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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH2-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (?51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson's disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27(Kip1) significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27(Kip1) degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.
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Effect of antisera from Clostridium difficile-infected mice on toxin-A-induced colonic epithelial cell death signaling.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Clostridium difficile causes mucosal damage and diarrhea by releasing two exotoxins: toxin A and toxin B. C. difficile colitis is associated with alterations in bowel flora and the failure to mount an effective antibody response. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether antitoxin sera prevent toxin-A-induced apoptosis, cytoskeletal disaggregation, cell detachment, and tight junction loss in cultured colonic epithelial cells. Serum samples were isolated from mice that survived a C. difficile infection following antibiotic treatment, and the antitoxin effects of these samples were investigated in toxin-A-exposed HT29 colonic epithelial cells and a toxin-A-induced animal model of gut inflammation. Unchallenged mice did not produce IgG against toxin A, whereas serum (antiserum) from C. difficile-challenged mice showed significant IgG responses against toxin A. Treatment with the antiserum markedly inhibited mucosal damage and inflammation in the toxin-A-treated mouse model. In contrast to control mouse serum, the antiserum also markedly inhibited toxin-A-induced DNA fragmentation, dephosphorylation of paxillin and Epo receptor (EpoR), deacetylation of tubulin, and upregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p53. Taken together, these results reveal that the generated antitoxin serum has biotherapeutic effects in preventing various C. difficile toxin-A-induced cellular toxicities.
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Targeting PGC-1? to overcome the harmful effects of glucocorticoids in porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) has recently been implicated as a crucial factor in the glucocorticoid-suppressed expansion and transdifferentiation of porcine neonatal pancreatic cell clusters (NPCCs). However, the molecular mechanism has not been clarified.
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Microtubule-associated protein tau is essential for long-term depression in the hippocampus.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The microtubule-associated protein tau is a principal component of neurofibrillary tangles, and has been identified as a key molecule in Alzheimers disease and other tauopathies. However, it is unknown how a protein that is primarily located in axons is involved in a disease that is believed to have a synaptic origin. To investigate a possible synaptic function of tau, we studied synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and found a selective deficit in long-term depression (LTD) in tau knockout mice in vivo and in vitro, an effect that was replicated by RNAi knockdown of tau in vitro. We found that the induction of LTD is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase-3-mediated phosphorylation of tau. These observations demonstrate that tau has a critical physiological function in LTD.
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Extremely bright full color alternating current electroluminescence of solution-blended fluorescent polymers with self-assembled block copolymer micelles.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Electroluminescent (EL) devices operating at alternating current (AC) electricity have been of great interest due to not only their unique light emitting mechanism of carrier generation and recombination but also their great potential for applications in displays, sensors, and lighting. Despite great success of AC-EL devices, most device properties are far from real implementation. In particular, the current state-of-the art brightness of the solution-processed AC-EL devices is a few hundred candela per square meter (cd m(-2)) and most of the works have been devoted to red and white emission. In this manuscript, we report extremely bright full color polymer AC-EL devices with brightness of approximately 2300, 6000, and 5000 cd m(-2) for blue (B), green (G), and red (R) emission, respectively. The high brightness of blue emission was attributed to individually networked multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for the facile carrier injection as well as self-assembled block copolymer micelles for suppression of interchain nonradiative energy quenching. In addition, effective FRET from a solution-blended thin film of B-G and B-G-R fluorescent polymers led to very bright green and red EL under AC voltage, respectively. The solution-processed AC-EL device also worked properly with vacuum-free Ag paste on a mechanically flexible polymer substrate. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the long-term operation reliability of our AC-EL device for over 15 h.
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Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation.
