Cytotoxic lymphocytes destroy pathogen-infected and transformed cells through the cytotoxic granule exocytosis death pathway, which is dependent on the delivery of proapoptotic granzymes into the target cell cytosol by the pore-forming protein, perforin. Despite the importance of mouse models in understanding the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in immune-mediated disease and their role in cancer immune surveillance, no reliable intracellular detection method exists for mouse perforin. Consequently, rapid, flow-based assessment of cytotoxic potential has been problematic, and complex assays of function are generally required. In this study, we have developed a novel method for detecting perforin in primary mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. We used this new technique to validate perforin colocalization with granzyme B in cytotoxic granules polarized to the immunological synapse, and to assess the expression of perforin in cytotoxic T lymphocytes at various stages of activation. The sensitivity of this technique also allowed us to distinguish perforin levels in Prf1(+/+) and Prf1(+/-) mice. This new methodology will have broad applications and contribute to advances within the fields of lymphocyte biology, infectious disease, and cancer.
The dynamic interplay between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells (Teffs) governs the balance between tolerance and effector immune responses. Perturbations of Treg frequency and function or imbalances in Treg/Teff levels are associated with the development of autoimmunity. The factors that mediate these changes remain poorly understood and were investigated in this study in murine autoimmune arthritis. Tregs displayed a stable phenotype in arthritic mice and were fully functional in in vitro suppression assays. However, their expansion was delayed relative to Teffs (T follicular helper cells and Th17 cells) during the early stages of autoimmune reactivity. This imbalance is likely to have led to insufficient Treg control of Teffs and induced autoimmunity. Moreover, a counterregulatory and probably IL-7-driven increase in thymic Treg production and recruitment to inflamed tissues was too slow for disease prevention. Increased Teff over Treg expansion was further aggravated by inflammation and lymphopenia. Both these conditions contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis and were accompanied by decreases in the availability of IL-2 and increases in levels of IL-21. IL-2 neutralization or supplementation was used to show that Treg expansion mainly depended on this cytokine. IL-21R(-/-) cells were used to demonstrate that IL-21 promoted the maintenance of Teffs. Thus, at inflammatory sites in experimental arthritis, a deficit in IL-2 hampers Treg proliferation, whereas exaggerated IL-21 levels overwhelm Treg control by supporting Teff expansion. This identifies IL-2 and IL-21 as targets for manipulation in therapies for autoimmunity.
: Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis.
Monocytes and kidney-resident macrophages are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Several subsets of monocytes and macrophages are localized in the injured tissue, but the pathologic roles of these cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that CD169(+) monocytes and macrophages have a critical role in preventing excessive inflammation in IRI by downregulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on vascular endothelial cells. Mice depleted of CD169(+) cells showed enhanced endothelial ICAM-1 expression and developed irreversible renal damage associated with infiltration of a large number of neutrophils. The perivascular localization of CD169(+) monocytes and macrophages indicated direct interaction with blood vessels, and coculture experiments showed that the direct interaction of CD169(+) cell-depleted peripheral blood leukocytes augments the expression levels of ICAM-1 on endothelial cells. Notably, the transfer of Ly6C(lo) monocytes into CD169(+) cell-depleted mice rescued the mice from lethal renal injury and normalized renal ICAM-1 expression levels, indicating that the Ly6C(lo) subset of CD169(+) monocytes has a major role in the regulation of inflammation. Our findings highlight the previously unknown role of CD169(+) monocytes and macrophages in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and provide new approaches to the treatment of renal IRI.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have immunomodulative properties and, associated with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, induce bone tissue repair. However, the mechanisms of osteoinduction by hMSC with CaP are not clearly established, in particular the role of osteoclasts and macrophages. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles were implanted with or without hMSC in the paratibial muscles of nude mice. hMSC increased osteoblastic gene expression at 1 week, the presence of macrophages at 2 and 4 weeks, osteoclastogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks, and osteogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks. hMSC disappeared from the implantation site after 2 weeks, indicating that hMSC were inducers rather than effectors of bone formation. Induced blockage of osteoclastogenesis by anti-Rankl treatment significantly impaired bone formation, revealing the pivotal role of osteoclasts in bone formation. In summary, hMSC positively influence the body foreign reaction by attracting circulating haematopoietic stem cells and inducing their differentiation into macrophages M1 and osteoclasts, thus favouring bone formation.
Drug-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a detrimental intraoral lesion that often occurs after dental-related interventions in patients undergoing treatment with bisphosphonates or denosumab, the neutralizing human anti-receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) antibody (Ab). The cause of ONJ by these drugs has been speculated to their direct effects on osteoclasts. However, the extent to which osteoclasts contribute to ONJ pathogenesis remains controversial. Herein, by using a tooth-extraction mouse model with i.v. administration of mouse anti-RANKL Ab or zoledronate (ZOL), we show that unresorbed bone due to impaired formation or suppressed functions of osteoclasts, respectively, is associated with ONJ development. After tooth extraction, ONJ-like lesions developed 50% in the anti-RANKL Ab-treated mice and 30% in the ZOL-treated mice. Nonviable and unresorbed bone was found more in anti-RANKL Ab-treated mice compared with mice receiving ZOL. All mice receiving anti-RANKL Ab had an undetectable tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) level in the serum and no TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the extracted sockets, whereas ZOL-treated mice had a decreased TRAP level without altering the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts. Interestingly, the absence of newly formed woven bone in the extracted sockets was evident in ONJ-like lesions from both anti-RANKL Ab- and ZOL-treated mice. Our study suggests that the lack of osteoclasts' bone-resorptive functions by these drugs and suppression of woven bone formation after dental trauma may be associated with ONJ development.
Intracellular pathogens are capable of inducing vigorous CD8+ T cell responses. However, we do not entirely understand the factors driving the generation of large pools of highly protective memory CD8+ T cells. Here, we studied the generation of endogenous ovalbumin-specific memory CD8+ T cells following infection with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Listeria monocytogenes (LM). VSV infection resulted in the generation of a large ovalbumin-specific memory CD8+ T cell population, which provided minimal protective immunity that waned with time. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell population of LM-ova provided protective immunity and remained stable with time. Agonistic CD40 stimulation during CD8+ T cell priming in response to VSV infection enabled the resultant memory CD8+ T cell population to provide strong protective immunity against secondary infection. Enhanced protective immunity by agonistic anti-CD40 was dependent on CD70. Agonistic anti-CD40 not only enhanced the size of the resultant memory CD8+ T cell population, but enhanced their polyfunctionality and sensitivity to antigen. Our data suggest that immunomodulation of CD40 signaling may be a key adjuvant to enhance CD8+ T cell response during development of VSV vaccine strategies.
Commensal bacteria in gastrointestinal tracts are reported to function as an environmental factor to regulate intestinal inflammation and immune responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such bacterial function exerts any effect on other immune organs distant from the intestine. In this study, the influence of commensal bacteria in the thymus, where T cell lineages develop into mature type to form proper repertoires, was investigated using germ-free (GF) mice and Nod1-deficient mice lacking an intracellular recognition receptor for certain bacterial components, in which a commensal bacterial effect is predicted to be less. In both mice, there was no significant difference in the numbers and subset ratios of thymocytes. Interestingly, however, autoimmune regulator (Aire) expression in thymic epithelial cells (TECs), main components of the thymic microenvironment, was decreased in comparison to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice and Nod1 wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. In vitro analysis using a fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) system showed that Aire expression in TECs was increased in the presence of a bacterial component or a bacterial product. These results suggest that through their products, commensal bacteria have the potential to have some effect on epithelial cells of the thymus in tissues distant from the intestine where they are originally harbored.
