Every year, 14 million cases of obstetric hemorrhage occur worldwide, causing 127,000 maternal deaths. About 75% of postpartum hemorrhage cases are due to atonic uterus, which is loss of uterine muscular tone or strength for contraction of the uterus after delivery. The prediction of atonic uterus is therefore important for the prevention of postpartum maternal death. However, prediction of occurrence of atonic uterus is difficult before delivery, because the precise pathophysiological mechanism to trigger this condition remains unclear. Here, we present a case of severe postpartum hemorrhage due to atonic uterus. A 35-year-old woman gave a birth by vaginal delivery to a healthy boy. However, due to intractable massive hemorrhage after the removal of the retained placenta, we performed supravaginal hysterectomy as the best option for survival. Pathological examination showed that implantation site intermediate trophoblasts (ISITs) formed unusually large clumps in the decidua, diagnosed as exaggerated placental site (EPS). EPS is thought to be a condition consisting of an excessive number of ISITs. ISITs are differentiated from a trophoblast lineage in the process of placenta formation. ISITs anchor the placenta to the maternal tissue and are considered to maintain pregnancy, but the postpartum role of these cells remains unclear. Excessive infiltration of ISITs, namely EPS, may cause postpartum atonic uterus. In this article, we also reviewed the literatures on EPS. The present case and other reported cases indicate that EPS causes mass formation in the uterus, continuous uterine bleeding, and massive hemorrhage, resulting in hysterectomy.
There have been no reports that show significant direct relationship between echocardiographic parameters and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. This could be due to the heterogeneous pathophysiology of heart failure and a lack of appropriate echocardiographic parameters. We sought to determine the best echocardiographic parameter that described elevated BNP level in patients with heart failure with and without systolic dysfunction.
Colloid carcinoma, characterized by the presence of a large amount of extracellular mucin that results in the formation of mucous lakes with a relative paucity of neoplastic glandular cells within them, is extremely rare in the uterine cervix. Herein, we report an additional case of colloid carcinoma of the cervix and discuss the immunohistochemical characteristics and histogenesis of this extremely rare tumor. A 47-year-old Japanese female without any history of carcinomas was found to have a bulky mass in the cervix. Biopsy from the cervix revealed adenocarcinoma; subsequently, total hysterectomy was performed. Histopathologic study demonstrated that columnar or cuboidal neoplastic glandular cells forming cribriform or tubular structures floated within the mucous lakes involving almost the entire layer of the cervical wall. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) component was also observed. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells of the colloid carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin 7, MUC5AC, MUC6, and p16 (diffuse), but negative for cytokeratin 20, MUC2, and cdx-2. In addition, human papillomavirus 16 was detected in both colloid carcinoma and AIS components. This is the first reported case of endocervical type colloid carcinoma, and the second documented case of cervical colloid carcinoma with immunohistochemical analyses of mucin. The present case had an endocervical type AIS component, which suggests that AIS may be a precursor lesion of colloid carcinoma. Moreover, this case clearly demonstrates that the occurrence of cervical colloid carcinoma correlates with high-risk human papillomavirus.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a distinct type of carcinoma, and cytological examination has been recognized as a useful tool in its diagnosis. Dedifferentiation is defined as the abrupt transformation of a low-grade tumor into a tumor with high-grade components. Albeit extremely rare, dedifferentiated AdCC has been reported: however, the cytological features of this tumor have not been documented. We observed a case in which a 66-year-old Japanese male had stenosis and thickness of the lower tracheal and bronchial walls. Cytological smears of a bronchial brush specimen revealed features typical for low-grade AdCC. However, a few cohesive epithelial cell clusters composed of large, atypical polygonal cells with large nuclei and conspicuous nucleoli also were present. This component was considered to represent dedifferentiated carcinoma. Histopathological study of the resected bronchial tumor revealed dedifferentiated AdCC. The cytological diagnosis of conventional low-grade AdCC is straightforward in most cases, although extremely rare, dedifferentiated carcinoma can occur within the conventional AdCC, and detection of a dedifferentiated component is possible in a cytological specimen because of obvious nuclear atypia. Therefore, careful observation is needed because cytologic diagnosis of dedifferentiated AdCC can help expedite treatment of this highly aggressive tumor.
Neuroenteric cysts are benign intradural endoderm cysts lined by gastrointestinal (GI) or tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Their malignant transformation is extremely rare and only six cases have been reported. In these cases, tissue lineage of the cystic endoderm cells giving rise to carcinoma was not clearly identified either as respiratory or as GI type. Herein, we report a case of mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the neuroenteric cyst with broncho-pulmonary differentiation in the right cerebral hemisphere of a Japanese woman in her late 50s. The cyst wall was entirely lined by the following respiratory epithelial components: stratified bronchial ciliated columnar epithelium with basal cells positive for CK5 and p63, terminal bronchiolar Clara cells positive for thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, surfactant B and negative for surfactant C, type I pneumocytes positive for TTF-1, negative for surfactant B and C, and type II pneumocytes positive for TTF-1 and surfactant B and C. In addition, nests of hyperplastic single layered mucinous epithelial cells with bronchial goblet cell phenotype were also demonstrated, and histologic features were almost the same as the pulmonary type I congenital adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) with mucinous epithelial proliferation. The mucinous epithelial nests of type I CCAM are liable to develop mucinous adenocarcinoma and frequently accompany K-ras mutation and expression of p16. However, K-ras mutation and p-16 expression were not detected in this case.
Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is considered to be the standard treatment for locally-advanced breast carcinomas. Obtaining precise information regarding the tumor extent and distribution by imaging modalities to assess the success of breast-conserving surgery following NAC is extremely important. Analysis of the detailed radiopathological correlation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following NAC has not been reported previously. The MRI and histopathological shrinkage patterns of residual breast carcinomas in 27 consecutive cases were analyzed following NAC and classified into five categories: Types I and II (concentric shrinkage with and without surrounding lesions, respectively); type III (shrinkage with residual multinodular lesions); type IV (diffuse contrast enhancement in whole quadrant); and non-visualization. The present study clearly demonstrated that the most common MRI shrinkage pattern was type I (11 cases), followed by type II and non-visualization, and the most common histopathological shrinkage pattern was type II (11 cases), followed by type III (8 cases). The concordance rate between MRI and pathological patterns was 48% and the worst concordance MRI pattern was type I. MRI is considered to be a useful method for evaluation of the residual carcinoma following NAC. However, the concordance rate was low in the MRI pattern I cases and tiny foci of residual carcinoma were present in half of the non-visualization cases, as shown by MRI. Therefore, the tumor extent must be completely resected for patients who undergo NAC, and postoperative radiation may be important for preventing local recurrence of breast carcinoma.
Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.
The occurrence of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder and prostate is rare. Only a few reports on the cytological features of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in the urine specimen have been documented and, moreover, the urinary cytological features of prostate small cell carcinoma have been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed the cytological features of four cases of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and prostate, and discussed the usefulness of cytological examination of urine specimen for this type of tumor. This study included two urinary bladder and two prostate small cell carcinoma cases. Analyses of the cytological features of these cases revealed the following: i) the background was mostly inflammatory and necrotic material was also occasionally observed; ii) numerous tumor cells were present in two cases, whereas only a few neoplastic cells were observed in the remaining cases; iii) the neoplastic cells were small in size, had scant cytoplasm and a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and were arranged in small clusters or occasionally as single cells; iv) the tumor cell clusters showed prominent nuclear moldings; and v) the nuclei of the neoplastic cells were round to oval in shape with finely granular chromatin containing inconspicuous nucleoli. The cytological features of small cell carcinoma in the urine specimen are characteristic. Therefore, careful observation of the urine specimen may lead to a correct diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and, moreover, cytodiagnosis of prostate small cell carcinoma may also be possible.