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Analysis of off-target effects of CRISPR/Cas-derived RNA-guided endonucleases and nickases.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), derived from the prokaryotic adaptive immune system known as CRISPR/Cas, enable targeted genome engineering in cells and organisms. RGENs are ribonucleoproteins that consist of guide RNA and Cas9, a protein component originated from Streptococcus pyogenes. These enzymes cleave chromosomal DNA, whose sequence is complementary, to guide RNA in a targeted manner, producing site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the repair of which gives rise to targeted genome modifications. Despite broad interest in RGEN-mediated genome editing, these nucleases are limited by off-target mutations and unwanted chromosomal translocations associated with off-target DNA cleavages. Here, we show that off-target effects of RGENs can be reduced below the detection limits of deep sequencing by choosing unique target sequences in the genome and modifying both guide RNA and Cas9. We found that both the composition and structure of guide RNA can affect RGEN activities in cells to reduce off-target effects. RGENs efficiently discriminated on-target sites from off-target sites that differ by two bases. Furthermore, exome sequencing analysis showed that no off-target mutations were induced by two RGENs in four clonal populations of mutant cells. In addition, paired Cas9 nickases, composed of D10A Cas9 and guide RNA, which generate two single-strand breaks (SSBs) or nicks on different DNA strands, were highly specific in human cells, avoiding off-target mutations without sacrificing genome-editing efficiency. Interestingly, paired nickases induced chromosomal deletions in a targeted manner without causing unwanted translocations. Our results highlight the importance of choosing unique target sequences and optimizing guide RNA and Cas9 to avoid or reduce RGEN-induced off-target mutations.
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Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Incidental Atrial Septal Openings in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.
Neonatology
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Background: Atrial septal openings (ASOs) are very common in premature infants. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and natural course of ASOs in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants diagnosed in the first week of life and the association of ASOs with various clinical factors. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 217 infants born with a weight of <1,500 g between January 2007 and December 2011. Echocardiography was conducted within the first week of life in all infants. Clinical factors were compared between infants with ASO and those with an intact atrial septum. ASO closure was confirmed by echocardiography at the 3-month follow-up and subsequently every 6 months. Results: The incidence of ASOs was 40.3% in VLBW infants. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was associated with a higher incidence of ASO in a multivariate analysis (OR 4.005, 95% CI 2.015-7.960, p < 0.001), and PDA was a predictor of early ASO closure. The rate of oxygen requirement for at least 28 days was higher in infants with ASO, whereas oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age did not differ between the infant groups. The mean time of closure was 5.8 ± 7.1 months of age (range 0-36). All followed infants showed spontaneous closure within 3 years. Conclusions: ASOs occur at a relatively high incidence in VLBW infants, but most of these close spontaneously within 3 years. PDA was predictive of ASO at the first echocardiography but did not delay ASO closure. The ASOs in VLBW infants were not a significant cause of concern. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimers disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.
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The colchicine derivative CT20126 shows a novel microtubule-modulating activity with apoptosis.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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New colchicine analogs have been synthesized with the aim of developing stronger potential anticancer activities. Among the analogs, CT20126 has been previously reported to show immunosuppressive activities. Here, we report that CT20126 also shows potential anticancer effects via an unusual mechanism: the modulation of microtubule integrity and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis. When we treated COS-7 cells with CT20126 (5??M), the normal thread-like microtubules were disrupted into tubulin dimers within 10?min and thereafter repolymerized into short, thick filaments. In contrast, cells treated with the same concentration of colchicine exhibited microtubule depolymerization after 20?min and never underwent repolymerization. Furthermore, optical density (OD) analysis (350?nm) with purified tubulin showed that CT20126 had a higher repolymerizing activity than that of Taxol, a potent microtubule-polymerizing agent. These results suggest that the effects of CT20126 on microtubule integrity differ from those of colchicine: the analog first destabilizes microtubules and then stabilizes the disrupted tubulins into short, thick polymers. Furthermore, CT20126 induced a greater level of apoptotic activity in Jurkat T cells than colchicine (assessed by G2/M arrest, caspase-3 activation and cell sorting). At 20?nM, CT20126 induced 47% apoptosis among Jurkat T cells, whereas colchicine induced only 33% apoptosis. Our results suggest that the colchicine analog CT20126 can potently induce apoptosis by disrupting microtubule integrity in a manner that differs from that of colchicine or Taxol.