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of late death and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the role of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in chronic GVHD using a well-defined mouse model of B10.D2 (H-2(d)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipients. PD-1 expression on allogeneic donor T cells was upregulated continuously in chronic GVHD development, whereas PD-L1 expression in host tissues was transiently upregulated and declined to basal levels in the late posttransplant period. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway by anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 mAbs exacerbated clinical and pathologic chronic GVHD. Chimeric mice revealed that PD-L1 expression in host tissues suppressed expansion of IL-17(+)IFN-?(+) T cells, and that PD-L1 expression on hematopoietic cells plays a role in the development of regulatory T cells only during the early transplantation period but does not affect the severity of chronic GVHD. Administration of the synthetic retinoid Am80 overcame the IL-17(+)IFN-?(+) T cell expansion caused by PD-L1 deficiency, resulting in reduced chronic GVHD damage in PD-L1(-/-) recipients. Stimulation of the PD-1 pathway also alleviated chronic GVHD. These results suggest that the PD-1 pathway contributes to the suppression of Th17/Th1-mediated chronic GVHD and may represent a new target for the prevention or treatment of chronic GVHD.
It remains largely unclear how antigen-presenting cells (APCs) encounter effector or memory T cells efficiently in the periphery. Here we used a mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model to show that upon epicutaneous antigen challenge, dendritic cells (DCs) formed clusters with effector T cells in dermal perivascular areas to promote in situ proliferation and activation of skin T cells in a manner dependent on antigen and the integrin LFA-1. We found that DCs accumulated in perivascular areas and that DC clustering was abrogated by depletion of macrophages. Treatment with interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induced production of the chemokine CXCL2 by dermal macrophages, and DC clustering was suppressed by blockade of either the receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R) or the receptor for CXCL2 (CXCR2). Our findings suggest that the dermal leukocyte cluster is an essential structure for elicitating acquired cutaneous immunity.
Radiotherapy is a successful treatment modality for localized cancer. Our group has been exploring radiotherapy in combination with immunotherapy (radioimmunotherapy) to enhance systemic antitumor responses. Previously, we have shown that when local radiotherapy was combined with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (that enable T-cell responses by engaging costimulation [anti (?)-CD137] and blocking coinhibition [?-PD-1], up to 100% of mice bearing established syngeneic AT-3 mammary tumors were cured, but single modality treatments were not curative. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to this radioimmunotherapy approach. We observed that inhibition of signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway during the first 10 days of treatment severely impaired the curative effect of radioimmunotherapy, at least in part by reducing MHC class I expression on tumor cells, reducing dendritic cell (DC) activation status and CD8+ T-cell function. This data indicates that the efficacy of this type of radioimmunotherapy approach involves mTOR signaling and therefore, mTOR inhibitory drugs may impede the efficacy of similar radioimmunotherapy approaches in humans.
We previously reported that blockade of the Notch ligand delta-like protein 1 (DLL-1) suppressed osteoclastogenesis and ameliorated arthritis in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the mechanisms by which joint inflammation were suppressed have not yet been revealed. This study was undertaken to determine whether DLL-1 regulates the production of RA-related proinflammatory cytokines.
Fas ligand expression in certain tumors has been proposed to contribute to immunosuppression and poor prognosis. However, immunotherapeutic approaches may elicit the Fas-mediated elimination of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within tumors that represent major obstacles for cancer immunotherapy. Previously, we showed that IL-2 and agonistic CD40 Ab (?CD40) elicited synergistic antitumor responses coincident with the efficient removal of Tregs and MDSCs. We demonstrate in this study in two murine tumor models that Treg and MDSC loss within the tumor microenvironment after IL-2/?CD40 occurs through a Fas-dependent cell death pathway. Among tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, CD8(+) T cells, neutrophils, and immature myeloid cells expressed Fas ligand after treatment. Fas was expressed by tumor-associated Tregs and immature myeloid cells, including MDSCs. Tregs and MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment expressed active caspases after IL-2/?CD40 therapy and, in contrast with effector T cells, Tregs significantly downregulated Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, Tregs and MDSCs proliferated and expanded in the spleen after treatment. Adoptive transfer of Fas-deficient Tregs or MDSCs into wild-type, Treg-, or MDSC-depleted hosts resulted in the persistence of Tregs or MDSCs and the loss of antitumor efficacy in response to IL-2/?CD40. These results demonstrate the importance of Fas-mediated Treg/MDSC removal for successful antitumor immunotherapy. Our results suggest that immunotherapeutic strategies that include exploiting Treg and MDSC susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis hold promise for treatment of cancer.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) dampen the immune response thorough inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation and often are expanded in pathological conditions. Here, we studied the fate of MDSCs in cancer. Unexpectedly, MDSCs had lower viability and a shorter half-life in tumor-bearing mice compared with neutrophils and monocytes. The reduction of MDSC viability was due to increased apoptosis, which was mediated by increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in these cells. Targeting TRAIL-Rs in naive mice did not affect myeloid cell populations, but it dramatically reduced the presence of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of myeloid cells with proinflammatory cytokines did not affect TRAIL-R expression; however, induction of ER stress in myeloid cells recapitulated changes in TRAIL-R expression observed in tumor-bearing hosts. The ER stress response was detected in MDSCs isolated from cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, but not in control neutrophils or monocytes, and blockade of ER stress abrogated tumor-associated changes in TRAIL-Rs. Together, these data indicate that MDSC pathophysiology is linked to ER stress, which shortens the lifespan of these cells in the periphery and promotes expansion in BM. Furthermore, TRAIL-Rs can be considered as potential targets for selectively inhibiting MDSCs.
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) belongs to the CD28 family of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules and regulates adaptive immunity. This molecule induces the development of regulatory T cells, T cell tolerance, or apoptosis. We examined the role of PD-1 pathway in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) mice. Up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were induced by TMEV infection in vitro. Furthermore, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression was increased in the spinal cords of the TMEV-infected mice in vivo. Treatment with a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against PD-1, especially during the effector phase, resulted in significant deterioration of the TMEV-IDD both clinically and histologically. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a dramatically increase of CD4(+) T cells producing Th1 cytokines such as IFN-? and TNF-? in the spinal cord of anti-PD-1 mAb-treated mice. These results indicate that the PD-1 pathway plays a pivotal regulatory role in the development of TMEV-IDD.
The gastrointestinal tract comes into direct contact with environmental agents, including bacteria, viruses, and foods. Intestine-specific subsets of immune cells maintain gut homeostasis by continuously sampling luminal antigens and maintaining immune tolerance. CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells sample luminal antigens in the small intestine and contribute to the trafficking of bacteria to lymph nodes under dysbiotic conditions. The molecular mechanisms crucial for the differentiation of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Notch1- or Notch2-Rbpj axis is essential for the development of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells. In mice in which Rbpj or Notch1 and Notch2 were deleted from CD11c(+) cells, there was a deficit of CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells and an accumulation of CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells. The CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells could not differentiate to CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells, suggesting that CD11c(low)CX3CR1(+) cells represent a lineage distinct from CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells. These data indicate that Notch signaling is essential for lineage fixation of intestinal CD11c(+)CX3CR1(+) cells.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most the aggressive type of breast cancer and is poorly responsive to endocrine therapeutics; however, one of the most attractive treatments is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-based therapies. To identify compounds that enhance the efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies, we screened 55 compounds from natural products in combination with TRAIL in TNBC cells.
Microfold (M) cells are specialized intestinal epithelial cells that internalize particulate antigens and aid in the establishment of immune responses to enteric pathogens. M cells have also been suggested as a portal for pathogen entry into the host. While virus particles have been observed in M cells, it is not known whether viruses use M cells to initiate a productive infection. Noroviruses (NoVs) are single-stranded RNA viruses that infect host organisms via the fecal-oral route. Murine NoV (MNV) infects intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells and provides a tractable experimental system for understanding how an enteric virus overcomes the intestinal epithelial barrier to infect underlying target cells. We found that replication of two divergent MNV strains was reduced in mice depleted of M cells. Reoviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that infect hosts via respiratory or enteric routes. In contrast to MNV, reovirus infects enterocytes in the intestine. Despite differences in cell tropism, reovirus infection was also reduced in M cell-depleted mice. These data demonstrate that M cells are required for the pathogenesis of two unrelated enteric viruses that replicate in different cell types within the intestine.
