A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
The leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 and Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) derived from the wild wheatgrass Lophopyrum ponticum have been located on chromosome 7E. The main objectives of the present study were to develop a genetic map of chromosome 7E and map the two resistance loci using a population of 237 F(7:8) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two Thatcher-L. ponticum substitution lines, K11463 (7el(1)(7D)) and K2620 (7el(2)(7D)). 532 G-SSR, E-SSR and STS markers from wheat chromosome group 7 were screened in the parent lines. Of these, 118 markers were polymorphic, with a polymorphism frequency of 22.2%. A genetic map of L. ponticum chromosome 7E was constructed with 64 markers, covering 95.76 cM, with an average genetic distance of 1.47 cM between markers. The major FHB resistance locus, temporarily assigned as FhbLoP, was mapped to the very distal region of the long arm of chromosome 7E within a 3.71 cM interval flanked by Xcfa2240 and Xswes19, which accounts for 30.46% of the phenotypic variance. Lr19 was bracketed by Xwmc273 and XBE404744, with a map distance of 1.54 and 1.43 cM from either side, respectively. The closely linked markers identified in this study will be helpful for marker-assisted introgression of the L. ponticum-derived FhbLoP and Lr19 genes into elite cultivars of wheat, and the development of a genetic map will accelerate the map-based cloning of these two genes.
A sequence encoding a putative type-1 lipid transfer protein from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) was identified through GeneCalling, an mRNA profiling technology. The mRNA for the Hfr-LTP (Hessian fly-responsive lipid transfer protein) gene decreased in abundance (196-fold) in susceptible wheat plants over the first eight days of attack by virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor Say). Hfr-LTP encodes a putative protein containing eight cysteine residues that are conserved among plant LTPs and are responsible for correct protein folding through formation of disulfide bridges. Twelve hydrophobic amino acids in addition to arginine, glycine, proline, serine, threonine and tyrosine, plus an LTP signature sequence were present in conserved positions. A highly conserved signal peptide sequence was also present. Although attack by one virulent larva was sufficient to cause a decrease in Hfr-LTP mRNA abundance, higher infestation levels led to near silencing of the gene. Hfr-LTP transcript levels were not affected by other biotic factors (feeding by bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., and fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith) or abiotic factors tested (mechanical wounding or treatment with abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid). Comparison to a previously described Hessian fly-responsive wheat LTP gene, TaLTP3, confirmed an initial increase in TaLTP3 mRNA in resistant plants. However, when quantified through eight days after egg hatch, responsiveness to infestation level and a marked decrease in susceptible plant TaLTP3 mRNA abundance were detected, as was seen for Hfr-LTP. Possible functions of LTP gene products in wheat-Hessian fly interactions are discussed.
A number of technologies are available to increase the abundance of DNA markers and contribute to developing high resolution genetic maps suitable for genetic analysis. The aim of this study was to expand the number of Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers on the wheat array that can be mapped in the wheat genome, and to determine their chromosomal location with respect to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their position on the cytogenetic map. A total of 749 and 512 individual DArT and SSR markers, respectively, were identified on at least one of four genetic maps derived from recombinant inbred line (RIL) or doubled haploid (DH) populations. A number of clustered DArT markers were observed in each genetic map, in which 20-34% of markers were redundant. Segregation distortion of DArT and SSR markers was also observed in each mapping population. Only 14% of markers on the Version 2.0 wheat array were assigned to chromosomal bins by deletion mapping using aneuploid lines. In this regard, methylation effects need to be considered when applying DArT marker in genetic mapping. However, deletion mapping of DArT markers provides a reference to align genetic and cytogenetic maps and estimate the coverage of DNA markers across the wheat genome.
Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
Unlike most documented plant-insect interactions, Hessian fly-resistance [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is initiated by a gene-for-gene recognition event in which plants carrying a specific R gene recognize salivary effectors encoded by a corresponding larval avirulence gene. However, dual infestation resulting from oviposition by virulent insects from 5 d before to 3 d after oviposition by avirulent insects on the same host plant, lead to systemic induced susceptibility, obviation of resistance, and ultimately the survival of both virulent and genetically avirulent progeny to adulthood. Simultaneous oviposition allowed greater survival of avirulent progeny than ovipositions separated by larger intervals. Because of the induction of plant resistance, hatch of avirulent larvae before virulent was more detrimental to rate of development than hatch of virulent before avirulent larvae. Obviation of resistance was not localized to the leaf being attacked by the virulent larvae, but also functioned across spatial distance into younger leaves. This research suggests that virulent Hessian fly larvae directly suppress the defense response of wheat, thus providing a refuge for avirulent genotypes, preserving diversity in field populations and increasing durability of deployed resistance genes.
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