cells were also investigated. MDA MB-231 cells viability and migration were enhanced by the presence of fibroblasts and accordingly, MDA-MB435 and MCF7 cells viability followed a similar pattern. MDA-MB231 gene expression profile, as evaluated by cDNA microarray, was influenced by the fibroblasts presence, and HNMT, COMT, FN3K, and SOD2 were confirmed downregulated in MDA-MB231 co-cultured cells with fibroblasts from both negative and positive nodes, in a new series of RT-PCR assays. In summary, transcriptional changes induced in breast cancer cells by fibroblasts from positive as well as negative nodes are very much alike in a specific lineage. However, fibroblasts effects are distinct in each one of the breast cancer lineages, suggesting that the inter-relationships between stromal and malignant cells are dependent on the intrinsic subtype of the tumor.
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Evaluation of quantitative rt-PCR using nonamplified and amplified RNA.
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a standard assay in molecular medicine for gene expression analysis. Samples from incisional/needle biopsies, laser-microdissected tumor cells and other biologic sources, normally available in clinical cancer studies, generate very small amounts of RNA that are restrictive for expression analysis. As a consequence, an RNA amplification procedure is required to assess the gene expression levels of such sample types. The reproducibility and accuracy of relative gene expression data produced by sensitive methodology as qRT-PCR when cDNA converted from amplified (A) RNA is used as template has not yet been properly addressed. In this study, to properly evaluate this issue, we performed 1 round of linear RNA amplification in 2 breast cell lines (C5.2 and HB4a) and assessed the relative expression of 34 genes using cDNA converted from both nonamplified (NA) and A RNA. Relative gene expression was obtained from beta actin or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase normalized data using different dilutions of cDNA, wherein the variability and fold-change differences in the expression of the 2 methods were compared. Our data showed that 1 round of linear RNA amplification, even with suboptimal-quality RNA, is appropriate to generate reproducible and high-fidelity qRT-PCR relative expression data that have similar confidence levels as those from NA samples. The use of cDNA that is converted from both A and NA RNA in a single qRT-PCR experiment clearly creates bias in relative gene expression data.
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Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein alters keratinocytes expression profile in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Acute expression of E7 oncogene from human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 or HPV18 is sufficient to overcome tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha cytostatic effect on primary human keratinocytes. In the present study, we investigated the molecular basis of E7-induced TNF resistance through a comparative analysis of the effect of this cytokine on the proliferation and global gene expression of normal and E7-expressing keratinocytes. Using E7 functional mutants, we show that E7-induced TNF resistance correlates with its ability to mediate pRb degradation and cell transformation. On the other hand, this effect does not depend on E7 sequences required to override DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest or extend keratinocyte life span. Furthermore, we identified a group of 66 genes whose expression pattern differs between normal and E7-expressing cells upon cytokine treatment. These genes are mainly involved in cell cycle regulation suggesting that their altered expression may contribute to sustained cell proliferation even in the presence of a cytostatic stimulus. Differential expression of TCN1 (transcobalamin I), IFI44 (Interferon-induced protein 44), HMGB2 (high-mobility group box 2) and FUS [Fusion (involved in t(12;16) in malignant liposarcoma)] among other genes were further confirmed by western-blot and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, FUS upregulation was detected in HPV-positive cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with normal cervical tissue. Further evaluation of the role of such genes in TNF resistance and HPV-associated disease development is warranted.