To investigate the importance of OX40 signals for physiological CD4(+) T-cell responses, an endogenous antigen-specific population of CD4(+) T cells that recognise the 2W1S peptide was assessed and temporal control of OX40 signals was achieved using blocking or agonistic antibodies (Abs) in vivo. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes expressing 2W1S peptide, OX40 was briefly expressed by the responding 2W1S-specific CD4(+) T cells, but only on a subset that co-expressed effector cell markers. This population was specifically expanded by Ab-ligation of OX40 during priming, which also caused skewing of the memory response towards effector memory cells. Strikingly, this greatly enhanced effector response was accompanied by the loss of T follicular helper (TFH) cells and germinal centres. Mice deficient in OX40 and CD30 showed normal generation of TFH cells but impaired numbers of 2W1S-specific effector cells. OX40 was not expressed by 2W1S-specific memory cells, although it was rapidly up-regulated upon challenge whereupon Ab-ligation of OX40 specifically affected the effector subset. In summary, these data indicate that for CD4(+) T cells, OX40 signals are important for generation of effector T cells rather than TFH cells in this response to acute bacterial infection.
B10.RIII mice were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide to induce uveitis. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with anti-very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), anti-leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), or a control Ab every other day from Day 5 to Day 13 post-immunization. The eyes and spleens were harvested on Day 14 or 28. The eyes were used for histologic/cytokine mRNA expression analyses. The spleens were used for Ag-recall cytokine production assays and intracellular cytokine assays. Treatment with both Abs led to a profoundly significant reduction in severity of uveitis and cytokine mRNA expression in the eye. However, cytokine production by splenocytes was significantly upregulated. Discontinuation of Ab treatment led to an increase in uveitis severity and cytokine mRNA expression in the eye, but led to a decrease in cytokine production and intracellular IFN-?(+) and IL-17A(+)cytokine profile by splenocytes. Thus, blockade of these molecules using specific Abs may be a therapeutic option for patients with uveitis; however, such treatment must be continued.
The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1, also known as kidney injury molecule-1, modulates CD4+ T-cell responses and is also expressed by damaged proximal tubules within the kidney. Both Th subset imbalance (Th1/Th2/Th17) and regulatory T-cell and B-cell alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. This study investigated the effects of an inhibitory anti-T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 antibody (RMT1-10) in lupus-prone MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. MRL-Fas(lpr) mice were treated with RMT1-10 or a control antibody intraperitoneally twice weekly from 3 mo of age for 16 wk. RMT1-10 treatment significantly improved survival, limited the development of lymphadenopathy and skin lesions, preserved renal function and decreased proteinuria, reduced serum anti-DNA antibody levels, and attenuated renal leukocyte accumulation. Th1 and Th17 cellular responses systemically and intrarenally were reduced, but regulatory T and B cells were increased. RMT1-10 treatment also reduced glomerular immunoglobulin and C3 deposition and suppressed cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Urinary excretion and renal expression of kidney injury molecule-1 was reduced, reflecting diminished interstitial injury. As RMT1-10 attenuated established lupus nephritis, manipulating immune system T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 may represent a therapeutic strategy in autoimmune diseases affecting the kidney.
One alternative approach for the treatment of lung cancer might be the activation of the immune system using vaccination strategies. However, most of clinical vaccination trials for lung cancer did not reach their primary end points, suggesting that lung cancer is of low immunogenicity. To provide additional experimental information about this important issue, we investigated which type of immune cells contributes to the protection from lung cancer development. Therefore, A/J mice induced for lung adenomas/ adenocarcinomas by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were depleted of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, CD11b+ macrophages, Gr-1+ neutrophils and asialo GM1+ natural killer (NK) cells. Subsequent analysis of tumour growth showed an increase in tumour number only in mice depleted of NK cells. Further asking by which mechanism NK cells suppressed tumour development, we neutralized several death ligands of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family known to be involved in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. However neither depletion of TNF-?, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis or FasL alone nor in combination induced an augmentation of tumour burden. To show whether an alternative cell death pathway is involved, we next generated A/J mice deficient for perforin. After challenging with NNK, mice deficient for perforin showed an increase in tumour number and volume compared to wild-type A/J mice. In summary, our data suggest that NK cells and perforin-mediated cytolysis are critically involved in the protection from lung cancer giving promise for further immunotherapeutic strategies for this disease.
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with the signal strength of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and required the coreceptor CD28 and the kinase TAK1. The neutralization of ligands that are members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) diminished the development of Treg cells. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced the differentiation of Treg cell progenitors by augmenting responsiveness of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) and transcription factor STAT5. Costimulation with the ligand of GITR elicited dose-dependent enrichment for cells of lower TCR affinity in the Treg cell repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated the development of Treg cells. Thus, expression of members of the TNFRSF on Treg cell progenitors translated strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promoted the development of Treg cells and shaped the Treg cell repertoire.
Infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in the central nervous system (CNS) induces an immune-mediated demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains and serves as a relevant infection model for human multiple sclerosis. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of the TIM-3 pathway in the development of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD). The expression of TIM-3 was increased at both protein and mRNA levels in the spinal cords of mice with TMEV-IDD compared with naive controls. In addition, by utilizing a blocking mAb, we demonstrate that TIM-3 negatively regulates TMEV-specific ex vivo production of IFN-? and IL-10 by CD4(+) T cells and IFN-? by CD8(+) T cells from the CNS of mice with TMEV-IDD at 36 days post-infection (dpi). In vivo blockade of TIM-3 by using the anti-TIM-3 mAb resulted in significant exacerbation of the development of TMEV-IDD both clinically and histologically. The number of infiltrating mononuclear cells in the CNS was also increased in mice administered with anti-TIM-3 mAb both at the induction phase (10 dpi) and at the effector phase (36 dpi). Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokines revealed that the number of CD4(+) T cells producing TNF, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 was significantly increased at the effector phase in the CNS of anti-TIM-3 mAb-treated mice. These results suggest that the TIM-3 pathway plays a critical role in the regulation of TMEV-IDD.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are promising agents for cancer therapy. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for the efficacy of HDACIs have not yet to be fully elucidated. Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a transmembrane receptor containing death domain that triggers cell death upon binding to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) or agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, and the combination of TRAIL/agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody and agents that increase the expression of DR5 is expected as a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy. Here we report that six different HDACIs activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor PERK and eIF2? and induced the ATF4/ATF3/CHOP pathway in p53-deficient human colon cancer cells. This resulted in an increased expression of DR5 on the cell surface and sensitized cells to apoptosis by agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody. Stress response gene ATF3 was required for efficient DR5 induction by HDACIs, and DR5 reporter assay showed that ATF3 play crucial role for the HDACIs-induced activation of DR5 gene transcription. These provide important mechanistic insight into how HDACIs exhibit pro-apoptotic activity in clinical anti-cancer treatments when they are used in combination with other therapeutic strategies.
The co-inhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) has been implicated in the regulation of autoimmunity and may potentially play an important role in allograft tolerance. This study investigated the effect of an agonistic anti-BTLA mAb (3C10) in the fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched murine cardiac transplantation.
Activation of Notch1 and Notch2 has been recently implicated in human glomerular diseases. Here we show that Notch2 prevents podocyte loss and nephrosis. Administration of a Notch2 agonistic monoclonal antibody ameliorates proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in a mouse model of nephrosis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In vitro, the specific knockdown of Notch2 increases apoptosis in damaged podocytes, while Notch2 agonistic antibodies enhance activation of Akt and protect damaged podocytes from apoptosis. Treatment with triciribine, an inhibitor of Akt pathway, abolishes the protective effect of the Notch2 agonistic antibody. We find a positive linear correlation between the number of podocytes expressing activated Notch2 and the number of residual podocytes in human nephrotic specimens. Hence, specific activation of Notch2 rescues damaged podocytes and activating Notch2 may represent a novel clinical strategy for the amelioration of nephrosis and glomerulosclerosis.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the key APCs not only for the priming of naïve T cells, but also for the induction and maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance. We have recently shown that cognate interactions between Foxp3(+) Tregs and steady-state DCs are crucial to maintain the tolerogenic potential of DCs. Using DIETER mice, which allow the induction of antigen presentation selectively on DCs without altering their maturation status, we show here that breakdown of CD8(+) T-cell tolerance, which ensues after depletion of suppressive CD4(+) T cells, is driven by a positive feedback loop in which autoreactive CD8(+) T cells activate DCs via CD40. These data identify ligation of CD40 on DCs as a stimulus that promotes autoreactive T-cell priming when regulatory T-cell suppression fails and suggest that feedback from autoreactive T cells to DCs may contribute to the well-documented involvement of CD40 in many autoimmune diseases.