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Early discontinuation of thyroxine therapy is possible in most very low-birthweight infants with hypothyroidism detected by screening.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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To determine the feasibility of discontinuing thyroid hormone treatment earlier than recommended by the current guidelines for congenital hypothyroidism.
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Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells from Neonatal Porcine Liver-Derived Cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Surrogate ?-cells derived from stem cells are needed to cure type 1 diabetes, and neonatal liver cells may be an attractive alternative to stem cells for the generation of ?-cells. In this study, we attempted to generate insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells using adenoviruses carrying three genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor1 (PDX1)/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and v-maf musculo aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are all known to play critical roles in pancreatic development. Isolated neonatal porcine liver-derived cells were sequentially transduced with triple adenoviruses and grown in induction medium containing a high concentration of glucose, epidermal growth factors, nicotinamide and a low concentration of serum following the induction of aggregation for further maturation. We noted that the cells displayed a number of molecular characteristics of pancreatic ?-cells, including expressing several transcription factors necessary for ?-cell development and function. In addition, these cells synthesized and physiologically secreted insulin. Transplanting these differentiated cells into streptozotocin-induced immunodeficient diabetic mice led to the reversal of hyperglycemia, and more than 18% of the cells in the grafts expressed insulin at 6 weeks after transplantation. These data suggested that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells under the culture conditions presented in this report and indicated that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells (NPLCs) might be useful as a potential source of cells for ?-cell replacement therapy in efforts to cure type I diabetes.
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Efficacy and safety of LB03002, a once-weekly sustained-release human GH for 12-month treatment in Korean children with GH deficiency.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of LB03002, a sustained-release human GH (SR-hGH), compared with that of daily rhGH for 12 months in children with GH deficiency (GHD).
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Both sitagliptin analogue & pioglitazone preserve the beta-cell proportion in the islets with different mechanism in non-obese and obese diabetic mice.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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In this study, the effects of sitagliptin analogue (SITA) or pioglitazone (PIO) treatment on glucose homeostasis and ?-cell dynamics in animal models of type 2 diabetes--Akita and db/db mice were evaluated. After 4-6 weeks of treatment, both SITA and PIO were shown to lower non-fasting glucose levels and reduced glycemic excursion in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In addition, both drugs preserved normal islet structure and the proportion of ?-cells in the islets. Compared to the controls, SITA treatment induced a higher ?-cell proliferation rate in Akita mice and a lower rate of apoptosis in db/db mice, whereas PIO treatment induced a lower rate of apoptosis in db/db mice and reduced proliferation rates in Akita mice. In conclusion, both SITA and PIO appear to exert some beneficial effects on the islet structure in addition to glycemic control via different mechanisms that involve ?-cell dynamics in Akita and db/db mice. [BMB reports 2011; 44(11): 713-718].
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The insect peptide coprisin prevents Clostridium difficile-mediated acute inflammation and mucosal damage through selective antimicrobial activity.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis are typically treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, but recent increases in relapse incidence and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of C. difficile indicate the need for new antibiotics. We previously isolated coprisin, an antibacterial peptide from Copris tripartitus, a Korean dung beetle, and identified a nine-amino-acid peptide in the ?-helical region of it (LLCIALRKK) that had antimicrobial activity (J.-S. Hwang et al., Int. J. Pept., 2009, doi:10.1155/2009/136284). Here, we examined whether treatment with a coprisin analogue (a disulfide dimer of the nine peptides) prevented inflammation and mucosal damage in a mouse model of acute gut inflammation established by administration of antibiotics followed by C. difficile infection. In this model, coprisin treatment significantly ameliorated body weight decreases, improved the survival rate, and decreased mucosal damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, the coprisin analogue had no apparent antibiotic activity against commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are known to inhibit the colonization of C. difficile. The exposure of C. difficile to the coprisin analogue caused a marked increase in nuclear propidium iodide (PI) staining, indicating membrane damage; the staining levels were similar to those seen with bacteria treated with a positive control for membrane disruption (EDTA). In contrast, coprisin analogue treatment did not trigger increases in the nuclear PI staining of Bifidobacterium thermophilum. This observation suggests that the antibiotic activity of the coprisin analogue may occur through specific membrane disruption of C. difficile. Thus, these results indicate that the coprisin analogue may prove useful as a therapeutic agent for C. difficile infection-associated inflammatory diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
