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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Herpes zoster and tofacitinib therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA.
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Analysis of Infections and All-Cause Mortality in Phase II, Phase III, and Long-Term Extension Studies of Tofacitinib in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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To determine the rate of infection and all-cause mortality across tofacitinib phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) studies in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Genotypic analysis of the V3 region of HIV from virologic nonresponders to maraviroc-containing regimens reveals distinct patterns of failure.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Changes in HIV tropism from R5 to non-R5 or development of drug resistance is often associated with virologic failure in patients treated with maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist. We sought to examine changes in HIV envelope sequences and inferred tropism in patients who did not respond to maraviroc-based regimens. We selected 181 patients who experienced early virologic failure on maraviroc-containing therapy in the MOTIVATE trials. All patients had R5 HIV by the original Trofile assay before entry. We used population-based sequencing methods and the geno2pheno algorithm to examine changes in tropism and V3 sequences at the time of failure. Using deep sequencing, we assessed whether V3 sequences observed at failure emerged from preexisting subpopulations. From population genotyping data at failure, 90 patients had R5 results, and 91 had non-R5 results. Of the latter group, the geno2pheno false-positive rate (FPR) value fell from a median of 20 at screening to 1.1 at failure. By deep sequencing, the median percentage of non-R5 variants in these patients rose from 1.4% to 99.5% after a median of 4 weeks on maraviroc. In 70% of cases, deep sequencing could detect a pretreatment CXCR4-using subpopulation, which emerged at failure. Overall, there were two distinct patterns of failure of maraviroc. Patients failing with R5 generally had few V3 substitutions and low non-R5 prevalence by deep sequencing. Patients with non-R5 HIV who were failing developed very-high-prevalence non-R5 HIV (median, 99%) and had very low geno2pheno values.
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Maraviroc once-daily nucleoside analog-sparing regimen in treatment-naive patients: randomized, open-label pilot study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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This study was performed to evaluate a once-daily dual-therapy regimen, maraviroc (MVC) + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), in treatment-naive patients.
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Comparison of population and 454 "deep" sequence analysis for HIV type 1 tropism versus the original trofile assay in non-B subtypes.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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HIV-1 tropism can be predicted using V3 genotypic algorithms. The performance of these prediction algorithms for non-B subtypes is poorly characterized. Here, we use these genotypic algorithms to predict viral tropism of HIV-1 subtype A, B, C, and D to find apparent sensitivity, specificity, and concordance against a recombinant phenotypic assay, the original Trofile assay. This is a substudy of an epidemiological study (Pfizer A4001064). Plasma samples were selected to represent a large number of DM/X4 and R5 viruses. The HIV-1 env gene V3 loop was genotyped by Sanger sequencing (N=260) or 454 "deep" sequencing (N=280). Sequences were scored with g2p[coreceptor], PSSM X4/R5, PSSM SI/NSI, and PSSM subtype C matrices. Overall, non-B subtypes tropism prediction had similar concordance and apparent sensitivity and specificity as subtype B in predicting Trofiles results in both population sequencing (81.3%, 65.6%, and 90.5% versus 84.2%, 78.5%, and 88.2%) and 454 "deep" sequencing (82.3%, 80.0%, and 83.6% versus 86.8%, 92.0%, and 82.6%) using g2p[coreceptor]. By population sequencing, subtype A had lower sensitivity, whereas subtype D had lower specificity for non-R5 predictions, both in comparison to subtype B. 454 "deep" sequencing improved subtype A sensitivity but not subtype D. Subtype C had greater concordance than subtype B regardless of sequencing methods. In conclusion, genotypic tropism prediction algorithms may be applied to non-B HIV-1 subtypes with caution. Collective analysis of non-B subtypes revealed a performance similar to subtype B, whereas a subtype-specific analysis revealed overestimation (subtype D) or underestimation (subtype A).
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Use of cellular HIV DNA to predict virologic response to maraviroc: performance of population-based and deep sequencing.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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A tropism test is required before administration of the antiretroviral drug maraviroc. However, plasma RNA testing is not possible in patients with undetectable plasma viral loads. Here we assess genotypic testing of cellular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to predict virologic responses in treatment-experienced patients beginning maraviroc-containing regimens.
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Deep V3 sequencing for HIV type 1 tropism in treatment-naive patients: a reanalysis of the MERIT trial of maraviroc.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Deep sequencing is a highly sensitive technique that can detect and quantify the proportion of non-R5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants, including small minorities, that may emerge and cause virologic failure in patients who receive maraviroc-containing regimens. We retrospectively tested the ability of deep sequencing to predict response to a maraviroc-containing regimen in the Maraviroc versus Efavirenz in Treatment-Naive Patients (MERIT) trial. Results were compared with those obtained using the Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile Assay (ESTA), which is widely used in clinical practice.