Recent studies have suggested that acute kidney injury (AKI) develops into chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a mechanism for disease progression from AKI to CKD has not been established. We developed two ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) mouse models, a repaired kidney model and an atrophic kidney model, and studied the mechanisms of renal atrophy after IRI by comparing the two models. We found that renal atrophy after IRI depended on tubular apoptosis at 14 days after IRI. Moreover, we found that Tnf? and FasL mRNA were synchronously expressed at the time of tubular apoptosis. To elucidate the relationship between tubular apoptosis and apoptotic ligands, we administered TNF? and FasL neutralizing antibodies according to the time of tubular apoptosis. TNF? blockade significantly repressed tubular apoptosis, resulting in the prevention of renal atrophy. FasL blockade could not repress tubular apoptosis, resulting in renal atrophy. We also found that TNF receptors were expressed in the kidney at 14 days after IRI, but Fas receptor was not. We concluded that renal atrophy after IRI depends on tubular apoptosis induced by the TNF? signaling pathway in the later phase of renal IRI, and that TNF? blockade could be a potential new therapeutic approach for improving renal prognosis after AKI.
We examined the regulatory role of ?v integrins in the development of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Blockade of ?v integrins by anti-?v integrin monoclonal antibody (mAb) in the effector phase significantly suppressed the development of TMEV-IDD both clinically and histologically. The number of infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the CNS was significantly decreased in mice treated with anti-?v integrin mAb. Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine staining revealed that absolute numbers of IFN-?- and IL-17-producing CD4+ and IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased in the CNS of mice treated with anti-?v integrin mAb. These data suggest that ?v integrins may play important roles in the development of TMEV-IDD.
Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion.
Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is an essential step in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of liver cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization is mediated by the multifunctional sorting protein PACS-2 and repressed by the E3 ligases cIAP-1 and cIAP-2. Despite the opposing roles for PACS-2 and cIAPs in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, an interaction between these proteins has yet to be examined. Herein, we report that cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 confer TRAIL resistance to hepatobiliary cancer cell lines by reducing PACS-2 levels. Under basal conditions, PACS-2 underwent K48-linked poly-ubiquitination, resulting in PACS-2 proteasomal degradation. Biochemical assays showed cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 interacted with PACS-2 in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two cIAPs bound PACS-2 in vivo. More importantly, both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 directly mediated PACS-2 ubiquitination in a cell-free assay. Single c-Iap-1 or c-Iap-2 gene knock-outs in mouse hepatocytes did not lead to PACS-2 accumulation. However, deletion of both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 reduced PACS-2 ubiquitination, which increased PACS-2 levels and sensitized HuH-7 cells to TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Correspondingly, deletion of cIAPs sensitized wild-type, but not PACS-2-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells or Pacs-2-/- mouse hepatocytes to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together, these data suggest cIAPs constitutively downregulate PACS-2 by polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thereby restraining TRAIL-induced killing of liver cancer cells.
It has been suggested that prolonged inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may lead to colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). We previously observed that the NF-?B activation in colonic epithelial cells is associated with increased tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression in CAC development. However, the mechanism by which epithelial NF-?B activation leading to CAC is still unclear. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to be responsible for the epithelial permeability associated with TNF signaling. Therefore we focused on the role of MLCK expression via TNFR2 signaling on CAC development. Pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-6 and MIP-2 production as well as INF-? and TNF production at the lamina propria were increased in the setting of colitis, and further in tumor tissues in associations with up-regulated TNFR2 and MLCK expressions in the epithelial cells of a CAC model. The up-regulated MLCK expression was observed in TNF-stimulated colonic epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion in association with up-regulation of TNFR2. Silencing TNFR2, but not TNFR1, resulted in restoration of epithelial tight junction (TJ) associated with decreased MLCK expression. Antibody-mediated blockade of TNF signaling also resulted in restoration of TJ in association with suppressed MLCK expression, and interestingly, similar results were observed with suppressing TNFR2 and MLCK expressions by inhibiting MLCK in the epithelial cells. Silencing of MLCK also resulted in suppressed TNFR2, but not TNFR1, expression, suggesting that the restored TJ leads to reduced TNFR2 signaling. Such suppression of MLCK as well as blockade of TNFR2 signaling resulted in restored TJ, decreased pro-tumorigenic cytokines and reduced CAC development. These results suggest that MLCK may be a potential target for the prevention of IBD-associated tumor development.
Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signaling leads to the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and this proinflammatory gene expression is sustained for the duration of the inflammatory response. TLR4-mediated inflammation, which occurs in two phases, depends on the TNF family member 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) to sustain TNF-? production during late-phase signaling. We showed that Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and the kinase IRAK2 interacted with 4-1BBL to mediate late-phase TLR4 signaling. Expression of 4-1bbl depended on early TLR4 signaling that also induced Tnf expression, and 4-1BBL translocated to the plasma membrane, where it interacted with TLR4 to mediate late-phase signaling. TLR4-4-1BBL-mediated signaling depended on TIRAP and IRAK2, as well as a complex consisting of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), the kinase TAK1 (transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase 1), and the adaptor protein TAB1 (TAK-binding protein 1). Inhibition of this late-phase pathway reduced the extent of TNF-? production by mouse macrophages exposed to the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ameliorated LPS-induced sepsis in mice. Together, these data suggest that TIRAP and IRAK2 are critical for the sustained inflammatory response that is mediated by late-phase signaling by the TLR-4-1BBL complex.
Following its secretion from cytotoxic lymphocytes into the immune synapse, perforin binds to target cell membranes through its Ca2+-dependent C2 domain. Membrane-bound perforin then forms pores that allow passage of pro-apoptopic granzymes into the target cell. In the present study, structural and biochemical studies reveal that Ca2+ binding triggers a conformational change in the C2 domain that permits four key hydrophobic residues to interact with the plasma membrane. However, in contrast with previous suggestions, these movements and membrane binding do not trigger irreversible conformational changes in the pore-forming MACPF (membrane attack complex/perforin-like) domain, indicating that subsequent monomer-monomer interactions at the membrane surface are required for perforin pore formation.
Patients suffering from cardiovascular disease have well-established atherosclerotic lesions, rendering lesion regression of therapeutic interest. The OX40 (TNFRSF4)-OX40 ligand (OX40L; TNFSF4) pathway is important for the proliferation and survival of T cells, stimulates B cells, and is associated with cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that interference with the OX40-OX40L pathway, in combination with decreases in cholesterol, may induce regression of atherosclerosis. LDLr(-/-) mice were fed a Western-type diet for 10 wk, after which they received chow diet and were treated with anti-OX40L or PBS for 10 wk. A significant regression of lesions was observed in the aorta and aortic arch of anti-OX40L-treated mice compared with control mice. Interference of the OX40-OX40L pathway reduced Th2 responses, as shown by decreases in GATA-3 and IL-4 levels. Also, IgE levels were decreased, as demonstrated by reduced mast cell presence and activation. Notably, IL-5 production by T and B1 cells was increased, thus enhancing atheroprotective oxidized low-density lipoprotein-specific IgM production. The increase in IL-5 production and IgM was mediated by IL-33 production by APCs upon OX40L blockade. We conclude that interruption of the OX40-OX40L signaling pathway, combined with decreases in dietary cholesterol, induces the regression of atherosclerosis through induction of IL-5-producing T cells and oxidized low-density lipoprotein-specific IgM and reductions in Th2 and mast cells.
