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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The rise and fall of Sarawakus (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota).
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Species of Sarawakus are rarely encountered. Their teleomorphs resemble sexual stages of Trichoderma, formerly called Hypocrea, but differ from that genus by unicellular ascospores. The two green-spored species S. britannicus and the type species of Sarawakus, S. lycogaloides, recently were collected, compared with their types and cultured. We redescribe and illustrate these species and transfer them to Trichoderma, based on phylogenetic analysis of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), containing the two last introns and exon, and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Trichoderma lycogaloides, was found to cluster with Hypocrea sulawesensis, an unusual species of Trichoderma, while T. britannicum is closely related to T. aerugineum of the Spinulosa clade. The anamorphs of the two examined species are characterized by (odd) verticillium-like conidiophores, large cylindrical phialides and conidia, which belong to the largest of those species forming green conidia, oval to subglobose in T. lycogaloides and oblong in T. britannicum. All species currently recognized in Sarawakus are transferred to Trichoderma, introducing the new combinations T. fragile, T. hexasporum, T. izawae, T. sordidum, T. subtrachycarpum, T. succisum and T. trachycarpum and the new name T. rosellum. Trichoderma trachycarpum is redescribed and illustrated from an isotype.
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Multigene phylogeny, taxonomy and reclassification of Hyaloperonospora on Cardamine.
Mycol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Based on sequence data from cox1, cox2, ITS and LSU rDNA, it is shown that at least six species of Hyaloperonospora occur on the genus Cardamine, most of which were commonly classified under Peronospora dentariae. Based on sequences from their type hosts, Peronospora dentariae, Peronospora cardamines-laciniatae, Peronospora dentariae-macrophyllae, Peronospora malyi and Peronospora nasturtii-aquatici are combined into Hyaloperonospora, and their circumscription is clarified. Hyaloperonospora cardamines-enneaphyllos is described as a new species from Cardamine enneaphyllos. The host range of Hyaloperonospora nasturtii-aquatici, described from Nasturtium officinale, is shown to extend to various Cardamine species. Host range of species is shown to be highly diagnostic, with no overlap in their host range, but species commonly cannot be distinguished by morphology alone. Both cox1 and cox2 are confirmed to be good markers for phylogenetic species delimitation of closely related Hyaloperonospora species on Cardamine.
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High diversity and low specificity of chaetothyrialean fungi in carton galleries in a neotropical ant-plant association.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the - usually undescribed - fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae), the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant-fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis.
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Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and related species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.
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Screening the biosphere: the fungicolous fungus Trichoderma phellinicola, a prolific source of hypophellins, new 17-, 18-, 19-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened a specimen of the fungicolous fungus Trichoderma phellinicola (syn. Hypocrea phellinicola) growing on its natural host Phellinus ferruginosus. Results revealed that a particular group of non-ribosomal antibiotic polypeptides, peptaibiotics, which contain the non-proteinogenic marker amino acid, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, was biosynthesized in the natural habitat by the fungicolous producer and, consequently, released into the host. By means of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we detected ten 20-residue peptaibols in the specimen. Sequences of peptaibiotics found in vivo were independently confirmed by analyzing the peptaibiome of an agar plate culture of T. phellinicola CBS 119283 (ex-type) grown under laboratory conditions. Notably, this strain could be identified as a potent producer of 39 new 17-, 18-, and 19-residue peptaibiotics, which display the same building scheme as the 20-residue peptaibols found in the specimen. Two of the 19-residue peptaibols are tentatively assigned to carry tyrosinol, a novel C-terminal residue, as deduced from high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry data. For the new peptaibiotics produced by T. phellinicola, the name hypophellin(s), based on the teleomorph name, is introduced.