Median raphe cyst is a rare lesion located on the median raphe. The cyst wall is lined by cuboidal to columnar cells, transitional (urothelial) cells, stratified squamous cells or a mixture of these. The normal urethral mucosa and the median raphe cyst usually lack melanocytes and/or melanin pigment. However, albeit extremely rare, the presence of melanin pigment and/or melanocytes in median raphe cyst, namely pigmented median raphe cyst, has been previously reported. The current case report presents the sixth case of pigmented median raphe cyst and discusses the possible mechanism of melanocytic colonization in this tumor. A 48-year-old male presented with a nodule on the ventral surface of the penis. Histopathological study revealed that the cyst wall was covered by uniform bland cuboidal to urothelial cells. The peculiar observation was the presence of dendritic melanocytes among the epithelial cells. Therefore, a diagnosis of pigmented median raphe cyst was determined. Immunohistochemically, stem cell factor and endothelin-1 were not expressed in the epithelial cells of the cyst wall. It is well-known that melanocytes are rarely found in various non-melanocytic tumors, a phenomenon termed 'colonization'. The mechanism by which melanocytes appear in median raphe cyst remains unclear. The present report is the first to demonstrate that melanocytic proliferation and differentiation factors, such as stem cell factor and endothelin-1, are not involved in the pigmentation of median raphe cyst. In addition, aberrant melanocytic migration may contribute to the development of this type of lesion.
Elastofibromatous change, also referred to as elastofibromatous polyp or elastofibroma, has been extremely rarely described in the gastrointestinal tract. This lesion is characterized histopathologically by an excessive accumulation of elastic fibers occasionally with a fibrous component involving the submucosa and/or muscularis mucosae of the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we report four additional lesions of the intestine and review the clinicopathological features of this rare lesion. Three patients (76-, 72-, and 52-year-old males) were detected with polypoid lesions in the jejunum, transverse and sigmoid colons, and sigmoid colon, respectively. All four lesions showed fundamentally the same histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The polypoid lesions were covered by non-neoplastic epithelium, and degenerated and truncated elastic fibers occasionally with a fibrous component had accumulated in the submucosa and/or muscularis mucosae. The characteristic feature was the elastofibromatous change centered around collections of elastotic submucosal vessels. Desmin-positive degenerative ruptured smooth muscle fibers were scattered within the elastic fibers in the submucosa. Our analyses of the clinicopathological features of the previously reported 32 cases of elastofibromatous change of the gastrointestinal tract as well as the present cases demonstrated that this type of lesion is most commonly found in the colon or rectum (29 cases), males, and middle-aged to elderly persons. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, the convincing hypothesis that this lesion represents elastic degeneration of submucosal vessels by previous persistent vascular injury has been proposed. The collections of degenerative elastotic vascular walls may have an important role in the development of this lesion.
Endometrial polyp is a common benign lesion that protrudes into the endometrial surface. The incidence of carcinoma within endometrial polyp is thought to be low, however, postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps are at an increased risk. Endometrial clear cell adenocarcinoma is a distinct and relatively rare subtype of endometrial carcinoma, and recent studies have proposed putative precursor lesions of clear cell adenocarcinoma, namely clear cell endometrial glandular dysplasia (EmGD) and clear cell endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC). Herein, we describe two cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma present exclusively within endometrial polyp and discuss the association of its precursor. Two postmenopausal Japanese females, 66-year-old (Case 1) and 54-year-old (Case 2) presented with abnormal genital bleeding. Cytological examination of both cases revealed adenocarcinoma, thus, hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological studies demonstrated clear cell adenocarcinoma within exclusively endometrial polyp in both cases. The peculiar finding in Case 1 was presence of atypical glandular cells with large round to oval nuclei and clear cytoplasm within the atrophic endometrial glands in the surrounding endometrial tissue, which corresponded to clear cell EIC. A recent study showed that 33% of uteri had at least one focus of clear cell EmGD in endometrial polyps. Accordingly, clear cell adenocarcinoma and clear cell EmGD can occur in association with endometrial polyps more frequently than previously thought. Therefore, detailed histopathological examination is important in diagnosis of endometrial polyps, especially in the postmenopausal women, moreover cytological examination is a useful tool in the postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps.
It is well established that patients with immunosuppression have a higher risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with development of LPDs. Aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated hematological disorder, and immunosuppression therapy (IST), such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG), is widely used for treatment of AA. However, occurrence of LPD without bone marrow transplantation has been extremely rarely documented in patients with IST for AA. Herein, we report the 6th documented case of EBV-associated LPD after IST for AA and review the clinicopathological features of this extremely rare complication. A 46-year-old Japanese female was admitted for evaluation of progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed fatty marrow with marked decrease of trilineage cells, and bone marrow aspiration demonstrated no dysplastic changes. IST with rabbit ATG was administered, after which, she developed high fever. Bone marrow aspiration showed increase of atypical plasma cells with mildly enlarged nuclei and irregular nuclear contour. These atypical plasma cells were EBER-positive. Accordingly, a diagnosis of EBV-positive plasmacytic LPD was made. Most cases of LPDs are B-cell origin, and plasmacytic LPD is a rare subtype. The current report is the second case of plasmacytic LPD in patients with IST for AA. Therefore, detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses are needed for correct diagnosis and treatment, and additional studies are needed to clarify the clinicopathological features of EBV-LPD after IST for AA.
Although the risk of malignant lymphoma in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial, an increased risk of malignant T-cell lymphoma in patients with AD has been reported. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL) is a relatively common distinct clinicopathological entity. However, occurrence of C-ALCL in patients with AD has been rarely reported. Herein, we describe the 5(th) reported case of C-ALCL occurring in a patient with AD and review the clinicopathological features. A 30-year-old Japanese male with a long-standing history of AD presented with a gradually enlarged nodular lesion in the right abdominal wall, which had spontaneously regressed without therapy. Two years later, multiple nodular lesions appeared in his trunk, and swelling of multiple lymph nodes was also detected. Histopathological studies demonstrated diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphocytes with large convoluted nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli and relatively rich cytoplasm in the skin and lymph node. Immunohistochemically, these lymphocytes were positive for CD30, CD8, and MUM1, and negative for CD3, CD4, and ALK1. Accordingly, a diagnosis of primary C-ALCL was made. The patient died of disease after various courses of chemotherapy. Our clinicopathological review revealed that the prognosis of C-ALCL occurring in patients with AD is poor because two of 5 patients died of disease. Therefore, albeit extremely rare, AD patients with C-ALCL should be monitored closely, and additional clinicopathological studies are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of C-ALCL occurring in patients with AD.
T-cell/histiocyte-rich diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by abundant reactive T-cell and histiocyte infiltration within nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and only limited cases of primary cutaneous T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma have been documented. These reactive T-cells usually show a T-helper phenotype. Gamma/delta T-cell is a functionally distinct T-cell lineage, which constitutes on average 5% of all T-cells in the peripheral blood. Herein, we report the first documented case of primary cutaneous malignant B-cell lymphoma with abundant reactive gamma/delta(+) T-cells within the skin lesion and peripheral blood. An 80-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged knee nodule. Histopathological study revealed diffuse infiltration of lymphoid cells in the dermis and subcutis. Proliferation of large-sized atypical lymphoid cells was observed among medium-sized lymphocytes with convoluted nuclei. Immunohistochemically, these large-sized atypical lymphocytes were CD20(+), and relatively many gamma/delta(+) cell infiltration was also noted. Flowcytometric analysis revealed deviation of lambda+ cells (lambda/kappa 58) and increase of CD3(+) gamma/delta(+) cells (6%). Peripheral blood had CD3(+) gamma/delta(+) cells (28.8%). Rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain, but not of T-cell receptor beta and gamma chains, was observed. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma with abundant reactive gamma/delta(+) cells was made. Recent studies have shown reactive gamma/delta(+) T-cell infiltration and/or elevation in the peripheral blood in patients with various types of carcinoma, and that they play a role in the pathogenesis of some carcinomas. Therefore, additional analysis is needed to clarify the role of reactive gamma/delta(+) T-cells in malignant lymphoma.
IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Some recent reports have demonstrated that this disease can occur in the respiratory system including the pleura. Herein, we describe the first documented case of concomitant occurrence of IgG4-related pleuritis and periaortitis. A 71-year-old Japanese female with a history of essential thrombocythemia presented with persistent cough and difficulty in breathing. Computed tomography demonstrated thickening of the right parietal pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue and pleural and cardiac effusions. Histopathological study of the surgical biopsy specimen of the parietal pleura revealed marked fibrous thickening with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Phlebitis was noted, however, only a few eosinophils had infiltrated. Immunohistochemical study revealed abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and high ratio of IgG4-/IgG-positive plasma cells (84%). Therefore, a diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis was made with consideration of the elevated serum IgG4 level (684 mg/dL). Recently, the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing disease has expanded, and this disease can occur in the pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue. Although histopathological analysis of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was not performed in the present case, it was suspected that thickening of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was clinically due to IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Our clinicopathological analyses of IgG4-related pleuritis and pericarditis reveal that this disease can present as dyspnea and pleural and pericardial effusion as seen in the present case, therefore, it is important to recognize that IgG4-related sclerosing disease can occur in these organs for accurate diagnosis and treatment.