T cell Ig and mucin domain (TIM)-4 is involved in immune regulation. However, the pathological function of TIM-4 has not been understood and remains to be clarified in various disease models. In this study, DBA/1 mice were treated with anti-TIM-4 mAb during the induction or effector phase of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Anti-TIM-4 treatment in the induction phase exacerbated the development of CIA. In vitro experiments suggest that CD4 T cells bind to TIM-4 on APCs, which induces inhibitory effect to CD4 T cells. In contrast, therapeutic treatment with anti-TIM-4 mAb just before or after the onset or even at later stage of CIA significantly suppressed the development and progression by reducing proinflammatory cytokines in the ankle joints without affecting T or B cell responses. Consistently, clinical arthritis scores of collagen Ab-induced arthritis, which is not mediated by T or B cells, were significantly reduced in anti-TIM-4-treated mice with a concomitant decrease of proinflammatory cytokines in the joints. In vitro, macrophages secreted proinflammatory cytokines in response to TIM-4-Ig protein and LPS, which were reduced by the anti-TIM-4 mAb. The anti-TIM-4 mAb also inhibited the differentiation and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. These results indicate that TIM-4 has two distinct functions depending on the stage of arthritis. The therapeutic effect of anti-TIM-4 mAb on arthritis is mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production by inflammatory cells, osteoclast differentiation, and bone resorption, suggesting that TIM-4 might be an appropriate target for the therapeutic treatment of arthritis.
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, play an important role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. We explored the role of PD-1 ligands in regulating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Both PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression were upregulated in the spleen, liver, colon, and ileum of GVHD mice. Whereas PD-L2 expression was limited to hematopoietic cells, hematopoietic and endothelial cells expressed PD-L1. PD-1/PD-L1, but not PD-1/PD-L2, blockade markedly accelerated GVHD-induced lethality. Chimera studies suggest that PD-L1 expression on host parenchymal cells is more critical than hematopoietic cells in regulating acute GVHD. Rapid mortality onset in PD-L1-deficient hosts was associated with increased gut T-cell homing and loss of intestinal epithelial integrity, along with increased donor T-cell proliferation, activation, Th1 cytokine production, and reduced apoptosis. Bioenergetics profile analysis of proliferating alloreactive donor T-cells demonstrated increased aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in PD-L1-deficient hosts. Donor T-cells exhibited a hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, increased superoxide production, and increased expression of a glucose transporter in PD-L1-deficient hosts. Taken together, these data provide new insight into the differential roles of host PD-L1 and PD-L2 and their associated cellular and metabolic mechanisms controlling acute GVHD.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic autoimmune-like disease in which lipids and fibrous elements accumulate in the arterial blood vessels. T cells are present within atherosclerotic plaques, and their activation is partially dependent on costimulatory signals, which can either provide positive or negative signals that promote T-cell activation or limit T-cell responses, respectively. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a coinhibitory type 1 transmembrane protein that affects the function of several immune cells involved in atherosclerosis, such as monocytes, macrophages, effector T cells, and regulatory T cells. In the present study, we determined the role of Tim-3 in the development of atherosclerosis.
Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4 on both effector (T eff) and regulatory (T reg) T cells, resulting in enhanced antitumor effector T cell activity capable of inducing tumor regression. We demonstrate, however, that the activity of anti-CTLA-4 antibody on the T reg cell compartment is mediated via selective depletion of T reg cells within tumor lesions. Importantly, T reg cell depletion is dependent on the presence of Fc? receptor-expressing macrophages within the tumor microenvironment, indicating that T reg cells are depleted in trans in a context-dependent manner. Our results reveal further mechanistic insight into the activity of anti-CTLA-4-based cancer immunotherapy, and illustrate the importance of specific features of the local tumor environment on the final outcome of antibody-based immunomodulatory therapies.
Despite careful patient selection, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurs in 10-20% of cases after liver transplantation, and the use of potent adjuvant anticancer drugs would be welcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a combined therapy of rapamycin (sirolimus) and anti-death receptor (DR)5 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on HCC.
CD4 T cells play a key role in immunological memory. We have demonstrated that professional memory CD4 T cells reside and rest in the bone marrow (BM). However, the molecular mechanisms of their establishment in the BM and their maintenance remain unclear. We here show that memory CD4 T cells express high levels of CD49b and that CD49b-deficient or -blocked memory CD4 T-cell precursors fail to migrate from blood into the marrow of the bone, and they especially fail to transmigrate through sinusoidal endothelial cells of the BM. In the marrow, memory CD4 T cells and the precursors contact stromal cells expressing collagen II that are specific ligands for CD49b. Interestingly, memory CD4 T cells on day 117 of an immune response also dock on IL-7(+)/collagen XI(+) stromal cells, whereas memory precursors on day 12 do not. These results indicate that the collagen receptor CD49b is required for the migration of memory CD4 T-cell precursors into their survival niches of the bone marrow.
Because immune responses simultaneously defend and injure the host, the immune system must be finely regulated to ensure the hosts survival. Here, we have shown that when injected with high Toll-like receptor ligand doses or infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, which has a high viral turnover, inflammatory monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) engulfed apoptotic erythroid cells. In this process, called hemophagocytosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) served as an "eat-me" signal. Type I interferons were necessary for both PS exposure on erythroid cells and the expression of PS receptors in the Mo-DCs. Importantly, hemophagocytosis was required for interleukin-10 (IL-10) production from Mo-DCs. Blocking hemophagocytosis or Mo-DC-derived IL-10 significantly increased cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte activity, tissue damage, and mortality in virus-infected hosts, suggesting that hemophagocytosis moderates immune responses to ensure the hosts survival in vivo. This sheds light on the physiological relevance of hemophagocytosis in severe inflammatory and infectious diseases.
Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant V?14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional V?14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcr? locus. We demonstrate that naïve T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with V?14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR.
The TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK; TNFSF12) receptor Fn14 (TNFRSF12A) is expressed at low levels in normal tissues but frequently highly expressed in a wide range of tumor types such as lung, melanoma, and breast, and therefore it is a potentially unique therapeutic target for these diverse tumor types. We have generated a recombinant protein containing a humanized, dimeric single-chain anti-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14-kDa protein (Fn14) antibody fused to recombinant gelonin toxin as a potential therapeutic agent (designated hSGZ). The hSGZ immunotoxin is a highly potent and selective agent that kills Fn14-positive (Fn14(+)) tumor cells in vitro. Treatment of cells expressing the MDR protein MDR1 (ABCB1B) showed no cross-resistance to hSGZ. Induced overexpression of Fn14 levels in MCF7 cells through HER2 (ERBB2) signaling translated to an improved therapeutic index of hSGZ treatment. In combination with trastuzumab, hSGZ showed an additive or synergistic cytotoxic effect on HER2(+)/Fn14(+) breast cancer cell lines. Also, hSGZ treatment inhibited Erb3/Akt signaling in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that hSGZ exhibited a biexponential clearance from plasma with a rapid initial clearance (t1/2? = 1.26 hours) followed by a seven-fold longer plasma half-life (t1/2? = 7.29 hours). At 24, 48, and 72 hours after injection, uptake of the hSGZ into tumors was 5.1, 4.8, and 4.7%ID/g, with a tumor-to-muscle ratio of 5.6, 6.2, and 9.0, respectively. Therapeutic efficacy studies showed significant tumor inhibition effects using an MDA-MB-231/Luc breast cancer xenograft model. Our findings show that hSGZ is an effective anticancer agent and a potential candidate for clinical studies.
Timely detection of colorectal cancer metastases may permit improvements in their clinical management. Here, we investigated a putative role for bone marrow-derived cells in the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a marker for onset of metastasis. In ectopic and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal cancer, bone marrow-derived CD11b(Itgam)(+)Jagged2 (Jag2)(+) cells infiltrated primary tumors and surrounded tumor cells that exhibited diminished expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin, 2 hallmarks of EMT. In vitro coculture experiments showed that the bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells induced EMT through a Notch-dependent pathway. Using neutralizing antibodies, we imposed a blockade on CD11b(+) cells recruitment to tumors, which decreased the tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cell population of interest, decreasing tumor growth, restoring E-cadherin expression, and delaying EMT. In support of these results, we found that peripheral blood levels of CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in mouse models of colorectal cancer and in a cohort of untreated patients with colorectal cancer were indicative of metastatic disease. In patients with colorectal cancer, the presence of circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells was accompanied by loss of E-cadherin in the corresponding patient tumors. Taken together, our results show that bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells, which infiltrate primary colorectal tumors, are sufficient to induce EMT in tumor cells, thereby triggering onset of metastasis. Furthermore, they argue that quantifying circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in patients may offer an indicator of colorectal cancer progression to metastatic levels of the disease.