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Disease-modifying therapeutic concepts for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Chronic HIV infection is associated with persistent immune activation and inflammation even among patients virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy for years. Chronic immune activation has been associated with poor outcomes--both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining clinical events--and persistent CD4 T-cell depletion. The cause of chronic immune activation in well-controlled HIV infection is unknown. Proposed drivers include residual viral replication, microbial translocation, and coinfecting pathogens. Therapeutic interventions targeting immune activation are emerging, from approaches that interfere directly with activation and inflammatory pathways to those that prevent microbial translocation or decrease the availability of host target cells for the virus. In the context of the disappointing results of the interleukin-2 trials, the main challenges to developing these disease-modifying therapies include identifying an adequate target population and choosing surrogate endpoints that will provide positive proof-of-concept that the interventions will translate into long-term clinical benefit before embarking on large clinical endpoint trials.
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Baseline CD4(+) T-cell counts and weighted background susceptibility scores strongly predict response to maraviroc regimens in treatment-experienced patients.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Maraviroc-containing regimens are known to achieve virological suppression in many treatment-experienced patients. This study aimed to evaluate a more rigorous methodological approach to resistance-response analysis in large clinical studies and to better establish which subpopulations of patients were most likely to benefit from maraviroc by refining and extending previous subgroup analyses from the MOTIVATE studies.
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Mutations in gp41 are correlated with coreceptor tropism but do not improve prediction methods substantially.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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The main determinants of HIV-1 coreceptor usage are located in the V3-loop of gp120, although mutations in V2 and gp41 are also known. Incorporation of V2 is known to improve prediction algorithms; however, this has not been confirmed for gp41 mutations.
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Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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The Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) studies compared maraviroc versus placebo in treatment-experienced patients with CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), screened using the original Trofile assay. A subset with non-R5 HIV infection entered the A4001029 trial. We retrospectively examined the performance of a genotypic tropism assay based on deep sequencing of the HIV env V3 loop in predicting virologic response to maraviroc in these trials.
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Population-based V3 genotypic tropism assay: a retrospective analysis using screening samples from the A4001029 and MOTIVATE studies.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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The MOTIVATE-1 and 2 studies compared maraviroc (MVC) along with optimized background therapy (OBT) vs. placebo along with OBT in treatment-experienced patients screened as having R5-HIV (original Monogram Trofile). A subset screened with non-R5 HIV were treated with MVC or placebo along with OBT in a sister safety trial, A4001029. This analysis retrospectively examined the performance of population-based sequence analysis of HIV-1 env V3-loop to predict coreceptor tropism.
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Impact of baseline antiretroviral resistance status on efficacy outcomes among patients receiving maraviroc plus optimized background therapy in the MOTIVATE 1 and 2 trials.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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The MOTIVATE studies assessed maraviroc with optimized background therapy (OBT) in treatment-experienced patients with R5 HIV-1. This post hoc analysis compared outcomes between patients with and without HIV-1 resistance to epsilon3 classes of antiretrovirals at screening (triple-class-resistant [TCR] versus not-TCR [nTCR]).
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Effects of maraviroc and efavirenz on markers of immune activation and inflammation and associations with CD4+ cell rises in HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Maraviroc treatment for HIV-1 infected patients results in larger CD4(+) T cell rises than are attributable to its antiviral activity alone. We investigated whether this is due to modulation of T cell activation and inflammation.
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Treatment with recombinant growth hormone is associated with modest improvement in CD4 lymphocyte reconstitution in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy: results of ACTG A5174.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Pilot studies have suggested that treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is associated with increased T-lymphocyte restoration and enhanced thymic output. We evaluated the immunologic effects of rhGH on HIV(+) subjects with incomplete immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Sixty subjects were randomized to receive rhGH 1.5 mg scqd and ART for 48 weeks (Arm A) or continue ART alone for 24 weeks then add rhGH 3.0 mg scqd for 24 weeks (Arm B). Median baseline CD4 for Arms A and B were 223 and 219, respectively. There was little difference between Arm A and Arm B in change in total or naive CD4 cells or percentage from baseline to week 24. Only one subject in Arm A met the primary endpoint, an increase in naive CD4 percentage of at least 10 percentage points. By week 48 both Arms had statistically significant increases in naive CD4 cell count and percentage and thymus size. Within Arm B, treatment with rhGH was associated with significant increases in naive CD4(+) cell count and percentage compared with ART alone. Treatment with rhGH +ART may be associated with modest increases in CD4 lymphocytes over ART alone in subjects with CD4 <350, yet the origin of these naive cells and their impact on immune function require further investigation.