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Gene expression profile of residual breast cancer after doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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In breast cancer patients, primary chemotherapy is associated with the same survival benefits as adjuvant chemotherapy. Residual tumors represent a clinical challenge, as they may be resistant to additional cycles of the same drugs. Our aim was to identify differential transcripts expressed in residual tumors, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, that might be related with tumor resistance. Hence, 16 patients with paired tumor samples, collected before and after treatment (4 cycles doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide, AC) had their gene expression evaluated on cDNA microarray slides containing 4,608 genes. Three hundred and eighty-nine genes were differentially expressed (paired Students t-test, pFDR<0.01) between pre- and post-chemotherapy samples and among the regulated functions were the JNK cascade and cell death. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified one branch comprising exclusively, eight pre-chemotherapy samples and another branch, including the former correspondent eight post-chemotherapy samples and other 16 paired pre/post-chemotherapy samples. No differences in clinical and tumor parameters could explain this clustering. Another group of 11 patients with paired samples had expression of selected genes determined by real-time RT-PCR and CTGF and DUSP1 were confirmed more expressed in post- as compared to pre-chemotherapy samples. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy some residual samples may retain their molecular signature while others present significant changes in their gene expression, probably induced by the treatment. CTGF and DUSP1 overexpression in residual samples may be a reflection of resistance to further administration of AC regimen.
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Epigenetic silencing of CRABP2 and MX1 in head and neck tumors.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease affecting the epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Conditions of most patients are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, and no sensitive and specific predictors of aggressive behavior have been identified yet. Therefore, early detection and prognostic biomarkers are highly desirable for a more rational management of the disease. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms that leads to gene silencing in tumors and has been extensively used for the identification of biomarkers. In this study, we combined rapid subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis in a hierarchical manner to select genes that are putatively reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC) in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu, UM-SCC-14A, UM-SCC-17A, UM-SCC-38A). This combined analysis identified 78 genes, 35 of which were reactivated in at least 2 cell lines and harbored a CpG island at their 5 region. Reactivation of 3 of these 35 genes (CRABP2, MX1, and SLC15A3) was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; fold change, >or=3). Bisulfite sequencing of their CpG islands revealed that they are indeed differentially methylated in the HNSCC cell lines. Using methylation-specific PCR, we detected a higher frequency of CRABP2 (58.1% for region 1) and MX1 (46.3%) hypermethylation in primary HNSCC when compared with lymphocytes from healthy individuals. Finally, absence of the CRABP2 protein was associated with decreased disease-free survival rates, supporting a potential use of CRABP2 expression as a prognostic biomarker for HNSCC patients.
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Reciprocal changes in gene expression profiles of cocultured breast epithelial cells and primary fibroblasts.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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The importance of epithelial-stroma interaction in normal breast development and tumor progression has been recognized. To identify genes that were regulated by these reciprocal interactions, we cocultured a nonmalignant (MCF10A) and a breast cancer derived (MDA-MB231) basal cell lines, with fibroblasts isolated from breast benign-disease adjacent tissues (NAF) or with carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF), in a transwell system. Gene expression profiles of each coculture pair were compared with the correspondent monocultures, using a customized microarray. Contrariwise to large alterations in epithelial cells genomic profiles, fibroblasts were less affected. In MDA-MB231 highly represented genes downregulated by CAF derived factors coded for proteins important for the specificity of vectorial transport between ER and golgi, possibly affecting cell polarity whereas the response of MCF10A comprised an induction of genes coding for stress responsive proteins, representing a prosurvival effect. While NAF downregulated genes encoding proteins associated to glycolipid and fatty acid biosynthesis in MDA-MB231, potentially affecting membrane biogenesis, in MCF10A, genes critical for growth control and adhesion were altered. NAFs responded to coculture with MDA-MB231 by a decrease in the expression of genes induced by TGFbeta1 and associated to motility. However, there was little change in NAFs gene expression profile influenced by MCF10A. CAFs responded to the presence of both epithelial cells inducing genes implicated in cell proliferation. Our data indicate that interactions between breast fibroblasts and basal epithelial cells resulted in alterations in the genomic profiles of both cell types which may help to clarify some aspects of this heterotypic signaling.