Tumor hypoxia commonly occurs in solid tumors, and correlates with metastasis. Current cancer therapies are inefficient in curing metastatic disease. Herein, we examined effect of Thai propolis extract and its major constituent, chrysin, on hypoxic survival of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells in vitro, and investigated its underlying mechanism. In vivo effect of chrysin on metastatic progression of cancer cells was studied, both as a single agent and in combination with another antimetastatic agent, agonistic monoclonal antibody targeting the DR5 TRAIL receptor (DR5 mAb). Thai propolis extract and chrysin decreased survival of 4T1 cells after exposure to hypoxia (1% O2), for 2 days. Immunoblot analysis revealed that chrysin inhibited hypoxia-induced STAT3 phosphorylation without affecting HIF-1? protein level. Chrysin also abrogated hypoxia-induced VEGF gene expression as determined by qRT-PCR. The in vivo effect of chrysin was determined in a spontaneous metastasis mouse model of breast cancer, either alone or in combination with DR5 mAb. Daily oral administration of chrysin in Balb/c mice implanted with 4T1 cells significantly suppressed growth of lung metastatic colonies. Moreover, antimetastatic activity of DR5 mAb was enhanced when given in combination with chrysin. We demonstrate that chrysin has potential in controlling metastatic progression.
Imbalance in gut bacterial composition provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as colitis. Colonization with a mixture of Clostridium species from clusters IV and XIVa was shown to suppress colitis through the induction of IL-10-producing regulatory T (Treg) cells. We demonstrate that a distinct Clostridium strain from cluster I, Clostridium butyricum (CB), prevents acute experimental colitis in mice through induction of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. However, while CB treatment had no effect on IL-10 production by T cells, IL-10-producing F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CD11c(int) macrophages accumulated in the inflamed mucosa after CB treatment. CB directly triggered IL-10 production by intestinal macrophages in inflamed mucosa via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway. The colitis-preventing effect of CB was negated in macrophage-specific IL-10-deficient mice, suggesting that induction of IL-10 by intestinal macrophages is crucial for the probiotic action of CB. Collectively, CB promotes IL-10 production by intestinal macrophages in inflamed mucosa, thereby preventing experimental colitis in mice.
Leukocytes must traverse inflamed tissues to effectively control local infection. Although motility in dense tissues seems to be integrin independent and based on actomyosin-mediated protrusion and contraction, during inflammation, changes to the extracellular matrix (ECM) may necessitate distinct motility requirements. Indeed, we found that the interstitial motility of T cells was critically dependent on Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-binding integrins in the inflamed dermis. Inflammation-induced deposition of fibronectin was functionally linked to higher expression of integrin ?V on effector CD4? T cells. By intravital multiphoton imaging, we found that the motility of CD4? T cells was dependent on ?V expression. Selective blockade or knockdown of ?V arrested T helper type 1 (TH1) cells in the inflamed tissue and attenuated local effector function. Our data demonstrate context-dependent specificity of lymphocyte movement in inflamed tissues that is essential for protective immunity.
Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by myeloid cells has been implicated in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-containing molecule-4 (TIM-4) repressed tumor-specific immunity triggered by chemotherapy-induced tumor cell death. TIM-4 was found to be highly expressed on tumor-associated myeloid cells such as macrophages (TAMs) and dendritic cells (TADCs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from chemotherapy-damaged tumor cells induced TIM-4 on tumor-associated myeloid cells recruited from bone marrow-derived precursors. TIM-4 directly interacted with AMPK?1 and activated autophagy-mediated degradation of ingested tumors, leading to reduced antigen presentation and impaired CTL responses. Consistently, blockade of the TIM-4-AMPK?1-autophagy pathway augmented the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutics by enhancing tumor-specific CTL responses. Our finding provides insight into the immune tolerance mediated by phagocytosis of dying cells, and targeting of the TIM-4-AMPK?1 interaction constitutes a unique strategy for augmenting antitumor immunity and improving cancer chemotherapy.
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish lifelong infections that are controlled in part by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. To promote persistence, CMVs utilize multiple strategies to evade host immunity, including modulation of costimulatory molecules on infected antigen-presenting cells. In humans, CMV-specific memory T cells are characterized by the loss of CD27 expression, which suggests a critical role of the costimulatory receptor-ligand pair CD27-CD70 for the development of CMV-specific T cell immunity. In this study, the in vivo role of CD27-CD70 costimulation during mouse CMV infection was examined. During the acute phase of infection, the magnitudes of CMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses were decreased in mice with abrogated CD27-CD70 costimulation. Moreover, the accumulation of inflationary memory T cells during the persistent phase of infection and the ability to undergo secondary expansion required CD27-CD70 interactions. The downmodulation of CD27 expression, however, which occurs gradually and exclusively on inflationary memory T cells, is ligand independent. Furthermore, the IL-2 production in both noninflationary and inflationary CMV-specific T cells was dependent on CD27-CD70 costimulation. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of the CD27-CD70 costimulation pathway for the development of CMV-specific T cell immunity during acute and persistent infection.
Accumulating evidence has revealed that immunogenic cell death triggered by particular chemotherapeutic agents plays a critical role in harnessing antitumor immunity to clinical responses. However, negative regulatory pathways exist which suppress the induction of effective immune responses by a broad spectrum of anticancer therapies including non-immunogenic regimens. Tumor-associated myeloid cells are unique in that they are capable of manipulating responses to anticancer drugs by utilizing negative regulatory factors of innate immune pathways, including damage-associated molecule-mediated pattern recognition and tolerogenic phagocytosis. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating innate immune responses of tumor-associated myeloid cells under cellular stress should enhance the development of new molecular targeting therapies for patients with treatment-refractory cancers.
The Notch pathway is an important intercellular signaling pathway that plays a major role in controlling cell fate. Accumulating evidence indicates that Notch and its ligands present on antigen-presenting cells might be important mediators of T helper cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of Jagged2 in murine cardiac transplantation by using a signaling Jagged2 mAb (Jag2) that activates recombinant signal-binding protein-J?. While administration of Jag2 mAb had little effect on graft survival in the fully allogeneic mismatched model BALB/c?B6, it hastened rejection in CD28-deficient recipients. Similarly, Jag2 precipitated rejection in the bm12?B6 model. In this MHC class II-mismatched model, allografts spontaneously survive for >56 days due to the emergence of Treg cells that inhibit the expansion of alloreactive T cells. The accelerated rejection was associated with upregulation of Th2 cytokines and proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, despite expansion of Treg cells. Incubation of Treg cells with recombinant IL-6 abrogated their inhibitory effects in vitro. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-6 in vivo protected Jag2-treated recipients from rejection and Jagged2 signaling was unable to further accelerate rejection in the absence of Treg cells. Our findings therefore suggest that Jagged2 signaling can affect graft acceptance by upregulation of IL-6 and consequent resistance to Treg-cell suppression.
In a successful pregnancy, the semiallogeneic fetus is not rejected by the maternal immune system, which implies tolerance mechanisms protecting fetal tissues from maternal immune attack. Here we report that the ICOS-B7h costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in maintaining the equilibrium at the fetomaternal interface. Blockade of this pathway increased fetal resorption and decreased fetal survival in an allogeneic pregnancy model (CBA female × B6 male). Locally in the placenta, levels of regulatory markers such as IDO and TGF-?1 were reduced after anti-B7h monoclonal antibody treatment, whereas levels of effector cytokines (eg, IFN-?) were significantly increased. In secondary lymphoid organs, enhanced IFN-? and granzyme B production (predominantly by CD8(+) T cells) was observed in the anti-B7h-treated group. The deleterious effect of B7h blockade in pregnancy was maintained only in CD4 knockout mice, not in CD8 knockout mice, which suggests a role for CD8(+) T cells in immune regulation by the ICOS-B7h pathway. In accord, regulatory CD8(+) T cells (in particular, CD8(+)CD103(+) cells) were significantly decreased after anti-B7h monoclonal antibody treatment, and adoptive transfer of this subset abrogated the deleterious effect of B7h blockade in fetomaternal tolerance. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that B7h blockade abrogates tolerance at the fetomaternal interface by enhancing CD8(+) effector response and reducing local immunomodulation mediated by CD8(+) regulatory T cells.