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Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell migration in ovarian cancer cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that affects various biological functions, such as cell proliferation, migration, and survival, through LPA receptors. Among them, the motility of cancer cells is an especially important activity for invasion and metastasis. Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy-sensing kinase, was shown to regulate cell migration. However, the specific role of AMPK in cancer cell migration is unknown. The present study investigated whether LPA could induce AMPK activation and whether this process was associated with cell migration in ovarian cancer cells. We found that LPA led to a striking increase in AMPK phosphorylation in pathways involving the phospholipase C-?3 (PLC-?3) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?) in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK?1, PLC-?3, or (CaMKK?) impaired the stimulatory effects of LPA on cell migration. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of AMPK?1 abrogated LPA-induced activation of the small GTPase RhoA and ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins regulating membrane dynamics as membrane-cytoskeleton linkers. In ovarian cancer xenograft models, knockdown of AMPK significantly decreased peritoneal dissemination and lung metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of AMPK by LPA induces cell migration through the signaling pathway to cytoskeletal dynamics and increases tumor metastasis in ovarian cancer.
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Reference values for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in Korean children and adolescents.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are utilized in the diagnostic work-up and clinical management of children with growth disorders. We designed this study to establish the reference values of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels according to age, sex and pubertal stage in Korean children and adolescents.
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Adenoviruses Expressing PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA Induces the Transdifferentiation of Porcine Neonatal Pancreas Cell Clusters and Adult Pig Pancreatic Cells into Beta-Cells.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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A limitation in the number of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is a special feature of diabetes. The identification of alternative sources for the induction of insulin-producing surrogate beta-cells is a matter of profound importance. PDX-1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD, and MafA overexpression have been shown to influence the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic stem cells. However, few studies have been conducted using adult animal pancreatic stem cells.
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Stable aqueous based Cu nanoparticle ink for printing well-defined highly conductive features on a plastic substrate.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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With the aim of inkjet printing highly conductive and well-defined Cu features on plastic substrates, aqueous based Cu ink is prepared for the first time using water-soluble Cu nanoparticles with a very thin surface oxide layer. Owing to the specific properties, high surface tension and low boiling point, of water, the aqueous based Cu ink endows a variety of advantages over conventional Cu inks based on organic solvents in printing narrow conductive patterns without irregular morphologies. It is demonstrated how the design of aqueous based ink affects the basic properties of printed conductive features such as surface morphology, microstructure, conductivity, and line width. The long-term stability of aqueous based Cu ink against oxidation is analyzed through an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) based investigation on the evolution of the surface oxide layer in the aqueous based ink.
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A polyethylene oxide-functionalized self-organized alumina nanochannel array for an immunoprotection biofilter.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Nanochannel membranes have been fabricated for many biological and engineering applications. However, due to low-throughput process, high cost, unsuitable pore geometries, and low chemical/mechanical stability, we could not have obtained optimized nanochannel membranes for biomedical treatments as well as a novel building block for artificial cell membranes. Here, we report a PEO-functionalized straight nanochannel array based on a self-organized porous alumina for a novel biofilter with antifouling, superior immunoprotection and high permeability of nutrients, which have excellent in vivo mechanical stability. Thus, our strategy may provide great advantages in novel membrane biotechnologies such as biofiltration, artificial cells, and drug delivery.