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Expression profile of rat hippocampal neurons treated with the neuroprotective compound 2,4-dinitrophenol: up-regulation of cAMP signaling genes.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is classically known as a mitochondrial uncoupler and, at high concentrations, is toxic to a variety of cells. However, it has recently been shown that, at subtoxic concentrations, DNP protects neurons against a variety of insults and promotes neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial neuroactive properties of DNP are still largely unknown. We have now used DNA microarray analysis to investigate changes in gene expression in rat hippocampal neurons in culture treated with low micromolar concentrations of DNP. Under conditions that did not affect neuronal viability, high-energy phosphate levels or mitochondrial oxygen consumption, DNP induced up-regulation of 275 genes and down-regulation of 231 genes. Significantly, several up-regulated genes were linked to intracellular cAMP signaling, known to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival. Differential expression of specific genes was validated by quantitative RT-PCR using independent samples. Results shed light on molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotection by DNP and point to possible targets for development of novel therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders.
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No-match ORESTES explored as tumor markers.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Sequencing technologies and new bioinformatics tools have led to the complete sequencing of various genomes. However, information regarding the human transcriptome and its annotation is yet to be completed. The Human Cancer Genome Project, using ORESTES (open reading frame EST sequences) methodology, contributed to this objective by generating data from about 1.2 million expressed sequence tags. Approximately 30% of these sequences did not align to ESTs in the public databases and were considered no-match ORESTES. On the basis that a set of these ESTs could represent new transcripts, we constructed a cDNA microarray. This platform was used to hybridize against 12 different normal or tumor tissues. We identified 3421 transcribed regions not associated with annotated transcripts, representing 83.3% of the platform. The total number of differentially expressed sequences was 1007. Also, 28% of analyzed sequences could represent noncoding RNAs. Our data reinforces the knowledge of the human genome being pervasively transcribed, and point out molecular marker candidates for different cancers. To reinforce our data, we confirmed, by real-time PCR, the differential expression of three out of eight potentially tumor markers in prostate tissues. Lists of 1007 differentially expressed sequences, and the 291 potentially noncoding tumor markers were provided.
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Identification of FAM46D as a novel cancer/testis antigen using EST data and serological analysis.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Cancer/testis Antigens (CTAs) are immunogenic proteins with a restricted expression pattern in normal tissues and aberrant expression in different types of tumors being considered promising candidates for immunotherapy. We used the alignment between EST sequences and the human genome sequence to identify novel CT genes. By examining the EST tissue composition of known CT clusters we defined parameters for the selection of 1184 EST clusters corresponding to putative CT genes. The expression pattern of 70 CT gene candidates was evaluated by RT-PCR in 21 normal tissues, 17 tumor cell lines and 160 primary tumors. We were able to identify 4 CT genes expressed in different types of tumors. The presence of antibodies against the protein encoded by 1 of these 4 CT genes (FAM46D) was exclusively detected in plasma samples from cancer patients. Due to its restricted expression pattern and immunogenicity FAM46D represents a novel target for cancer immunotherapy.
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Transcriptional alterations related to neuropathology and clinical manifestation of Alzheimers disease.
PLoS ONE
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the human population, characterized by a spectrum of neuropathological abnormalities that results in memory impairment and loss of other cognitive processes as well as the presence of non-cognitive symptoms. Transcriptomic analyses provide an important approach to elucidating the pathogenesis of complex diseases like AD, helping to figure out both pre-clinical markers to identify susceptible patients and the early pathogenic mechanisms to serve as therapeutic targets. This study provides the gene expression profile of postmortem brain tissue from subjects with clinic-pathological AD (Braak IV, V, or V and CERAD B or C; and CDR ?1), preclinical AD (Braak IV, V, or VI and CERAD B or C; and CDR?=?0), and healthy older individuals (Braak ? II and CERAD 0 or A; and CDR?=?0) in order to establish genes related to both AD neuropathology and clinical emergence of dementia. Based on differential gene expression, hierarchical clustering and network analysis, genes involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage/repair, senescence, and transcriptional regulation were implicated with the neuropathology of AD; a transcriptional profile related to clinical manifestation of AD could not be detected with reliability using differential gene expression analysis, although genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and cell cycle seems to have a role revealed by gene classifier. In conclusion, the present data suggest gene expression profile changes secondary to the development of AD-related pathology and some genes that appear to be related to the clinical manifestation of dementia in subjects with significant AD pathology, making necessary further investigations to better understand these transcriptional findings on the pathogenesis and clinical emergence of AD.