It is well established that Down's syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down's syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin.
A rare case of gliosarcoma which arose in the temporal lobe of a 39-yearold man was reported. The gliomatous area of the tumor showed ependymal differentiation, and also contained immature neuroectodermal tissue resembling a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in addition to an ordinary glioblastomatous component. Tumor cells in the PNET-like component were immunoreactive for synaptophysin, CD99, neurogenin 3, and ?-internexin, but not for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Class III-? tubulin, or Neu N. The mesenchymal area exhibited a compact fascicular proliferation of atypical spindle cells invested by fine reticulin fibrils. In addition, these cells were immunoreactive for Slug and Twist - transcription factors which are involved in the "epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)" phenomenon. Gliosarcomas containing an ependymal or PNET-like component are rare, and to our knowledge, the present case is the first to be reported whose glial element exhibited differentiation toward these two components. The diverse differentiation in the glial element suggests that the tumor most likely originated from primitive neuroepithelial progenitor cells rather than from the neometaplasia of a glioblastoma. The immunoreactivity for transcription factors in the mesenchymal element indicated that EMT might be involved in the pathogenesis of this very rare type of gliosarcoma.
To identify new cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancers (CRCs), we performed immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays covering archival tumor tissue samples from 434 CRC patients and antibodies to cell division cycle-associated protein 1 (CDCA1) that was originally identified as an oncoantigen by our gene expression profile database, and compared its expression with several clinicopathological factors. Strong CDCA1 positivity was associated with poorer prognosis for patients with CRC (P=0.019) and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value. In addition, transfection of siRNAs against CDCA1 suppressed its expression and induced apoptosis of CRC cells. These results suggest that CDCA1 could be a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for CRCs.
At least one full-time doctor in laboratory management and consultation on data analysis is required to receive laboratory examination management fee III or IV according to the rules for Japanese public health insurance medical fees. A qualified pathologist, board-certified as a clinical laboratory physician cannot receive this fee together with the pathological diagnosis management fee even if he or she manages laboratory examinations. As a result of this regulation, surgical pathologists working in laboratory examinations are gradually decreasing in Japan; however, it is possible for surgical pathologists working as full-time attending physicians in the Department of Laboratory Medicine to receive the laboratory examination management fee. Consultation regarding laboratory data analysis is required, and experience in diagnostic pathology is beneficial for data interpretation or tissue sample handling in the field of neoplastic diseases.
Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. It has been previously recognized that cases of primary CAD frequently exhibit underlying malignant lymphoma in the bone marrow. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma; however, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has also been documented, albeit extremely rare. The current report presents a case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. A 76-year-old male presented with fever and fatigue. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and elevated bilirubin and cold agglutinins with a titer of 8,192 at 4°C. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated DLBCL and systemic surveillance failed to detect tumorous lesions or lymphadenopathy. Following R-THP-COP therapy, cold agglutinins titer was markedly decreased (by <4); however, malignant lymphoma relapsed and cold agglutinin levels increased again (4,096). This is the second documented case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. Previously, malignant lymphoma exclusively involving the bone marrow, namely primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML), has been recognized as a rare and aggressive subtype. The analyses of the present study revealed that the incidence of hemolytic anemia in primary bone marrow DLBCL may be high compared with conventional DLBCL. Therefore, additional analyses are required to clarify the clinicopathological features of PBML.
We report a case of an atypical astrocytic tumor rich in signet ring cells with cytoplasmic mucin and glycogen in the left lower temporal lobe of the brain found in a Japanese female tricenarian. The signet ring cell cytoplasm contained bovine testicular hyaluronidase sensitive non-epithelial mucin together with CD44 and laminin. Glycogen was also detected. After subtotal resection, the residual tumor rapidly enlarged; hence, it was finally extirpated 8 months later followed by post-surgical irradiation. The recurrent tumor did not have signet ring cells and was entirely comprised of solid nests of large pale polygonal cells filled with glycogen and hyperchromatic nuclei. Mucin was not demonstrated in their cytoplasm, but their surface was diffusely coated with non-epithelial mucin together with CD44. The results of our analysis revealed that non-epithelial mucin could accumulate in or on the surface of neoplastic astrocytes in close association with CD44, findings that give new insights into the spectrum of non-epithelial mucin metabolism in astrocytic tumors. The tumor has not recurred for more than 3 years after the irradiation therapy following the second surgery, but further clinical observation is needed to evaluate the exact clinical behavior of this unusual tumor.
Although a rare condition, rosette formation in malignant melanoma has been previously documented. The present study describes the second documented case of malignant melanoma with perivascular pseudorosettes. A 38-year-old male presented with a black nodule on his back. Histopathological study revealed diffuse proliferation of neoplastic cells in the dermis and subcutis. A section of the tumor (~30%) was composed of a conventional malignant melanoma component. The remaining area was comprised of medium-sized polygonal cells with slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and small-to-medium, round nuclei. Melanin pigment was rarely observed. A noteworthy observation was the presence of perivascular pseudorosette formations, which were characterized by their radial arrangement around the blood vessels, with a perivascular, anuclear zone. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for S-100 protein and Melan-A and focally positive for HMB-45. Clinicopathological analyses of cases of malignant melanoma with rosette formations revealed that the types of rosette included the Homer-Wright type (two cases), perivascular pseudorosettes (two cases) and an unclassifiable type (one case). Immunohistochemical analysis is a useful method for forming a diagnosis as Melan-A or HMB-45 are generally expressed in all cases. Rosette formation in malignant melanoma is a distinct histopathological variant and may be an under-recognized phenomenon. Therefore, its recognition is significant for obtaining an accurate diagnosis of malignant melanoma.
Signet-ring cell melanoma is an extremely rare variant of malignant melanoma. A 68-year-old male presented with a black nodule on the left thigh. Histopathological examination revealed proliferation of sheet-like or variable-sized nests of atypical melanocytes. Neoplastic cells showing signet-ring cell appearance, characterized by the presence of eccentrically located enlarged nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm, were also present. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, vimentin and Melan-A. Moreover, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins were diffusely expressed. The current case report presents the 21st reported case of signet-ring cell melanoma. Analyses of the clinicopathological features revealed that this disease commonly affects middle-aged males and the presence of metastatic signet-ring cell melanoma with an unknown primary tumor. Immunohistochemical analyses of melanocytic markers have been useful for establishing the diagnosis of this type of disease, however, HMB-45 is occasionally found to be negative. In addition, the present case report is the first to analyze the expression of mTOR pathway proteins, which are central proteins involved in carcinogenesis and its inhibitor has been proposed as a therapeutic target for various types of tumor. Therefore, the mTOR inhibitor may also be a potential candidate for the treatment of this type of tumor.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The occurrence of BSCC in the nasal cavity is extremely rare. In the present study, two cases of BSCC occurring in the maxillary sinus are reported and the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical characteristics of this rare tumor are discussed. Two patients, aged 85 (case 1) and 60 years (case 2), presented with nasal tumors and persistent nasal obstruction. In each case, the biopsy or resected specimen of the maxillary sinus tumor revealed an infiltrative proliferation of solid epithelial nests composed of basaloid cells exhibiting hyperchromatic nuclei without conspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were frequently observed and spherical hyalinized materials were present within the tumor nests. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells exhibited diffuse positive immunoreactivity for p63 and perinuclear dot-like positivity for vimentin, leading to a final diagnosis of BSCC of the maxillary sinus. Furthermore, it was demonstrated for the first time in the two cases that cathepsin K, a cysteine protease with marked collagenolytic and elastolytic activities, was expressed in a diffuse manner. One patient (case 2) succumbed to multiple metastases, while the other (case 1) remains alive with the disease. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that cathepsin K was immunopositive in two cases of BSCC of the maxillary sinus and that it may be involved in tumor invasion by this highly aggressive carcinoma.
A blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion that is composed of spindle-shaped pigmented melanocytes. Although the uterine cervix is believed to be the most common extracutaneous location of blue nevi, the occurrence of these lesions in the endometrial stroma has been reported, albeit rarely. The present study describes a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and uterine cervix. A 58-year-old female presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. A biopsy from the endometrium revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma and subsequently, a total hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological study revealed the proliferation of columnar cells that formed irregularly-shaped tubular and cribriform glands. The neoplastic columnar cells had large, round to oval nuclei containing a single small nucleolus. Focal squamous differentiation was noted. In the stroma of the non-neoplastic endometrium, single or small aggregates of short spindle-shaped cells containing melanin without atypia were observed. These melanocytes were also present in the endocervix. Therefore, the final diagnosis was of endometrioid adenocarcinoma concurrent with a blue nevus of the endometrium and cervix. This is the first documented case of a blue nevus of the endometrium and endocervix. The pathogenesis of blue nevi of the genital tract is not yet completely understood. Possible origins of these cells include Schwann cells or perineural cells of the peripheral nerve fiber or the abnormal migration of neural crest-derived cells.
Dedifferentiated adenoid cystic carcinoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive tumor. We describe the first reported case of dedifferentiated adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea and analyze the expression profiles of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway proteins. A 66-year-old Japanese man was incidentally found to have stenosis of the trachea, and a bronchial biopsy revealed low-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma. The resected specimen revealed dedifferentiated adenoid cystic carcinoma, which was composed of conventional low-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma with tubular and cribriform patterns, and a dedifferentiated carcinoma component (poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma). Immunohistochemical study showed that mammalian target of rapamycin and 4E-BP1 were expressed in both components; however, phosphorylated 4E-BP1 was expressed only in the dedifferentiated carcinoma component. This report clearly demonstrates that mammalian target of rapamycin pathway proteins were activated in dedifferentiated carcinoma. Mammalian target of rapamycin is a central protein involved in carcinogenesis, and administration of its inhibitors prolonged survival in some types of carcinoma. Therefore, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors may be a potential candidate for treatment of this highly aggressive carcinoma.
Increased levels of N-linked (?-N- acetylglucosamine)2 [N-GlcNAc2]-modified proteins have been recognized to be an effective response to glucose deprivation. In the first step of this study, using a next generation sequencer, we investigated the global transcriptional changes induced by glucose deprivation in a T24 bladder carcinoma cell line, producing N-GlcNAc2-modified proteins under glucose deprivation. Our transcriptome analysis revealed significant up-regulation of the UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis pathway and unfolded protein response genes, and down-regulation of G2/M transition-related genes containing mitotic kinases. Our biological analysis confirmed that N-GlcNAc2-modified proteins were localized with BiP proteins in the ER. G2/M arrest was caused by glucose deprivation in T24 cells. Moreover, the knockdown of unfolded protein response genes induced the expressional recovery of mitotic kinases under glucose deprivation. Taken together, our results suggest N-GlcNAc2-modified proteins produced under glucose deprivation caused unfolded protein response in the ER, and that this response induced G2/M arrest.
The concurrence of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is well known, and MCC concurrent with Bowens disease has also been documented. Herein, we describe two cases of MCC concurrent with Bowens disease, and one case exhibited an unusual immunophenotype. An 86-year-old male (Patient 1) and an 87-year-old female (Patient 2) presented with nodules of the chest and cheek, respectively. Histopathologic study revealed Bowens disease and a proliferation of small round cells in the dermis and/or subcutis. Immunohistochemically, the round cells expressed endocrine markers. Dot immunopositivity for cytokeratin (CK) (AE1/AE3) was observed in both patients. However, dot-like CK20 positivity was present only in the second tumor, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) was only positive in the first. Both cases were negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). MCC concurrent with SCC usually does not involve detectable MCPyV infection, which suggests that combined MCC may develop through different tumorigenetic pathways, such as chronic ultraviolet exposure, as compared to pure MCC. Additionally, concurrent tumors may exhibit an unusual immunophenotype, such as TTF-1(+) /CK20((-)) .
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that is characterized by the presence of multiple neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and iris hamartomas. It is well established that the incidence of tumors in patients with NF1 is high compared with the normal population and that the majority of the tumors are non-epithelial neoplasms, including neurofibromas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, gliomas and leukemia. Studies have suggested that patients with NF1 also have a significantly higher risk of certain types of carcinomas. However, the occurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a patient with NF1 is extremely rare. The present study describes the second documented case of a cutaneous SCC adjacent to a neurofibroma of the forehead with histopathological analyses in a patient with NF1. An 80-year-old female with NF1 presented with a rapidly growing skin tumor of the forehead. Histopathological study of the resected forehead tumor demonstrated that there were two tumorous lesions. One was an invasive SCC and the other was a neurofibroma. The lesions were adjacent, but no continuity was present. NF1 is caused by inactivating mutations in the NF1 gene and loss of heterozygosity of this gene has been reported in neurofibromas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, gliomas and pheochromocytomas in patients with NF1. However, the genetic mechanism of carcinoma development in patients with NF1 is not well understood. Studies have suggested the role of the NF1 and/or the BRCA gene in the occurrence of breast cancer. Additional studies are required to elucidate these mechanisms.
A choriocarcinomatous component is rarely present in carcinomas of certain sites and few cases of choriocarcinomatous differentiation in endometrioid adenocarcinoma have been reported. The present study reports a case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus with choriocarcinomatous differentiation, and discusses the clinicopathological features of this rare tumor. A 59-year-old post-menopausal female presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a relatively well-circumscribed tumor in the uterine corpus and a total cystectomy was subsequently performed. A histopathological examination revealed two distinct components in the uterine corpus tumor. The first component comprised ~80% of the tumor and was composed of poorly-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The remaining component consisted of mononucleated and syncytial giant cells containing rich eosinophilic cytoplasm and large pleomorphic nuclei with coarse chromatin. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that these syncytial giant cells were positive for ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Therefore, a diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation was confirmed. The clinicopathological features of nine previously reported cases of this tumor were analyzed in addition to the present case. The majority of the patients were post-menopausal. Endometrial choriocarcinoma may be considered to have a highly aggressive clinical course, since nine of the 10 cases displayed metastases and four patients succumbed to the disease. The pathogenesis of the choriocarcinomatous component is not well understood. However, genetic studies have demonstrated that conventional carcinoma and choriocarcinomatous components share common genetic alterations. The choriocarcinomatous component represents aberrant differentiation of the conventional carcinoma, however, genetic analyses of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation have not been performed.
Follicular mucinosis is recognized as one of the histopathological reaction patterns characterized by the accumulation of mucin within follicular epithelium. It is induced by various causes including inflammatory diseases, and more than half of the cases are associated with malignant lymphoma, mainly mycosis fungoides. Herein, we describe the third documented case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) accompanying follicular mucinosis. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with persistent erythema in his arm and neck. Laboratory tests demonstrated positivity for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 antibodies. Histopathological study of the biopsy specimen from the neck revealed superficial perivascular, nodular, and intrafollicular lymphocytic infiltrations. These lymphocytes were small- to medium-sized and had convoluted nuclei. Mucoid material deposition was observed within the hair follicles, and it was digested by hyaluronidase. Immunohistochemically, these lymphocytes were positive for CD3, CD4, CD25, and Foxp3. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of ATLL accompanying follicular mucinosis was made. The skin is the most common extralymphatic site of involvement of ATLL. The present case clearly demonstrated that albeit extremely rare, ATLL can cause follicular mucinosis. Therefore, ATLL should be included in the differential diagnostic consideration of follicular mucinosis.