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In vitro naïve T cell proliferation failure predicts poor post-immunization responses to neoantigen, but not recall antigens, in HIV-infection.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Immune reconstitution after HAART is incomplete, but no widely accepted method to quantify subclinical immune deficiency is available. We immunized 9 HIV-negative subjects and 29 HIV-infected patients with CD4>/=450 cells/microL and undetectable HIV RNA levels with 2 doses of diphtheria/tetanus toxoid (TT) and KLH, a presumed neoantigen. We quantified the response by lymphoproliferative assay, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and antibody titers up to 59days after enrollment. We assessed T cell proliferative capacity using anti-Vbeta3 and anti-Vbeta5 antibody stimulation, which we herein show induced predominant proliferation of naïve T cells. Subjects with detectable responses to KLH tended to exhibit greater proliferative responses to anti-Vbeta3/Vbeta5 stimulation; no such pattern was seen with response to TT. Several measures of in vitro T cell proliferative capacity correlated significantly with DTH and antibody responses to KLH, but not with TT responses; this association was independent of naïve T cell numbers. Our results indicate that naïve T cell proliferation predicts response to neo-, but not recall antigens, and suggest that it may be a meaningful reflection of in vivo immune competence in HIV-infected persons.
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Oral cyclosporin A inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected adults initiating treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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P-glycoprotein limits the tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. The aim of our study was to characterize the effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138.
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Accessory cell dependent NK cell mediated PBMC IFN-gamma production is defective in HIV infection.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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HCV and HIV infections impair dendritic cell function. We evaluated the impact of HCV, HIV, and HCV-HIV infection on MDC-NK interactions by analyzing CD3 depleted PBMC for NK cell IFN-gamma in response to IL-12 or poly (I:C). Purified MDC and NK cells were analyzed for TLR ligand-dependent, MDC-dependent NK activity. In HIV infection, IFN-gamma production by CD3 depleted PBMC was reduced in response to poly (I:C), while response to IL-12 was intact in HCV and HIV infections. Poly (I:C) induced activity was dependent on MDC and partially dependent on IL-12, consistent with accessory cell help. In purified MDC-NK co-cultures, MDC dependent NK IFN-gamma and Granzyme B was intact in both HCV and HIV infections, while MDC numerical defects were observed in HIV infection. These data indicate that during viral infection with HIV, accessory cell dependent NK function in the periphery is impaired. This impairment may be related to the identified MDC numerical defect.
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Correlation between genotypic (V3 population sequencing) and phenotypic (Trofile ES) methods of characterizing co-receptor usage of HIV-1 from 200 treatment-naïve HIV patients screened for Study A4001078.
Antiviral Res.
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Assessment of HIV-1 co-receptor usage is essential to identify patients who are likely to respond to maraviroc (MVC)-containing regimens. Co-receptor usage of plasma virus from all treatment-naïve patients screened for a MVC clinical trial was assessed using phenotypic and genotypic methodologies to evaluate concordance between testing methods and to assess the quantity of CXCR4-using (non-R5) virus in samples giving discordant results. Co-receptor usage was prospectively measured using the enhanced sensitivity Trofile assay (Trofile ES) to screen patients for enrollment in Study A4001078. Population and deep sequencing methodologies were utilized retrospectively to analyze all screening samples, with co-receptor usage determined using the geno2pheno algorithm. Concordance between methods was explored using descriptive statistics. The quantity of non-R5 virus in all samples was measured using deep sequencing. Trofile ES and matched genotype results were obtained for 199screening samples. Concordance of Trofile ES with population genotyping (5.75% false-positive rate [FPR]) and deep sequencing (3.5% FPR; 2% non-R5 threshold) was 91.7% and 89.6%, respectively. Population genotype data were available for all samples with non-reportable Trofile ES results; the distribution of co-receptor usage in this set was consistent with that in the overall population: 75% (12/16) R5 and 25% (4/16) non-R5. The majority of samples contained non-R5 plasma HIV-1 RNA estimated at either <1 log(10) (62.0%) or ?4 log(10) (30.5%) copies/mL; the absolute amount of detectable non-R5 virus remained stable between screening and baseline visits. Samples originally classified as non-R5 by Trofile ES but R5 by population sequencing had a relatively low absolute amount of non-R5 virus (mean 2.1%, median 0.1%). The determination of co-receptor usage using either Trofile ES or genotyping methodologies showed similar frequencies of R5 and non-R5 virus in this treatment-naïve study population. For both concordant and discordant samples, population sequencing appropriately identified R5 samples with low levels of non-R5-using virus.
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Population-based sequencing of the V3-loop can predict the virological response to maraviroc in treatment-naive patients of the MERIT trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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MERIT was a randomized trial comparing maraviroc (MVC) + Combivir versus efavirenz (EFV) + Combivir in drug-naive patients screened as having R5 HIV-1 by the original Trofile assay (OTA). We retrospectively evaluated treatment response after rescreening for viral tropism using population-based V3-loop sequencing.
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HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.