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Zinc status and growth of Korean infants fed human milk, casein-based, or soy-based formula: three-year longitudinal study.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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To evaluate the effect of feeding methods on growth and zinc nutritional status of infants early in life, we monitored from birth to 36 months in 51 infants who were exclusively fed human milk (HM, n = 20), casein-based formula (CBF, n = 12), or soy-based formula (SBF, n = 19) during the first five months of life. Zinc status was assessed by analyzing serum zinc concentrations and zinc intakes. Zinc contents in HM and formulas were measured. Zinc intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula-intake records in the CBF and SBF groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were also included to estimate zinc intake. The growth of infants in all groups was similar to that established for normal Korean infants. Human milk zinc concentrations declined as lactation progressed. Zinc concentrations in all formulas tested in this study were higher than HM and were also higher than those claimed by the manufacturers. During the first twelve months, mean serum zinc concentrations of infants were similar in all groups, although infants in the HM group consistently had the lowest zinc intake among the groups, and the overall zinc intake in infants fed SBF was highest. This finding could be explained by the different zinc bioavailability of HM and formulas. In conclusion, infants fed HM, CBF or SBF has normal growth up to three years of age, although HM contained the lowest zinc concentration followed by CBF, then SBF.
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Downregulation of erythropoietin receptor by overexpression of phospholipase C-gamma 1 is critical for decrease on focal adhesion in transformed cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Phospholipase C-?l (PLC-?l) is known to play a critical role in cell adhesion and migration and is highly expressed in metastatic tumors. In the current study, we found that cells transformed by PLC overexpression (PLC-?l cells) exhibited a marked decrease in expression of the Epo receptor (EpoR). Here, we assessed the role of EpoR-dependent signaling pathways in PLC-?l-dependent regulation of cell adhesion and migration.
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A 5-yr follow-up nerve conduction study for the detection of subclinical diabetic neuropathy in children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2010
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To investigate the changes of peripheral nerve conduction in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) prospectively from diagnosis and to know how those results were related to clinical risk factors.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A decreases acetylation of tubulin, leading to microtubule depolymerization through activation of histone deacetylase 6, and this mediates acute inflammation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Clostridium difficile toxin A is known to cause actin disaggregation through the enzymatic inactivation of intracellular Rho proteins. Based on the rapid and severe cell rounding of toxin A-exposed cells, we speculated that toxin A may be involved in post-translational modification of tubulin, leading to microtubule instability. In the current study, we observed that toxin A strongly reduced ?-tubulin acetylation in human colonocytes and mouse intestine. Fractionation analysis demonstrated that toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation yielded monomeric tubulin, indicating the presence of microtubule depolymerization. Inhibition of the glucosyltransferase activity against Rho proteins of toxin A by UDP-2,3-dialdehyde significantly abrogated toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation. In colonocytes treated with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of the HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase, toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation and loss of tight junction were completely blocked. Administration of TSA also attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production, mucosal damage, and epithelial cell apoptosis in mouse intestine exposed to toxin A. These results suggest that toxin A causes microtubule depolymerization by activation of HDAC6-mediated tubulin deacetylation. Indeed, blockage of HDAC6 by TSA markedly attenuates ?-tubulin deacetylation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and mucosal damage in a toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model. Tubulin deacetylation is an important component of the intestinal inflammatory cascade following toxin A-mediated Rho inactivation in vitro and in vivo.
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Rapamycin suppresses the expansion and differentiation of porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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The role of rapamycin in pancreas stem cells remains to be clearly elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of rapamycin on porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs), which primarily comprised pancreatic precursors, and attempted to find an intracellular mechanism about the harmful effects of rapamycin.
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Rosiglitazone protects the pancreatic beta-cell death induced by cyclosporine A.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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The pathogenesis of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is thought to be partly related to the direct toxic effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on pancreatic beta-cells and the resultant decrease in insulin synthesis and secretion. Although rosiglitazone (Rosi) is an insulin sensitizer, recent data has shown that Rosi also directly protects against beta-cell dysfunction and death. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of Rosi on CsA-induced beta-cell dysfunction and death. The deterioration in glucose tolerance caused by CsA administration was significantly improved by cotreatment with Rosi. The relative volume and absolute mass of beta-cells were significantly reduced by CsA, whereas combined treatment with Rosi had protective effects. Induction of beta-cell death and increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers (CHOP and spliced XBP-1) by CsA were rescued by Rosi. Thus, Rosi signaling directly modulates the ER stress response, promoting beta-cell adaptation and survival. Rosi might be an appropriate drug for preventing and treating CsA-induced PTDM.