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Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 December 2012-31 January 2013.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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This article documents the addition of 268 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alburnoides bipunctatus, Chamaerops humilis, Chlidonias hybrida, Cyperus papyrus, Fusarium graminearum, Loxigilla barbadensis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Odontesthes bonariensis, Pelteobagrus vachelli, Posidonia oceanica, Potamotrygon motoro, Rhamdia quelen, Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sibiraea angustata, Takifugu rubripes, Tarentola mauritanica, Trimmatostroma sp. and Wallago attu. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Alburnoides fasciatus, Alburnoides kubanicus, Alburnoides maculatus, Alburnoides ohridanus, Alburnoides prespensis, Alburnoides rossicus, Alburnoides strymonicus, Alburnoides thessalicus, Alburnoides tzanevi, Carassius carassius, Fusarium asiaticum, Leucaspius delineatus, Loxigilla noctis dominica, Pelecus cultratus, Phoenix canariensis, Potamotrygon falkneri, Trachycarpus fortune and Vimba vimba.
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DNA barcoding of oomycetes with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Oomycete species occupy many different environments and many ecological niches. The genera Phytophthora and Pythium for example, contain many plant pathogens which cause enormous damage to a wide range of plant species. Proper identification to the species level is a critical first step in any investigation of oomycetes, whether it is research driven or compelled by the need for rapid and accurate diagnostics during a pathogen outbreak. The use of DNA for oomycete species identification is well established, but DNA barcoding with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a relatively new approach that has yet to be assessed over a significant sample of oomycete genera. In this study we have sequenced COI, from 1205 isolates representing 23 genera. A comparison to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from the same isolates showed that COI identification is a practical option; complementary because it uses the mitochondrial genome instead of nuclear DNA. In some cases COI was more discriminative than ITS at the species level. This is in contrast to the large ribosomal subunit, which showed poor species resolution when sequenced from a subset of the isolates used in this study. The results described in this paper indicate that COI sequencing and the dataset generated are a valuable addition to the currently available oomycete taxonomy resources, and that both COI, the default DNA barcode supported by GenBank, and ITS, the de facto barcode accepted by the oomycete and mycology community, are acceptable and complementary DNA barcodes to be used for identification of oomycetes.
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Stromatonectria gen. nov. and notes on Myrmaeciella.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Myrmaeciella caraganae was recollected in and around Vienna, Austria and found to be morphologically different generically from the type species of Myrmaeciella, M. endoleuca. We redescribe M. caraganae in the new genus Stromatonectria. Phylogenetic analyses of LSU sequences place the genus in the Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales. S. caraganae occurs on branches of Caragana spp., Colutea arborescens and Laburnum anagyroides of the Fabaceae. It is characterized by spheroid perithecia partly or entirely immersed in a Hypocrea-like stroma, a Nectria-like centrum and bicellular hyaline ascospores. Conidia of S. caraganae are produced in compound pycnidia that are formed prior to or in association with perithecia. Sporodochia but no pycnidia are formed in culture. We discuss the genus Myrmaeciella and compare S. caraganae with species of the Nectriaceae, including Nectria balansae, N. eustromatica and N. paraguayensis.