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Differences in transcriptional effects of 1?,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on fibroblasts associated to breast carcinomas and from paired normal breast tissues.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
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The effects of 1?,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) on breast carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are still unknown. This study aimed to identify genes whose expression was altered after 1,25D treatment in CAFs and matched adjacent normal mammary associated fibroblasts (NAFs). CAFs and NAFs (from 5 patients) were cultured with or without (control) 1,25D 100 nM. Both CAF and NAF expressed vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1,25D induction of the genomic pathway was detected through up-regulation of the target gene CYP24A1. Microarray analysis showed that despite presenting 50% of overlapping genes, CAFs and NAFs exhibited distinct transcriptional profiles after 1,25D treatment (FDR<0.05). Functional analysis revealed that in CAFs, genes associated with proliferation (NRG1, WNT5A, PDGFC) were down regulated and those involved in immune modulation (NFKBIA, TREM-1) were up regulated, consistent with anti tumor activities of 1,25D in breast cancer. In NAFs, a distinct subset of genes was induced by 1,25D, involved in anti apoptosis, detoxification, antibacterial defense system and protection against oxidative stress, which may limit carcinogenesis. Co-expression network and interactome analysis of genes commonly regulated by 1,25D in NAFs and CAFs revealed differences in their co-expression values, suggesting that 1,25D effects in NAFs are distinct from those triggered in CAFs.
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Gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes may discriminate patients with schizophrenia from controls.
Psychiatry Res
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To identify a classifier in schizophrenia, blood gene expression profiling was applied to patients with schizophrenia under different treatments and to controls. Expression of six genes discriminated patients with sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 90%, supporting the use of peripheral blood as biological material for diagnosis in schizophrenia.
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Germline DNA copy number variation in familial and early-onset breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
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Genetic factors predisposing individuals to cancer remain elusive in the majority of patients with a familial or clinical history suggestive of hereditary breast cancer. Germline DNA copy number variation (CNV) has recently been implicated in predisposition to cancers such as neuroblastomas as well as prostate and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the role of germline CNVs in breast cancer susceptibility, in particular those with low population frequencies (rare CNVs), which are more likely to cause disease."
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Association study between functional polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is some evidence that the immune system may play an important role in its pathogenesis. In the present study, two polymorphisms (rs1800795 and rs361525) in the promoter region of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) gene were genotyped in 183 OCD patients and in 249 healthy controls. The statistical tests were performed using the PLINK(®) software. We found that the A allele of the TNFA rs361525 polymorphism was significantly associated with OCD subjects, according to the allelic ?(2) association test (p=0.007). The presence of genetic markers, such as inflammatory cytokines genes linked to OCD, may represent additional evidence supporting the role of the immune system in its pathogenesis.
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Amyloid-? oligomers induce differential gene expression in adult human brain slices.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasingly attributed to the neuronal impact of soluble oligomers of the amyloid-? peptide (A?Os). Current knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of A?Os stems largely from rodent-derived cell/tissue culture experiments or from transgenic models of AD, which do not necessarily recapitulate the complexity of the human disease. Here, we used DNA microarray and RT-PCR to investigate changes in transcription in adult human cortical slices exposed to sublethal doses of A?Os. The results revealed a set of 27 genes that showed consistent differential expression upon exposure of slices from three different donors to A?Os. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes revealed that A?Os impact pathways important for neuronal physiology and known to be dysregulated in AD, including vesicle trafficking, cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and insulin signaling. Most genes (70%) were down-regulated by A?O treatment, suggesting a predominantly inhibitory effect on the corresponding pathways. Significantly, A?Os induced down-regulation of synaptophysin, a presynaptic vesicle membrane protein, suggesting a mechanism by which oligomers cause synapse failure. The results provide insight into early mechanisms of pathogenesis of AD and suggest that the neuronal pathways affected by A?Os may be targets for the development of novel diagnostic or therapeutic approaches.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.