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Folate contents in human milk and casein-based and soya-based formulas, and folate status in Korean infants.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF and nineteen SBF samples were measured by bioassay after trienzyme extraction. Folate intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula intake records in the formula-fed groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were included to estimate folate intake. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were determined at 5 and 12 months of age, and infant growth was monitored for the first 12 months. Mean HM folate contents ranged from 201 to 365 nmol/l with an overall mean of 291 nmol/l, and the contents peaked at 2 months postpartum. HM folate contents were higher than those reported in North America. Folate contents in CBF and SBF were markedly higher than those in HM and those claimed on the product labels. The overall folate intakes in formula-fed infants were significantly higher than those in HM-fed infants, and this was associated with significantly higher folate and lower tHcy in formula-fed infants than HM-fed infants at 5 months. At 12 months, serum folate was significantly higher in the SBF group than the other groups, whereas serum tHcy and overall growth were similar among all groups.
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A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-alpha.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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Long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Since mGluRs and mAChRs activate the same G-proteins and isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC), it would be expected that these two forms of LTD utilise the same molecular mechanisms. However, we find a distinct mechanism of LTD involving GRIP and liprin-alpha.
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Nutritional status of vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (P<0.001). iPTH was significantly lower in group S than in group B at 6 months (P=0.001), but did not differ at 12 months. Regardless of vitamin D supplementation, BMD was lower in group B and S than in group A (P<0.05). Total intake of vitamin D differed among 3 groups (P<0.001, A>S>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (P<0.001). In conclusion, breast-fed infants show lower vitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D(3), but not bone mineral density.
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Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of H3N2 human influenza A viruses in Cheongju, South Korea.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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To investigate the genetic characteristics of human influenza viruses circulating in Chungbuk province, we tested 510 clinical samples of nasopharyngeal suction from pediatric patients diagnosed with respiratory illness between June 2007 and June 2008. Genetic characterization of the HA genes of H3N2 isolates indicated the relative higher similarity to A/Virginia/04/07 (99.6%) rather than that of A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (98.4%), a Northern Hemisphere 2007-2008 vaccine strain, based on amino acid sequences. We found several altered amino acids at the H3 HA1 antigenic sites compared with the vaccine strain; K140I at site A, K158R at site B, and K173N (H471) or K173Q, and S262N at site E, but there was no antigenic shift among the H3N2 viruses. Interestingly, A/Cheongju/H383/08 and A/Cheongju/H407/08 isolates had single amino acid substitution at D151G on the catalytic site of the N2 NA while A/Cheongju/H412/08 and A/Cheongju/ H398/07 isolates had one amino acid deletion at residue 146. Furthermore, we found that 25% (3 out of 12 isolates) of the H3N2 subtype viruses had the amino acid substitution at position 31 on the M2 protein (Aspartic acid to Asparagine) and confirmed their drug-resistance by biological assays. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated continuous evolutions of human H3N2 viruses by antigenic drift and also highlighted the need to closely monitor antigenic drug resistance in influenza A viruses to aid in the early detection of potentially pandemic strains, as well as underscore the need for new therapeutics.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A inhibits erythropoietin receptor-mediated colonocyte focal adhesion through inactivation of Janus Kinase-2.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Previously, we demonstrated that the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is present on fibroblasts, where it regulates focal contact. Here, we assessed whether this action of EpoR is involved in the reduced cell adhesion observed in colonocytes exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A. EpoR was present and functionally active in cells of the human colonic epithelial cell line HT29 and epithelial cells of human colon tissues. Toxin A significantly decreased activating phosphorylations of EpoR and its downstream signaling molecules JAK-2 (Janus kinase 2) and STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5). In vitro kinase assays confirmed that toxin A inhibited JAK 2 kinase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2 (with AG490) abrogated activating phosphorylations of EpoR and also decreased focal contacts in association with inactivation of paxillin, an essential focal adhesion molecule. In addition, AG490 treatment significantly decreased expression of occludin (a tight junction molecule) and tight junction levels. Taken together, these data suggest that inhibition of JAK2 by toxin A in colonocytes causes inactivation of EpoR, thereby enhancing the inhibition of focal contact formation and loss of tight junctions known to be associated with the enzymatic activity of toxin A.