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The diversity of ant-associated black yeasts: insights into a newly discovered world of symbiotic interactions.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Based on pure culture studies and DNA phylogenetic analyses, black yeasts (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota) are shown to be widely distributed and important components of numerous plant-ant-fungus networks, independently acquired by several ant lineages in the Old and New World. Data from ITS and LSU nu rDNA demonstrate that a high biodiversity of fungal species is involved. There are two common ant-fungus symbioses involving black yeasts: (1) on the carton walls of ant nests and galleries, and (2) the fungal mats growing within non-pathogenic naturally hollow structures (so-called domatia) provided by myrmecophytic plants as nesting space for ants (ant-plant symbiosis). Most carton- and domatia-inhabiting fungi stem from different phylogenetic lineages within Chaetothyriales, and almost all of the fungi isolated are still undescribed. Despite being closely related, carton and domatia fungi are shown to differ markedly in their morphology and ecology, indicating that they play different roles in these associations. The carton fungi appear to improve the stability of the carton, and several species are commonly observed to co-occur on the same carton. Carton fungi commonly have dark-walled monilioid hyphae, colouring the carton blackish and apparently preventing other fungi from invading the carton. Despite the simultaneous presence of usually several species of fungi, forming complex associations on the carton, little overlap is observed between carton fungi from different ant species, even those that co-occur in nature, indicating at least some host specificity of fungi. Most fungi present on carton belong to Chaetothyriales, but in a few samples, Capnodiales are also an important component. Carton fungi are difficult to assign to anamorph genera, as most lack conidiation. The domatia fungi are more specific. In domatia, usually only one or two fungal species co-occur, producing a dense layer on living host plant tissue in domatia. They have hyaline or light brown thin-walled hyphae, and are commonly sporulating. In both carton and domatia, the fungal species seem to be specific to each ant-plant symbiosis. Representative examples of carton and domatia ant-fungus symbioses are illustrated. We discuss hypotheses on the ecological significance of the Chaetothyriales associated with ants.
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Nectria eustromatica sp. nov., an exceptional species with a hypocreaceous stroma.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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A new species with remarkable morphology, Nectria eustromatica, is described, based on morphology of the teleomorph and anamorph, ecology and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Nectria eustromatica is characterized by sphaeroid perithecia immersed in pseudoparenchymatous stromata formed singly or collectively on a subiculum. Despite its deviating teleomorph morphology, it is placed within Nectria sensu stricto in phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of LSU, ITS, rpb2 and tef1 sequences with high internal support. Nectria eustromatica has been collected specifically on Hippocrepis (Coronilla) emerus in southern Europe. The anamorph of N. eustromatica shares morphological traits with the genera Stilbella and Tubercularia but produces non-phialidic macroconidia in addition to phialoconidia.
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Reclassification of two peronospora species parasitic on draba in hyaloperonospora based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic data.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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On the family Brassicaceae, the causal agent responsible for downy mildew disease was originally regarded as a single species, Peronospora parasitica (now under Hyaloperonospora), but it was recently reconsidered to consist of many distinct species. In this study, 11 specimens of Peronospora drabae and P. norvegica parasitic on the genus Draba were investigated morphologically and molecularly. Pronounced differences in conidial sizes (P. drabae: 14-20 × 12.5-15.5 ?m; P. norvegica: 20-29 × 15.5-22 ?m) and 7.8% sequence distance between their ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequences confirmed their status as distinct species. Based on ITS phylogeny and morphology (monopodially branching conidiophores, flexuous to sigmoid ultimate branchlets, hyaline conidia and lobate haustoria), the two species unequivocally belong to the genus Hyaloperonospora and not to Peronospora to which they were previously assigned. Therefore, two new combinations, Hyaloperonospora drabae and H. norvegica, are proposed. The two taxa are illustrated and compared using the type specimen for H. norvegica and authentic specimens for H. drabae, which is lectotypified.
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Mycelial carton galleries of Azteca brevis (Formicidae) as a multi-species network.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Apart from growing fungi for nutrition, as seen in the New World Attini, ants cultivate fungi for reinforcement of the walls of their nests or tunnel-shaped runway galleries. These fungi are grown on organic material such as bark, epiphylls or trichomes, and form stable carton structures. In this study, the carton of the runway galleries built by Azteca brevis (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) on branches of Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae) is investigated. For the first time, molecular tools are used to address the biodiversity and phylogenetic affinities of fungi involved in tropical ant carton architecture, a previously neglected ant-fungus mutualism. The A. brevis carton involves a complex association of several fungi. All the isolated fungi were unequivocally placed within the Chaetothyriales by DNA sequence data. Whereas five types of fungal hyphae were morphologically distinguishable, our DNA data showed that more species are involved, applying a phylogenetic species concept based on DNA phylogenies and hyphal morphology. In contrast to the New World Attini with their many-to-one (different ant species-one fungal cultivar) pattern, and temperate Lasius with a one-to-two (one ant species-two mutualists) or many-to-one (different ant species share the same mutualist) system, the A. brevis-fungi association is a one-to-many multi-species network. Vertical fungus transmission has not yet been found, indicating that the A. brevis-fungi interaction is rather generalized.