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is an extremely rare condition, which is characterized by the presence of multiple peritoneal and subperitoneal nodules composed of bland smooth muscle cells. Albeit extremely rare, coexistence of endometriosis within LPD lesions has also reported. Herein, we report the seventh documented case of LPD coexisting with endometriosis within the same lesions and review the pathogenesis of this lesion. A 42-year-old Japanese female presented with an abdominal tumor. Computed tomography revealed a tumorous lesion in the right ovary and multiple small nodules in the abdominal cavity. Under a clinical diagnosis of ovarian cancer with peritoneal dissemination, resection of these lesions was performed. Histopathological study of the disseminated peritoneal nodules revealed proliferation of interlacing bundles of spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and bland cigar-shaped nuclei. Mitotic figures were hardly seen. The peritoneal nodules of the rectum had cystic cavities within the spindle cell bundles, and endometrial glands and stroma were present around the cystic cavities and spindle cells. The resected tissues of the ovary and cecum showed the same histopathological features. Accordingly, a diagnosis of LPD with endometriosis within the same lesions was made. A possible origin of LPD is thought to be the submesothelial multipotential stem cells, also referred to as the secondary müllerian system. The presence of endometrial tissues within LPD lesions, as seen in the present case, also support this hypothesis because endometrial tissues are also derived from the müllerian system.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive large B-cell lymphoma (ALK-positive LBCL) is an extremely rare distinct clinicopathological subtype of LBCL, characterized by the presence of ALK-positive monomorphic large immunoblast-like neoplastic B cells. Herein, we describe the first cytological report on ALK-positive LBCL in the pleural effusion. A 69-year-old Japanese male with a past history of malignant lymphoma of the cecum presented with progressive dyspnea and pleural effusion. Removal of the pleural effusion and aspiration of bone marrow were performed. May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain of the pleural fluid revealed abundant single or small aggregates of large-sized round cells. These cells had centrally-located large round to oval nuclei. The peculiar finding was the presence of pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, and some neoplastic cells had eosinophilic pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, which resembled "flaming plasma cells". Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of the bone marrow demonstrated CD138(+), ALK1(+), CD20(-), CD79a(-), CD30(-), and IgA(+) large-sized neoplastic cells. Therefore, a diagnosis of ALK-positive LBCL was made. The peculiar finding of the present case was that most of the neoplastic cells had pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections, and some of them had eosinophilic pseudopodial cytoplasmic projections that resembled "flaming plasma cells", which has been recognized as the characteristic finding of IgA myeloma. Therefore, tumor cells that resembled "flaming plasma cells" in the pleural effusion may have had IgA in the cytoplasm. Albeit extremely rare, ALK-positive LBCL shows aggressive clinical course, thus, recognition of the cytomorphological features of this type of malignant lymphoma is important for early and correct diagnosis.
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the lung is a rare hamartomatous cystic lesion, characterized by the presence of large cysts, which are histopathologically lined by pseudostratified ciliated cells. It has been recognized that rare cases of type 1 CCAM show malignant transformation, usually bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) or adenocarcinoma. Herein, we describe a case of BAC arising in type 1 CCAM with K-ras mutation. A 9-year-old Japanese girl presented with fever. Computed tomography demonstrated large cystic lesions in her right lower lung. Histopathological study of the resected specimen revealed multiple cysts, which were lined by pseudostratified ciliated cells, and occasionally interspersed with mucous cells without atypia. A small focus of proliferation of columnar cells showing lepidic growth pattern was present. These columnar cells had abundant mucin in the cytoplasm and mildly to moderately enlarged nuclei. Accordingly, a diagnosis of BAC arising in type 1 CCAM was made. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed K-ras mutation at codon 12 in the BAC component. The presence of mucous cell/goblet cell hyperplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a well known phenomenon in type 1 CCAM. A recent study clearly demonstrated K-ras mutation in these lesions, which are thought to be precursors of BAC. Therefore, the concept of malignant transformation in the sequence from type 1 CCAM to mucous cell hyperplasia to atypical adenomatous hyperplasia to BAC and invasive adenocarcinoma due to K-ras mutation has been proposed. Careful histopathological analysis is important for evaluation of malignant lesions in type 1 CCAM.
Lupus erythematosus (LE) can cause various cutaneous lesions including panniculitis (LE profundus), but salivary gland involvement has been extremely rare in patients with LE. Herein, we report the first documented case of systemic LE with prominent mucoid degeneration and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the parotid gland. A 38-year-old Japanese male with histories of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and systemic LE presented with a swelling of the bilateral cervical region. A physical examination revealed a swelling of the bilateral parotid gland and erythema of the right cheek. A biopsy specimen of the cheek demonstrated LE profundus with mucoid material deposition in the dermis. A biopsy specimen of the parotid gland showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and prominent mucoid material deposition within the parotid gland as well as mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and hyaline fat necrosis in the perisalivary tissue. Mucoid material deposition is one of the characteristic features of LE, however, this is the first case demonstrating mucoid material deposition in the salivary gland. Moreover, albeit extremely rare, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration within the lobules of the salivary gland has also been reported in patients with LE. Therefore, it is important that both lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and mucoid material deposition must be included in the differential diagnostic considerations for salivary gland tumors in patients who had been previously diagnosed as systemic or discoid LE.
IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Recently, the association between IgG4-related sclerosing disease and the risk of malignancies has been suggested. IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis with pancreatic cancer has been reported. Further, a few cases of extraocular malignant lymphoma in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease have also been documented. Herein, we describe the first documented case of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) following IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and cholecystitis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A 61-year-old Japanese male, with a past history of DLBCL, was detected with swelling of the pancreas and tumorous lesions in the gallbladder. Histopathological study of the resected gallbladder specimen revealed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosclerosis in the entire gallbladder wall. Eosinophilic infiltration and obliterative phlebitis were also noted. Immunohistochemically, many IgG4-positive plasma cells had infiltrated into the lesion, and the ratio of IgG4/IgG-positive plasma cells was 71.6%. Accordingly, a diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made. Seven months later, he presented with a painful tumor in his left parotid gland. Histopathological study demonstrated diffuse or cohesive sheet-like proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with rich slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and irregular-shaped large nuclei. These lymphoid cells were positive for CD30, CD4, and cytotoxic markers, but negative for CD3 and ALK. Therefore, a diagnosis of ALK-negative ALCL was made. It has been suggested that the incidence of malignant lymphoma may be high in patients with IgG4-related sclerosing disease, therefore, intense medical follow-up is important in patients with this disorder.
Metastatic Crohns disease (CD) is an extremely rare extragastrointestinal manifestation of CD, and is characterized histopathologically by the presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis have rarely been documented in metastatic CD. Herein, we report the first documented case of metastatic CD accompanied by both granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis in the vulva. A 35-year-old Japanese female with CD presented with multiple small nodules in her vulva. Biopsy was performed under a clinical diagnosis of genital warts. A histopathological study revealed marked lymphangiectasia in the papillary dermis. Within the dilated lymphatics, lymphocytes and aggregates of macrophages were present, which are typical features of granulomatous lymphangitis. Tiny non-caseating granulomas and granulomatous vasculitis were also observed. Accordingly, a diagnosis of metastatic CD accompanied by both granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis was made. The occurrence of cutaneous lesions in patients with CD is well known. Albeit extremely rare, lymphangiectasia has been reported in the vulva of CD patients that clinically mimicked viral warts, as in the present case. The diagnosis of metastatic CD in the present case was not difficult because characteristic histopathological features were present, and a clinical history of CD was available. However, a few cases of genital swelling associated with granulomatous inflammation prior to a diagnosis of gastrointestinal CD have been documented. Therefore, granulomatous vasculitis and lymphangitis in the external genitals should be considered as potential indication of metastatic CD even in cases without a history of gastrointestinal CD.
Xanthomatous meningioma is an extremely rare variant of meningioma that is characterized histopathologically by the presence of tumor cells with lipid-filled vacuolated cytoplasm. In this report, we describe the fifth documented case of xanthomatous meningioma and review its clinicopathological features. A 76-year-old Japanese male presented with dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-circumscribed tumor in the left parasagittal to frontal region with attachment of the dura mater. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed proliferation of polygonal to spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and bland round to oval nuclei. Whorl formation and psammomas were scattered, and mitotic figures were rarely seen. A peculiar finding was the presence of extensive xanthomatous change continuing to the above-mentioned typical meningothelial meningioma. These tumor cells had clear vacuolated cytoplasm and bland round to oval nuclei. Immunohistochemically, xanthomatous cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of xanthomatous meningioma was made. Our clinicopathological analysis revealed that xanthomatous meningioma affects children to young persons or the elderly, and four of five cases were located in the supratentorial region. Although the detailed mechanism underlying the xanthomatous change has not been clarified, this change is thought to result from a metabolic abnormality of the neoplastic meningothelial cells. Further, xanthomatous change has also been reported in atypical and anaplastic meningiomas. Therefore, it is important to recognize that xanthomatous change can occur in meningiomas, and to avoid misidentifying these cells as macrophages.
It is well recognized that patients with immunodeficiency have a high risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the occurrence of LPDs. Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the common cause of iatrogenic-associated LPD, and approximately 40-50% of MTX-related LPD cases occur in extranodal sites. However, the occurrence of MTX-related LPD in the gingiva is extremely rare. Herein, we report the fourth documented case of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD occurring in the gingiva of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 76-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of RA, who was treated with MTX and infliximab, presented with a tumorous lesion in the gingiva. Biopsy of the gingiva tumor revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. These lymphoid cells were CD20- and EBER-positive. Therefore, a diagnosis of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that occurred in the gingiva was made. Although the occurrence of LPD in the oral region, as seen in the present case, is rare, the prevalence of this disorder may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. Moreover, immunosenescence can also be a cause of EBV-associated LPD. Therefore, recognition of the occurrence of this disorder in the oral cavity and consideration of the clinical history can facilitate the correct diagnosis.
Carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant neoplasm that is composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. The occurrence of carcinosarcoma in the bone is extremely rare. In this report, we describe the third documented de novo case of carcinosarcoma of the bone. A 59-year-old Japanese female presented with a painful tumor in her right lower leg. Plane radiography revealed an osteolytic destructive lesion with periosteal reaction and mineralization in the right fibula. Resection of the fibula tumor was performed under a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. Histopathological study revealed that the tumor was comprised of three components. The main component was proliferation of small round to short spindle cells (approximately 50%), and the remaining components were chondrosarcoma (30%) and squamous cell carcinoma (20%). Immunohistochemically, SOX9 was expressed in the small round to spindle cells and chondrosarcoma component, and p63 and p40 were expressed in all three components. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of carcinosarcoma of the bone was made. The clinicopathological analysis of carcinosarcoma of the bone revealed that this type of tumor affects the middle-aged to elderly persons and occurs in the long bone. All three de novo cases had chondrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma components. One of the 3 patients died of the disease. The histogenesis of carcinosarcoma of the bone remains a matter of controversy, although a multpotential stem cell theory has been proposed. Additional studies are required to clarify the clinical behavior and histogenesis of carcinosarcoma of the bone.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has two morphological variants, namely macrogranular (M3) and microgranular (M3v). M3v, characterized by the presence of neoplastic promyelocytes with only sparse fine azurophilic granules, accounts for 10-25% of all APL and has unique biological characteristics. Relapse occurs in approximately 20% of patients with APL. The morphological type of the leukemic cells at relapse is usually identical with the primary disease, and only one case of morphological change at relapse has been reported. Here, we analyzed the clinicopathological features of APL, including 4 relapsed cases emphasizing morphological changes at the time of relapse. The unique finding of the present study is that 2 of 4 relapsed cases changed from M3 to M3v at relapse. The morphological features of these were different in each case (one had blastic features and the other resembled monocytoid leukemic cells). Cytogenetic analyses revealed the continued presence of t(15;17)(q22;q12) at the time of relapse and morphological change. Moreover, the immune phenotype of the leukemic cells changed from CD2(-)/CD34(-) to CD2(+)/CD34(+) at that time. These findings suggest that morphological change at relapse in APL may not be a rare event, and that the leukemic cells can show variable morphological features at the time of relapse, which could result in misdiagnosis as a different type of acute myeloid leukemia. Therefore, a comprehensive approach with emphasis on combined morphological, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analyses is important for diagnosis and appropriate treatment of relapsed APL.
p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome1) has never been evaluated in oral epithelium. In order to clarify the role of p62/SQSTM1 in carcinogenesis in oral epithelium, both p62/SQSTM1 and Nrf2 were immunohistochemically evaluated in 54 carcinomas and 14 low grade dysplasias. p62/SQSTM1 knockdowns were also designed in oral cancer cells, and we analyzed the Nrf2 pathway, GSH contents and ROS accumulation. The association between p62/SQSTM1 excess and prognosis was addressed in a clinical cohort of oral carcinoma cases. p62/SQSTM1 excess was more obvious in carcinomas, but Nrf2 was abundant in almost all samples of the oral epithelium. In oral carcinoma cells, p62/SQSTM1 knockdown did not affect the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway but did significantly reduce GSH content with subsequent ROS accumulation, and caused cell growth inhibition in the irradiated condition. Finally, p62/SQSTM1 excess was associated with poor prognosis in a clinical cohort. In oral epithelial carcinogenesis, p62/SQSTM1 excess played a role in GSH induction rather than Nrf2 accumulation, and may cause resistance to cytotoxic stresses such as radiation or chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p62/SQSTM1 may be a potential significant marker to identify early carcinogenesis, chemo-radiotherapeutic resistance or poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Primary lacrimal sac tumor is extremely rare, and moreover, glandular tumor is exceptional. Herein, we described the first documented case of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. A 79-year-old Japanese female presented with persistent swelling of her left lower eyelid. Computed tomography demonstrated an irregular-shaped tumor involving the left lacrimal sac, lower eyelid, sinonasal tract, and internal side of the left orbit. Biopsy from the eyelid revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Histopathological study of the resected lacrimal sac tumor revealed an infiltrative neoplastic growth that was composed of cribriform structures with comedonecrosis. The neoplastic cells had relatively rich granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large round to oval nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. The left cervical lymph nodes had metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and androgen receptor. Moreover, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-BP1, and p4E-BP1 were expressed. According to these results, an ultimate diagnosis of primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac was made. Only 9 cases of primary lacrimal sac adenocarcinoma have been reported, and this is the first reported case of ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland shows an aggressive clinical course, and the present case had multiple cervical lymph node metastases. This report is the first to demonstrate that mTOR pathway proteins, which are central proteins involved in carcinogenesis, are activated in ductal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, mTOR inhibitor may be a potential candidate for treatment of this highly aggressive carcinoma.
The presence of melanin pigment and/or melanocytes in pilomatricoma has been rarely documented. In this study, we analyzed the incidence and clinicopathological features of pigmented pilomatricoma. Fifty-seven consecutive pilomatricoma cases from 53 Japanese patients were examined in this study. In fourteen cases (24.6%), pigmentation was observed in pilomatricoma. This variant equally affected in males and females, and the common locations were the upper arm and face. Proliferation of dendritic melanocytes was observed within basaloid cell nests in all cases, and melanin pigment was also present within the cytoplasm of the basaloid cells in 11 cases. Melanin pigment was also present in the shadow cells in 7 cases. The incidence of pigmented pilomatricoma as documented in previous reports is approximately 10%. However, our analysis revealed that pigmented pilomatricoma was found in 24.6% of Japanese cases of pilomatricoma, thus, this variant is not uncommon and may be under-recognized.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) usually lacks melanocytes within the tumor. A few reports have documented invasive SCC or SCC in situ (intraepithelial neoplasia, IEN) with melanocytic hyperplasia within the tumor, referred to as pigmented SCC, in some organs. However, case series of pigmented SCC or IEN of the esophagus have not yet been reported. This is the first study to analyze the incidence and clinicopathological features of pigmented SCC or IEN of the esophagus. We reviewed 18 surgically-resected and 122 endoscopically-resected esophageal specimens, including 79 cases of IEN. Three cases of pigmented IEN were observed in this series, and all of them were located in the middle to lower third of the esophagus. Two of 3 cases had melanocytosis in the non-neoplastic squamous epithelium around the IEN. The incidence of pigmented IEN was 2.5% of all endoscopically resected specimens and 3.8% of IEN cases. No pigmented invasive SCC was detected in both endoscopically-resected and surgically-resected specimens. The mechanism of pigmentation of esophageal IEN is unknown. However, production of melanocyte chemotactic factors by tumor cells has been demonstrated in pigmented SCC of the oral mucosa. Moreover, two of 3 cases of pigmented IEN in the present series had melanocytosis in the non-neoplastic squamous epithelium, and melanocytosis is thought to be associated with chronic esophagitis, therefore, it has been hypothesized that various stimuli can cause pigmentation in squamous epithelium. Additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of pigmentation in squamous IEN of the esophagus.
Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT) is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of fat cell atrophy, loss of hematopoietic cells, and deposition of extracellular gelatinous materials. GMT is not a specific disease, but is strongly associated with malnutrition and drugs. Albeit extremely rare, GMT has been reported in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Herein, we report the second documented case of hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) accompanying GMT. A 73-year-old Japanese male with excellent nutrition status and no history of alcohol or drug intake was detected with pancytopenia. The initial bone marrow aspirate specimen reveled hypocellular marrow without dysplastic signs in the myeloid cells. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with prominent GMT. He received blood transfusions, however, pancytopenia continued to progress. The second bone marrow aspirate specimen showed dysplastic changes, such as pseudo-Pelger-Huët cells, hypogranular or agranular granulocytes, and megakaryocytes with multiple small nuclei. Cytogenetic study demonstrated deletion of chromosome 7. Therefore, an ultimate diagnosis of hypoplastic MDS accompanying GMT was made. Only a limited number of cases of myeloproliferative disorders with GMT have been reported. Our analysis of these cases revealed that chromosome 7 abnormality is frequently observed in this condition. Moreover, findings from the current case suggested that myeloproliferative disorders including MDS must be included in the differential diagnostic considerations of GMT patients, who have no history of malnutrition or drugs, and careful examination of the bone marrow smear specimen and cytogenetic analysis are necessary for early detection of underlying myeloproliferative disorders.
Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon neoplasm characterized histopathologically by the presence of malignant spindle cell and epithelial components. Albeit extremely rare, sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma has been reported. Herein, we describe an additional case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and review the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. An 82-year-old Japanese male presented with hematuria. Computed tomography demonstrated a large tumor in the urinary bladder. Histopathological study of the resected urinary bladder tumor showed that approximately 80% of the tumor was comprised of small cell carcinoma, and the remaining components were spindle cell proliferation (approximately 15%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%). Both the spindle cell and squamous cell carcinoma components were intermingled with nests of the small cell carcinoma. This is the fifth documented case of sarcomatoid carcinoma with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Our review of the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor revealed that: i) elderly males are mainly affected, ii) the most common chief complaint is hematuria, iii) the epithelial component may include urothelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and/or squamous cell carcinoma, and iv) the sarcomatous component is composed of spindle cell proliferation. The histogenesis of this type of tumor remains a matter of controversy. However, recent molecular analyses demonstrated a monoclonal origin of both components. This theory can account for the various types of carcinomatous components in this tumor as seen in the present case.
Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a distinct type of breast carcinoma and represents 5-15% of invasive breast carcinomas in female. However, the occurrence of ILC is exceptional in male breast, and the incidence is 1.5-1.9% of male breast carcinomas. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in a male breast. A 76-year-old Japanese male with a history of treatment with a progestational agent for prostate cancer presented with a right breast tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging showed gynecomastia of bilateral breasts and an irregular-shaped nodule in his right breast. Histopathological study revealed infiltrative neoplastic growth of discohesive tumor cells arranged in single-filed linear cords or trabeculae. These neoplastic cells had variable-sized large nuclei containing occasional nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, these tumor cells lacked E-cadherin expression. Accordingly, an ultimate diagnosis of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma was made. This is the third documented case of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of male breast. Our analyses of the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor revealed that patients were middle-aged or elderly men, and all cases were free from lymph node metastases or recurrence. Gynecomastia and a history of hormonal agent intake were present only in the current case. The most commonly proposed risk factor for the development of male breast cancer is elevated level of estrogen, and a possible link between the development of male breast cancer and estrogen therapy for prostate cancer has been suggested. The clinicopathological features of ILC of male breast remains unclear; therefore, additional studies are needed to clarify them.
RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) functions in various processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy. The conditional transgenic mice with cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess that were used in the present study were made for the first time by the Cre-loxP system. Cartilage-specific RB1CC1 excess caused dwarfism in mice without causing obvious abnormalities in endochondral ossification and subsequent skeletal development from embryo to adult. In vitro and in vivo analysis revealed that the dwarf phenotype in cartilaginous RB1CC1 excess was induced by reductions in the total amount of cartilage and the number of cartilaginous cells, following suppressions of type II collagen synthesis and Erk1/2 signals. In addition, we have demonstrated that two kinds of SNPs (T-547C and C-468T) in the human RB1CC1 promoter have significant influence on the self-transcriptional level. Accordingly, human genotypic variants of RB1CC1 that either stimulate or inhibit RB1CC1 transcription in vivo may cause body size variations.
Syringofibroadenoma is an extremely rare benign lesion with distinct histopathological features and variable clinical presentations. Most cases of syringofibroadenoma are thought to be benign skin appendage tumor with eccrine ductal differentiation, however, some syringofibroadenomas are suspected to be a reactive process. Herein, we report the first case of Bowens disease accompanying syringofibroadenoma, which is suspected to be a reactive process, in a 78-year-old Japanese man. The precise nature of syringofibroadenoma accompanying carcinoma is still controversial. Syringofibroadenoma is thought to be a pre-existing neoplastic condition in some cases. In contrast, syringofibroadenoma is also considered to occur in a reactive process involving several inflammatory dermatoses and skin tumors, and the term "reactive syringofibroadenomatous hyperplasia" has been proposed. In this report, we summarize the clinicopathological features of carcinoma accompanying syringofibroadenoma and discuss the nature of syringofibroadenoma.
A carcinoma displaying undifferentiated features with dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is defined as a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LEC), and some of LEC is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). All of the 13 previously reported cases of LEC of the biliary system were intrahepatic in location. Herein, we describe the first case of LEC of the inferior common bile duct. A 68-year-old Japanese man, who had been previously treated for hepatocellular carcinoma using microwave coagulation therapy, was found to have tumors of the common bile duct and pancreas head. Histopathological study of the resected tumor showed solid or cohesive nests of large undifferentiated cells with irregular large vesicular nuclei and nucleoli. Around the tumor cell nests, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was observed. Focal glandular differentiation (approximately 5%) was also present. These histopathological features corresponded morphologically to LEC. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK 19 and CA19-9, but negative for CK 20 and Hep Par 1. In situ hybridization for Epstein Barr virus early small RNAs disclosed no nuclear signal in tumor cells. Therefore, a diagnosis of non-EBV-associated LEC of the inferior common bile duct was made. Although the prognosis of the biliary LEC is thought to be better than that of conventional cholangiocarcinoma, the differences in prognosis between EBV-positive and -negative cases have not yet been established. Therefore, additional case studies will be needed to clarify the clinicopathological features of LEC of the biliary tract.
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have a unique epigenetic profile distinct from that of other types of cancer. To further evaluate epigenetics of TGCTs, this study examines DNA methylation patterns of DNA repetitive elements in TGCTs. Bisulfite genomic sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) were used to analyze the methylation patterns of DNA repetitive elements (LINE1 and Alu repeats) in embryonal carcinoma (EC) derived cell lines, primary TGCT tissues, noncancerous testicular tissues adjacent to TGCTs and cancer cells derived from somatic tissues (testicular malignant lymphoma tissues and renal cell carcinoma cell lines). Through both bisulfite genomic sequencing and COBRA, LINE1 was extensively hypomethylated in both seminomatous and nonseminomatous TGCT tissues as well as EC cell lines. We studied two Alu repeats locating in the 5 end of E-cadherin and XIST by bisulfite genomic sequencing. These two Alu elements were extensively hypomethylated in seminomatous TGCTs, but methylated in nonseminomatous TGCTs, including two EC derived cell lines. This increased unmethylated profile in seminomatous TGCTs was observed also by COBRA for Alu repeats. Although partial demethylation of DNA repetitive elements was observed in cancer cells of somatic tissue origin, the degree of demethylation was more pronounced in TGCTs than in cancer cells of somatic tissue origin. We observed abnormal demethylation of DNA repetitive elements in some of the tissues adjacent to TGCTs. The results indicate that the underlying mechanisms to undergo or maintain demethylation of DNA repetitive sequences differ between TGCTs and cancer cells of somatic tissue origin.
RECQL1 and WRN proteins are RecQ DNA helicases that participate in suppression of DNA hyper-recombination and repair. In this study, we report evidence supporting their candidacy as cancer therapeutic targets. In hypopharyngeal carcinomas, which have the worst prognosis among head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that are rapidly rising in incidence, we found that RECQL1 and WRN proteins are highly expressed and that siRNA-mediated silencing of either gene suppressed carcinoma cell growth in vitro. Similarly, siRNA administration in a murine xenograft model of hypopharyngeal carcinoma markedly inhibited tumor growth. Moreover, combining either siRNA with cis-platinum (II) diammine dichloride significantly augmented the in vivo anticancer effects of this drug that is used commonly in HNSCC treatment. Notably, we observed no recurrence of some tumors following siRNA treatment in this model. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for RECQL1 and WRN proteins as novel therapeutic targets to treat aggressive HNSCC and perhaps other cancers.
A 64-year-old woman presented with the history of transient global amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast medium showed a lobulated heterogeneously enhanced cystic lesion attached to the superior surface of the right tentorium, indenting the right temporal lobe laterally and midbrain medially. A small part of the lesion was located under the right tentorium and did not involve the right trigeminal nerve. The lesion was subtotally resected via the subtemporal approach and did not affect the trochlear and trigeminal nerves. Histological examination showed that the lesion was schwannoma. Intracranial schwannomas usually arise from the cranial nerves. The present case of tentorial schwannoma not associated with the cranial nerves is extremely rare. Schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors arising from the tentorium.