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The insect peptide CopA3 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage activation.
J. Pept. Sci.
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We recently demonstrated that the insect peptide CopA3 (LLCIALRKK), a disulfide-linked dimeric peptide, exerts antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities in a mouse colitis model. Here, we examined whether CopA3 inhibited activation of macrophages by LPS. Exposure of an unseparated mouse peritoneal cell population or isolated peritoneal macrophages to LPS markedly increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-?; these effects were significantly inhibited by CopA3 treatment. The inhibitory effect of CopA3 was also evident in murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Western blotting revealed that LPS-induced activation of STAT1 and STAT5 in macrophages was significantly inhibited by CopA3. Inhibition of JAK (STAT1/STAT5 kinase) with AG490 markedly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-? in macrophages. Collectively, these observations suggest that CopA3 inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting activating phosphorylations of the transcription factors, STAT1 and STAT5, and blocking subsequent production of IL-6 and TNF-? and indicate that CopA3 may be useful as an immune-modulating agent.
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Calcyon forms a novel ternary complex with dopamine D1 receptor through PSD-95 protein and plays a role in dopamine receptor internalization.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Calcyon, once known for interacting directly with the dopamine D(1) receptor (D(1)DR), is implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although its direct interaction with D(1)DR has been shown to be misinterpreted, it still plays important roles in D(1)DR signaling. Here, we found that calcyon interacts with the PSD-95 and subsequently forms a ternary complex with D(1)DR through PSD-95. Calcyon is phosphorylated on Ser-169 by the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or by the D(1)DR agonist SKF-81297, and its phosphorylation increases its association with PSD-95 and recruitment to the cell surface. Interestingly, the internalization of D(1)DR at the cell surface was enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and SKF-81297 in the presence of calcyon, but not in the presence of its S169A phospho-deficient mutant, suggesting that the phosphorylation of calcyon and the internalization of the surface D(1)DR are tightly correlated. Our results suggest that calcyon regulates D(1)DR trafficking by forming a ternary complex with D(1)DR through PSD-95 and thus possibly linking glutamatergic and dopamine receptor signalings. This also raises the possibility that a novel ternary complex could represent a potential therapeutic target for the modulation of related neuropsychiatric disorders.
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PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) protein regulates phospholipase C-?3 (PLC-?3)-specific activation of somatostatin by forming a ternary complex with PLC-?3 and somatostatin receptors.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Phospholipase C-? (PLC-?) is a key molecule in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. Many studies have shown that the four PLC-? subtypes have different physiological functions despite their similar structures. Because the PLC-? subtypes possess different PDZ-binding motifs, they have the potential to interact with different PDZ proteins. In this study, we identified PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) as a PDZ protein that specifically interacts with PLC-?3. To elucidate the functional roles of PDZK1, we next screened for potential interacting proteins of PDZK1 and identified the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) as another protein that interacts with PDZK1. Through these interactions, PDZK1 assembles as a ternary complex with PLC-?3 and SSTRs. Interestingly, the expression of PDZK1 and PLC-?3, but not PLC-?1, markedly potentiated SST-induced PLC activation. However, disruption of the ternary complex inhibited SST-induced PLC activation, which suggests that PDZK1-mediated complex formation is required for the specific activation of PLC-?3 by SST. Consistent with this observation, the knockdown of PDZK1 or PLC-?3, but not that of PLC-?1, significantly inhibited SST-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, which further attenuated subsequent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the formation of a complex between SSTRs, PDZK1, and PLC-?3 is essential for the specific activation of PLC-?3 and the subsequent physiologic responses by SST.