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Species delimitation in downy mildews: the case of Hyaloperonospora in the light of nuclear ribosomal ITS and LSU sequences.
Mycol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Species definitions for plant pathogens have considerable practical impact for measures such as plant protection or biological control, and are also important for comparative studies involving model organisms. However, in many groups, the delimitation of species is a notoriously difficult taxonomic problem. This is particularly evident in the obligate biotrophic downy mildew genera (Peronosporaceae, Peronosporales, Oomycetes), which display a considerable diversity with respect to genetic distances and host plants, but are, for the most part, morphologically rather uniform. The recently established genus Hyaloperonospora is of particular biological interest because it shows an impressive radiation on virtually a single host family, Brassicaceae, and it contains the downy mildew parasite, Arabidopsis thaliana, of importance as a model organism. Based on the most comprehensive molecular sampling of specimens from a downy mildew genus to date, including various collections from different host species and geographic locations, we investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Hyaloperonospora by molecular analysis of the nuclear ribosomal ITS and LSU sequences. Phylogenetic trees were inferred with ML and MP from the combined dataset; partitioned Bremer support (PBrS) was used to assess potential conflict between data partitions. As in other downy mildew groups, the molecular data clearly corroborate earlier results that supported the use of narrow species delimitations and host ranges as taxonomic markers. With few exceptions, suggested species boundaries are supported without conflict between different data partitions. The results indicate that a combination of molecular and host features is a reliable means to discriminate downy mildew species for which morphological differences are unknown.
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Molecular taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi: a case study in Peronospora.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Inappropriate taxon definitions may have severe consequences in many areas. For instance, biologically sensible species delimitation of plant pathogens is crucial for measures such as plant protection or biological control and for comparative studies involving model organisms. However, delimiting species is challenging in the case of organisms for which often only molecular data are available, such as prokaryotes, fungi, and many unicellular eukaryotes. Even in the case of organisms with well-established morphological characteristics, molecular taxonomy is often necessary to emend current taxonomic concepts and to analyze DNA sequences directly sampled from the environment. Typically, for this purpose clustering approaches to delineate molecular operational taxonomic units have been applied using arbitrary choices regarding the distance threshold values, and the clustering algorithms.
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Hypopulvins, novel peptaibiotics from the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata, are produced during infection of its natural hosts.
Fungal Biol
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In order to investigate the significance of antibiotics for the producing organism(s) in the natural habitat, we screened specimens of the polyporicolous fungus Hypocrea pulvinata growing on its natural hosts Piptoporus betulinus and Fomitopsis pinicola. Results showed that a particular group of nonribosomally biosynthesised antibiotic polypeptides, the peptaibiotics, which contain the nonproteinogenic marker amino acid ?-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), was produced in the natural habitat by the fungicolous producer and, consequently, released into the host. Using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry we detected especially 19-, but also 11-, 18-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics in the five infected specimens analysed. Structures of peptaibiotics found were confirmed by analysing the peptaibiome of pure agar cultures obtained by single-ascospore isolation from the specimens. The 19-residue peptaibols were determined as deletion sequences of the trichosporins B lacking the Aib residue in position 6. Notably, 26 of the 28 peptaibiotics sequenced were novel; therefore the name hypopulvins was introduced. Considering not only the ubiquity of both the two host species but also the highly specific association between H. pulvinata and P. betulinus/F. pinicola, and the abundance of this fungicolous species in north temperate regions of the world, a decisive role for the peptaibiotics detected in this study is predicted, which may act as mediators of the complex interactions between the basidiomycetous host and its fungicolous ascomycete partner. Structural analogies of the hypopulvins, particularly with other 18-, 19-, and 20-residue peptaibiotics, suggest that the hypopulvins are forming transmembrane ion channels and could thus support the hypothesis of a parasitic lifestyle of the fungicolous producer.