Berberine (BBR) has been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and also for cancer-associated symptoms such as diarrhea. Furthermore, it has been reported that BBR may have direct antitumor effects. Although evidence supports the theory that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for treating cancer, its usage may be limited due to the resistance to the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of BBR on TRAIL-induced antitumor effects was investigated in vitro using recombinant TRAIL and in vivo using a 4T1 murine breast cancer model in combination with anti-DR5 (death-inducing TRAIL receptor) monoclonal antibody therapy. BBR sensitized human breast cancer cell lines to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in vitro. The combination of BBR and recombinant TRAIL significantly activated caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in TRAIL-resistant MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, BBR in combination with TRAIL more effectively induced apoptosis compared with coptisine (COP), which is structurally related to BBR. In a murine 4T1 breast cancer model, BBR treatment enhanced the efficacy of anti-DR5 antibody therapy against primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. Thus, BBR may become a new adjuvant for overcoming the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL/DR5-mediated therapy.
Hedgehog signaling pathway activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Despite this concept, hedgehog pathway inhibitors have not been explored. Thus, we examined the effect of vismodegib, a hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, in a diet-induced model of NASH. C57BL/6 mice were placed on 3-month chow or FFC (high saturated fats, fructose, and cholesterol) diet. One week prior to sacrifice, mice were treated with vismodegib or vehicle. Mice fed the FFC diet developed significant steatosis, which was unchanged by vismodegib therapy. In contrast, vismodegib significantly attenuated FFC-induced liver injury as manifested by reduced serum ALT and hepatic TUNEL-positive cells. In line with the decreased apoptosis, vismodegib prevented FFC-induced strong upregulation of death receptor DR5 and its ligand TRAIL. In addition, FFC-fed mice, but not chow-fed animals, underwent significant liver injury and apoptosis following treatment with a DR5 agonist; however, this injury was prevented by pre-treatment with vismodegib. Consistent with a reduction in liver injury, vismodegib normalized FFC-induced markers of inflammation including mRNA for TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and a variety of macrophage markers. Furthermore, vismodegib in FFC-fed mice abrogated indices of hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, inhibition of hedgehog signaling with vismodegib appears to reduce TRAIL-mediated liver injury in a nutrient excess model of NASH, thereby attenuating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. We speculate that hedgehog signaling inhibition may be salutary in human NASH.
The eye is an immune-privileged organ, and corneal transplantation is therefore one of the most successful organ transplantation. The immunosuppressive intraocular microenvironment is known as one of the mechanisms underlying immune privilege in the eye. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is a regulatory molecule for T-cell function, and galectin (Gal)-9 is a Tim-3 ligand. We investigated the role of this pathway in establishing the immune-privileged status of corneal allografts in mice. Gal-9 is constitutively expressed on the corneal epithelium, endothelium and iris-ciliary body in normal mouse eyes and eyes bearing surviving allografts, and Tim-3 was expressed on CD8 T cells infiltrating the allografts. Allograft survival in recipients treated with anti-Tim-3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or anti-Gal-9 mAb was significantly shorter than that in control recipients. In vitro, destruction of corneal endothelial cells by allo-reactive T cells was enhanced when the cornea was pretreated with anti-Gal-9 mAb. Blockade of Tim-3 or Gal-9 did not abolish anterior chamber-associated immune deviation. We propose that constitutive expression of Gal-9 plays an immunosuppressive role in corneal allografts. Gal-9 expressed on corneal endothelial cells protects them from destruction by allo-reactive T cells within the cornea.
Retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR) ?t is known to be related to the development and function of various immunological compartments in the liver, such as Th17 cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). We evaluated the roles of ROR?t-expressing cells in mouse acute hepatitis model using ROR?t deficient (ROR?t(-/-)) mice and RAG-2 and ROR?t double deficient (RAG-2(-/-) × ROR?t(-/-)) mice. Acute hepatitis was induced in mice by injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), to investigate the regulation of liver inflammation by ROR?t-expressing cells. We detected RORC expression in three compartments, CD4(+) T cells, NKT cells, and lineage marker-negative SCA-1(+)Thy1(high) ILCs, of the liver of wild type (WT) mice. CCl4-treated ROR?t(-/-) mice developed liver damage in spite of lack of ROR?t-dependent cells, but with reduced infiltration of macrophages compared with WT mice. In this regard, ILCs were significantly decreased in RAG-2(-/-) × ROR?t(-/-) mice that lacked T and NKT cells. Surprisingly, RAG-2(-/-) × ROR?t(-/-) mice developed significantly severer CCl4-induced hepatitis compared with RAG-2(-/-) mice, in accordance with the fact that hepatic ILCs failed to produce IL-22. Lastly, anti-Thy1 monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not anti-NK1.1 mAb or anti-asialo GM1 Ab administration exacerbated liver damage in RAG-2(-/-) mice with the depletion of liver ILCs. Collectively, hepatic ROR?t-dependent ILCs play a part of protective roles in hepatic immune response in mice.
RANK and its ligand RANKL play important roles in the development and regulation of the immune system. We show that mice transgenic for Rank in hair follicles display massive postnatal growth of skin-draining lymph nodes. The proportions of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic stromal cells and their organization are maintained, with the exception of an increase in B cell follicles. The hematopoietic cells are not activated and respond to immunization by foreign Ag and adjuvant. We demonstrate that soluble RANKL is overproduced from the transgenic hair follicles and that its neutralization normalizes lymph node size, inclusive area, and numbers of B cell follicles. Reticular fibroblastic and vascular stromal cells, important for secondary lymphoid organ formation and organization, express RANK and undergo hyperproliferation, which is abrogated by RANKL neutralization. In addition, they express higher levels of CXCL13 and CCL19 chemokines, as well as MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell-adhesion molecules. These findings highlight the importance of tissue-derived cues for secondary lymphoid organ homeostasis and identify RANKL as a key molecule for controlling the plasticity of the immune system.
The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1) modulates CD4(+) T-cell responses and is also expressed by damaged proximal tubules in the kidney where it is known as kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). We sought to define the role of endogenous Tim-1 in experimental T-cell-mediated glomerulonephritis induced by sheep anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane globulin acting as a planted foreign antigen. Tim-1 is expressed by infiltrating activated CD4(+) cells in this model, and we studied the effects of an inhibitory anti-Tim-1 antibody (RMT1-10) on immune responses and glomerular disease. Crescentic glomerulonephritis, proliferative injury, and leukocyte accumulation were attenuated following treatment with anti-Tim-1 antibodies, but interstitial foxp3(+) cell accumulation and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased. T-cell proliferation and apoptosis decreased in the immune system along with a selective reduction in Th1 and Th17 cellular responses both in the immune system and within the kidney. The urinary excretion and renal expression of Kim-1 was reduced by anti-Tim-1 antibodies reflecting diminished interstitial injury. The effects of anti-Tim-1 antibodies were not apparent in the early phase of renal injury, when the immune response to sheep globulin was developing. Thus, endogenous Tim-1 promotes Th1 and Th17 nephritogenic immune responses and its neutralization reduces renal injury while limiting inflammation in cell-mediated glomerulonephritis.
Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a ligand for T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3), induces apoptosis in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)(+) Tim-3(+) T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells via the Gal-9-Tim-3 pathway and negatively regulates T(H)1 immunity. In turn, Gal-9 activates dendritic cells (DC) to produce TNF-?, which promotes the T(H)1 response. We investigated the efficacy of Gal-9 against T(H)1-mediated autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice and compared with anti-Tim-3 monoclonal antibody (RMT3-23), which inhibited the binding between Tim-3-Ig and Gal-9 in a solid-phase binding assay. mRNA expression of Gal-9 was prominently induced by the treatment of interferon-? in MIN6 cells, and Gal-9 was also expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells in NOD mice, suggesting Gal-9 may be released from pancreatic ?-cells to terminate T(H)1-mediated inflammation. Long-term injection of Gal-9 exhibits preventive efficacy for development of diabetes in NOD mice, but RMT3-23 demonstrated further prominent therapeutic potential compared with Gal-9. Gal-9 induced apoptosis of CD4(+)Tim-3(+) T(H)1 cells at the concentration of 0.2 ?M, whereas RMT3-23 failed to enhance the apoptosis of CD4(+)Tim-3(+) T(H)1 cells. In contrast, Gal-9 induced TNF-? production in cultured DC in a dose-dependent manner; however, RMT3-23 inhibited Gal-9-induced TNF-? production in a dose-dependent manner. Although Gal-9 exhibited certain therapeutic potential against autoimmune diabetes by enhancing apoptosis of CD4(+)Tim-3(+) T(H)1 cells, RMT3-23 exhibited prominent therapeutic efficacy by suppressing the TNF-? production and activation of DC. Taken together, the inhibition of the Gal-9-Tim-3 pathway on DC, upstream of T(H)1 response, may be a new target for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Because most patients with cancer are aged and because immunological functions are altered during aging, it is important to account for aging-associated immunological alterations in the design of new cancer immunotherapies. We thus compared immune populations in young and aged mice and found that B7-DC(+) (PD-L2/CD273) B cells, a minor population in young mice, were significantly increased in aged mice. Induction of both Th1 and Th17 cells was significantly augmented by B7-DC(+) B cells from aged mice, and this effect was blocked with anti-B7-DC antibodies in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, retardation of tumor growth in aged mice was largely B7-DC dependent. Tumor growth in young mice was significantly inhibited by immunization with B7-DC(+) B cells from aged mice owing to increased induction of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These data indicate that B7-DC(+) B cells could play an important role in aging-associated cancer immunopathology as well as in other aging-associated diseases and further suggest that B7-DC(+) B cells have potential for future cancer immunotherapy.
Interleukin(IL)-17A, an inflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in atherosclerosis, in which inflammatory cells within atherosclerotic plaques express IL-17A. However, its role in the development of atheroscelrosis remains to be controversial.
Although the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor progression and metastasis, the relationship between chemotherapy resistance and modulation of the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. Here, we report a novel mechanism showing how constitutive DNA damage signals in therapy-resistant tumor cells suppress antitumor immunity in an integrin-?v?3-dependent manner. Integrin-?v?3 was upregulated on various therapy-resistant tumor cells through chronic activation of ATM/Chk2-and NF?B-mediated pathways. Inhibiting tumor-specific expression of integrin-?v?3 improved therapeutic responses to anticancer drugs by stimulating endogenous host immune systems. Mechanistic investigations revealed that tumor-specific integrin-?v?3 expression targeted dendritic cells, facilitating their ability to phagocytose viable therapy-resistant tumor cells and thereby impaired their ability to cross-prime antigen-specific T lymphocytes. Together, our results clarify the detrimental effects of constitutive DNA damage signals to chemosensitivity and antitumor immunity. Furthermore, these findings suggest that integrin-?v?3 targeting may benefit patients refractory to current anticancer regimens by defeating DNA damage signaling-induced immune escape.
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated cell death plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells and transformed cells. Recently, recombinant TRAIL and agonistic anti-DR5 monoclonal antibodies have been developed and applied to cancer therapy. However, depending on the type of cancer, the sensitivity to TRAIL has been reportedly different, and some tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Using confocal microscopy, we found that large amounts of DR5 were localized in the nucleus in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, these tumor cells were resistant to TRAIL, whereas DU145 cells, which do not have nuclear DR5, were highly sensitive to TRAIL. By means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, we found that DR5 and importin ?1 were physically associated, suggesting that the nuclear DR5 was transported through the nuclear import pathway mediated by importin ?1. Two functional nuclear localization signals were identified in DR5, the mutation of which abrogated the nuclear localization of DR5 in HeLa cells. Moreover, the nuclear transport of DR5 was also prevented by the knockdown of importin ?1 using siRNA, resulting in the up-regulation of DR5 expression on the cell surface and an increased sensitivity of HeLa and HepG2 cells to TRAIL. Taken together, our findings suggest that the importin ?1-mediated nuclear localization of DR5 limits the DR5/TRAIL-induced cell death of human tumor cells and thus can be a novel target to improve cancer therapy with recombinant TRAIL and anti-DR5 antibodies.
The Notch signaling pathway has been recently shown to contribute to T cell differentiation in vitro. However, the in vivo function of Notch signaling in transplantation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the importance of Delta1 in regulating the alloimmune response in vivo. Delta1 expression was upregulated on dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages upon transplantation in a BALB/c into B6 vascularized cardiac transplant model. Whereas administration of anti-Delta1 mAb only slightly delayed survival of cardiac allografts in this fully MHC-mismatched model, it significantly prolonged graft survival in combination with single-dose CTLA4-Ig or in CD28 knockout recipients. The prolongation of allograft survival was associated with Th2 polarization and a decrease in Th1 and granzyme B-producing cytotoxic T cells. The survival benefit of Delta1 blockade was abrogated after IL-4 neutralization and in STAT6KO recipients, but was maintained in STAT4KO recipients, reinforcing the key role of Th2 cell development in its graft-prolonging effects. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time an important role of Delta1 in alloimmunity, identifying Delta1 ligand as a potential novel target for immunomodulation in transplantation.
Fetomaternal tolerance has been shown to depend both on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and negative signals from the PD1-PDL1 costimulatory pathway. More recently, IL-17-producing T cells (Th17) have been recognized as a barrier in inducing tolerance in transplantation. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms of PDL1-mediated regulation of fetomaternal tolerance using an alloantigen-specific CD4(+) TCR transgenic mouse model system (ABM-tg mouse). PDL1 blockade led to an increase in embryo resorption and a reduction in litter size. This was associated with a decrease in Tregs, leading to a lower Treg/effector T cell ratio. Moreover, PDL1 blockade inhibited Ag-specific alloreactive T cell apoptosis and induced apoptosis of Tregs and a shift toward higher frequency of Th17 cells, breaking fetomaternal tolerance. These Th17 cells arose predominantly from CD4(+)Foxp3(-) cells, rather than from conversion of Tregs. Locally in the placenta, similar decrease in regulatory and apoptotic markers was observed by real-time PCR. Neutralization of IL-17 abrogated the anti-PDL1 effect on fetal survival rate and restored Treg numbers. Finally, the adoptive transfer of Tregs was also able to improve fetal survival in the setting of PDL1 blockade. This is to our knowledge the first report using an alloantigen-specific model that establishes a link between PDL1, Th17 cells, and fetomaternal tolerance.
Nephrotoxicity is a frequent complication of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, in which T cells are known to promote acute kidney injury. In this study, we examined the role of T cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury using an inhibitory anti-Tim-1 antibody. Tim-1 acts to modulate T cell responses, but it is also expressed by damaged proximal tubules in the kidney, where it is known as kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). Anti-Tim-1 antibodies attenuated cisplatin nephrotocity, with less histologic damage, improved renal function, and fewer leukocytes infiltrating the kidney compared with control antibody-treated mice. Renal NF-?B activation and apoptosis were reduced, and proinflammatory renal cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression was decreased. Renal Kim-1 expression was reduced, consistent with the diminished kidney injury after anti-Tim-1 antibody treatment. Furthermore, anti-Tim-1 antibodies reduced early systemic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation, apoptosis, and cytokine production. To determine whether the protective actions of anti-Tim-1 antibodies were due to effects on renal tubular cells, cisplatin nephrotoxicity was studied in Rag1(-/-) mice. Anti-Tim-1 antibodies did not affect renal dysfunction or histologic damage in Rag1(-/-) mice, showing that the benefits of inhibiting Tim-1 come from T cell effects. As Tim-1 plays an important role in promoting cisplatin nephrotoxicity, inhibiting Tim-1 may be a therapeutic strategy to prevent cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.