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Prevalence and genetic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in hospitalized children in Korea.
Arch. Virol.
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Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen among infants and young children. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of HRSVs circulating in South Korea, we analyzed medical records of patients and performed molecular analysis of the G-protein gene of viruses detected from nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of admitted patients at the Pediatrics Department of Chungbuk National University Hospital from April 2008 to April 2010. Epidemiological data revealed that the prevalence of HRSV infection was high during both winter seasons (October 2008 to February 2009 and November 2009 to February 2010). Of the 297 positive NPA specimens from infants or children tested, 67% were identified as HRSV-A while 33% were HRSV-B. The HRSV subgroup B was the most dominant in December 2008, but its dominance was dramatically replaced by HRSV subgroup A strains by February 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of the G protein sequences of HRSVs revealed novel genotypes within the HRSV-A (genotype CB-A) and B (genotypes BA11 and CB-B) subgroups in South Korea in addition to other strains identified in other countries. Molecular analysis also revealed genetic variability at the C-terminal end of the G proteins of the two HRSV subgroups, suggesting selection pressure in this region, which may potentially impact immune recognition. This is the first report of these HRSV variants in South Korea, indicating active genetic evolution of HRSV strains. Therefore, this study provides information on the molecular epidemiology of current HRSVs in the country and presents data for comparative analysis with other HRSV strains circulating worldwide.
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Tuberculous pericarditis presenting as multiple free floating masses in pericardial effusion.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
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Pericarditis is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis (Tb) in children. A 14-yr-old Korean boy presented with cardiac tamponade during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. He developed worsening anemia and persistent fever in spite of anti-tuberculosis medications. Echocardiography found free floating multiple discoid masses in the pericardial effusion. The masses and exudates were removed by pericardiostomy. The masses were composed of pink, amorphous meshwork of threads admixed with degenerated red blood cells and leukocytes with numerous acid-fast bacilli, which were confirmed as Mycobacterium species by polymerase chain reaction. The persistent fever and anemia were controlled after pericardiostomy. This is the report of a unique manifestation of Tb pericarditis as free floating masses in the effusion with impending tamponade.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A inhibits the kinase activity of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 through direct binding.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A glucosylates Rho family proteins, resulting in actin filament disaggregation and cell rounding in cultured colonocytes. Given that the cellular toxicity of toxin A is dependent on its receptor binding and subsequent entry into the cell, we herein sought to identify additional colonocyte proteins that might bind to toxin A following its internalization. Our results revealed that toxin A interacted with ERK1 and ERK2 in two human colonocyte cell lines (NCM460 and HT29). A GST-pulldown assay also showed that toxin A can directly bind to ERK1 and ERK2. In NCM460 cells exposed to PMA (an ERK1/2 activator), the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 did not affect the interaction between toxin A and ERK1/2. However, an in vitro kinase assay showed that the direct binding of toxin A to ERK1 or ERK2 inhibited their kinase activities. These results suggest a new molecular mechanism for the cellular toxicity seen in cells exposed to toxin A.
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Cells transformed by PLC-gamma 1 overexpression are highly sensitive to clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Phospholipase C-?l (PLC-?l) expression is associated with cellular transformation. Notably, PLC-gamma is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue and breast carcinoma. Because exotoxins released by Clostridium botulinum have been shown to induce apoptosis and promote growth arrest in various cancer cell lines, we examined here the potential of Clostridium difficile toxin A to selectively induce apoptosis in cells transformed by PLC-?l overexpression. We found that PLC-?l-transformed cells, but not vectortransformed (control) cells, were highly sensitive to C. difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition. Moreover, expression of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, Bim, and activation of caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated by toxin A in PLC-?l-transformed cells. Toxin A-induced cell rounding and paxillin dephosphorylation were also significantly higher in PLC-?l-transformed cells than in control cells. These findings suggest that C. difficile toxin A may have potential as an anticancer agent against colorectal cancers and breast carcinomas in which PLC-?l is highly up-regulated.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.