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Molecular systematics of Woswasia atropurpurea gen. et sp. nov. (Sordariomycetidae), a fungicolous ascomycete with globose ascospores and holoblastic conidiogenesis.
Mycologia
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The monotypic genus Woswasia is described for wood-inhabiting and mycotrophic fungi classified in the Sordariomycetidae. It is characterized by unicellular, hyaline, globose to ellipsoid, verruculose ascospores; unitunicate long-stipitate asci with an apical annulus staining blue in aqueous cotton blue and perithecia with a long neck immersed in a stroma exhibiting a conspicuous pH-dependent color reaction. In vitro, it produces branched subhyaline to hyaline conidiophores with terminally arranged sympodial conidiogenous cells and holoblastic hyaline conidia. The remarkable morphological similarity of Woswasia to Amplistroma of the Amplistromataceae, although suggestive of a close relationship, was not confirmed by molecular data. Phylogenetic analysis based on two functional ribosomal genes (large and small subunits of the nuclear rDNA) and one protein-coding gene (second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) supports the placement of Woswasia in the Sordariomycetidae incertae sedis. Woswasia atropurpurea, the type and only species of the genus, groups within a large heterogeneous clade containing other small or monotypic genera of wood-inhabiting saprobic fungi, which are distantly related and of which the majority lacks an ordinal or familial affiliation. Within the clade a relationship of Woswasia to the freshwater genus Cyanoannulus is suggested.
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Plant-ants use symbiotic fungi as a food source: new insight into the nutritional ecology of ant-plant interactions.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
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Usually studied as pairwise interactions, mutualisms often involve networks of interacting species. Numerous tropical arboreal ants are specialist inhabitants of myrmecophytes (plants bearing domatia, i.e. hollow structures specialized to host ants) and are thought to rely almost exclusively on resources derived from the host plant. Recent studies, following up on century-old reports, have shown that fungi of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales live in symbiosis with plant-ants within domatia. We tested the hypothesis that ants use domatia-inhabiting fungi as food in three ant-plant symbioses: Petalomyrmex phylax/Leonardoxa africana, Tetraponera aethiops/Barteria fistulosa and Pseudomyrmex penetrator/Tachigali sp. Labelling domatia fungal patches in the field with either a fluorescent dye or (15)N showed that larvae ingested domatia fungi. Furthermore, when the natural fungal patch was replaced with a piece of a (15)N-labelled pure culture of either of two Chaetothyriales strains isolated from T. aethiops colonies, these fungi were also consumed. These two fungi often co-occur in the same ant colony. Interestingly, T. aethiops workers and larvae ingested preferentially one of the two strains. Our results add a new piece in the puzzle of the nutritional ecology of plant-ants.
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Hypocrea britdaniae and H. foliicola: two remarkable new European species.
Mycologia
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Two new species of Hypocrea are added here to the European funga. Hypocrea britdaniae, a fungus with unknown anamorph and large, conspicuous stromata resembling basidiomata of a corticiaceous fungus, is a sister species to the Longibrachiatum clade, while H. foliicola, a leaf-dwelling species that forms pulvinate stromata, is recognized as an additional member of the pachybasium core group. Hypocrea foliicola sporulates in culture in a reduced verticillium-like manner, while it produces a white, typical pachybasium-like anamorph in nature. Ecologically H. foliicola is remarkable in inhabiting leaves, a substrate rarely recorded for Hypocrea. All relevant morphological teleomorphic and anamorphic traits are given. The phylogenetic placement of the new species within Hypocrea/Trichoderma was determined with combined analyses of rpb2 and tef1 exon sequences.
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Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma.
Mycologia
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Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents.
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