Malignant tumor occurring within seborrheic keratosis (SK), which is one of the most common benign cutaneous tumors, is extremely rare. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arising within SK. Additionally, this is the first study to describe the immunohistochemical characteristics of this type of carcinoma. An 89-year-old Japanese woman presented with a persistent scaly plaque in the right auricle of her ear. Histopathological study revealed a superficial type of BCC arising within SK. Immunohistochemical studies showed that cytokeratin 17 (CK17), CK19, SOX9 and p53 protein were expressed in BCC, but not in SK. BCC is considered to originate from the follicular germinative cells, and the outer root sheath may be the possible origin. SK is also thought to be a benign skin appendage neoplasm showing follicular differentiation, especially follicular infundibula. Therefore, previous reports speculated that there was a pathogenic relationship between SK and BCC, with respect to a common follicular origin. However, the immunohistochemical characteristics of this study suggest that BCC does not arise directly from SK, but instead, that SK is the nidus of the carcinoma, resulting in the abutment of SK with BCC. Furthermore, the results of the present case suggest that immunohistochemical surveillance of the expression of CK17, CK19 and SOX9 and p53 protein is useful in differentiating minute BCC from the non-neoplastic hair buds.
Pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is an uncommon cancer-related complication characterized by intimal proliferation in pulmonary small arteries and arterioles with or without tumor emboli. In the majority of cases, the causative lesion is gastric poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In the present study, an autopsy case of PTTM caused by lung adenocarcinoma is reported and the pathogenesis of this complication is discussed. Multiple nodular lesions in the bilateral lungs were found in a 62-year-old Japanese man. Transbronchial biopsy revealed non-small cell carcinoma. Chemotherapy was performed; however, the patient succumbed to sudden dyspnea. Autopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with multiple intrapulmonary metastases and intimal proliferation of pulmonary small arteries and arterioles with or without tumor emboli, which were characteristic of PTTM. Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteopontin (OPN), which are endothelial proliferative factors. This case indicates the possible involvement of VEGF and OPN in the pathogenesis of PTTM caused by lung adenocarcinoma.
Mucormycosis is a rapidly progressive fungal infection that usually occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus or in immunocompromised patients. Sinus involvement is the most common clinical presentation and the rates of mortality increase with the orbital extension. The treatment of mucormycosis includes aggressive surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of effective antifungal drugs are essential for successful outcome. However, the role of orbital exenteration for the case of orbital involvement remains controversial, and the drugs effective against mucormycosis are limited. We present a successfully treated case with rhino-orbital mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a diabetic and dialysis patient. The early diagnosis, surgical debridement and a new combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and micafungin were effective. This new combination antifungal therapy will be useful for the treatment of mucormycosis.
RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1, also known as FIP200) is involved in dephosphorylation and increase of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1), but the RB1CC1 molecular mechanism in the dephosphorylation of RB1 is not fully understood. We determined that RB1CC1 activates the expression of p16 (also called INK4a/CDKN2a) through the activation of its promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and p16 promoter-luciferase reporter assays. In addition, RB1CC1 essentially requires binding with hSNF5 (also known as BAF47/INI1, a chromatin-remodeling factor) to activate the p16 promoter, in order to enhance the RB1 pathway and acts as a tumor suppressor. Evaluation of the RB1CC1 mechanism of action is expected to provide useful information for clinical practice and future therapeutic strategies in human cancers.
RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1) plays a significant role in the enhancement of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB1) pathway and is involved in breast cancer development. However, RB1CC1s role in clinical progression of breast cancer has not yet been evaluated, so, as a first step, it is necessary to establish its usefulness as a tool to evaluate breast cancer patients. In this report, we have analyzed the correlation between abnormalities in the RB1CC1 pathway and long-term prognosis, because disease-specific death in later periods (>5 years) of the disease is a serious problem in breast cancer. Breast cancer tissues from a large cohort in Japan were evaluated by conventional immunohistochemical methods for the presence of the molecules involved in the RB1CC1 pathway, including RB1CC1, RB1, p53, and other well-known prognostic markers for breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. The correlation between the immunohistochemical results and clinical outcomes of 323 breast cancer patients was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Absence of nuclear RB1CC1 expression was associated with the worst prognosis (Log-rank test, Chi-Square value = 17.462, p<0.0001). Dysfunction of either one of RB1CC1, RB1, or p53 was associated with the highest risk for cancer-specific death, especially related to survival lasting more than 5 years (multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio = 3.951, 95% Confidence Interval =1.566-9.967, p = 0.0036). Our present data demonstrate that the combined evaluation of RB1CC1, RB1 and p53 by conventional immunohistochemical analysis provides an accurate prediction of the long-term prognoses of breast cancer patients, which can be carried out as a routine clinical examination.
We report a rare case of multiple schwannomas presenting with scrotal mass. In the present case, a scrotal schwannoma developed in a 66-year-old man with a history of brain tumor surgery. Investigating the patients past history lead to the diagnosis as probable schwannomatosis. Patients with schwannomatosis are at increased risk of developing multiple schwannomas and these patients need regular surveillance. In this regard, the present case highlights the importance of thorough history taking in patients with scrotal schwannoma.
We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohns disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients. A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor. The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC. In the non-neoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was no evidence of liver cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis. Only nine cases of HCC in CD patients have been reported previously in the English-language literature. Eight of 10 cases (including the present case) had received azathioprine treatment, and four of these cases also showed FHG, which is considered a preneoplastic liver lesion, within the non-neoplastic liver. Although the precise mechanism of the development of HCC in CD patients is controversial, these results suggest that azathioprine therapy and FHG in the non-neoplastic liver contribute to the development of HCC. These findings also indicate that it is important to survey CD patients treated with prolonged azathioprine therapy for potential liver tumors.
Granulomatous mycosis fungoides (GMF) represents an uncommon variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) characterized by the presence of an associated granulomatous reaction. Most cases of GMF are CD4 positive, and CD8 positive cases are extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of CD8-positive GMF. A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with brownish maculae on the trunk and upper and lower extremities. She had been diagnosed with MF, and most of the eruption improved by psoralen ultraviolet A therapy. However, the eruption relapsed and gradually expanded 5 months prior to her visit to our hospital. Histopathology showed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis accompanied by granulomatous reaction with multinucleated giant cells. Epidermotropism was evident and elastophagocytosis was also found. Immunohistochemically, the atypical lymphocytes expressed betaF1, CD3 and CD8, and some of the atypical lymphocytes were also T cell intracellular antigen-1 positive. These findings were consistent with CD8-positive GMF. The dermatopathological diagnosis of GMF is challenging in some cases because of the prominent secondary granulomatous reaction. Therefore, when dermatopathologists diagnose granulomatous skin lesions, GMF should also be considered. In addition, the prognosis of GMF, especially CD8-positive GMF, is still controversial. Additional studies are required to clarify the clinicopathological features of CD8-positive GMF.
RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1, also known as FIP200) plays a role in the enhancement of the RB1 pathway through the direct binding to a GC-rich region 201bp upstream (from the initiation ATG) of the RB1 promoter. Here, we identified hSNF5 and p53 as the binding partners of RB1CC1 by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Interaction between these molecules and the RB1 pathway was analyzed by the assays of chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase-reporter, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot. The tumor growth suppression by RB1CC1 was evaluated by flow cytometry or by a cell growth assay. The nuclear RB1CC1 complex involving hSNF5 and/or p53 activated transcription of RB1, p16 and p21, and suppressed tumor cell growth. Furthermore, nuclear RB1CC1 expression significantly correlated with those of RB1 and p16 in breast cancer tissue in vivo, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was dependent on p53 as well as RB1CC1. The present study indicates that RB1CC1 together with hSNF5 and/or p53 enhances the RB1 pathway through transcriptional activation of RB1, p16 and p21. Evaluation of RB1CC1 expression combined with RB1 and p53 status is expected to provide useful information in clinical practice and future therapeutic strategies in breast cancer.
Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver is an extremely rare lesion characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic lymphocytes forming follicles. Hepatic RLH is known to be associated with gastrointestinal carcinoma and autoimmune diseases including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We report a case of hepatic RLH in a patient with PBC and gastric cancer. A 68 year old Japanese woman with a 10 year history of liver enzyme abnormality was admitted. Laboratory testing revealed that her anti-mitochondrial antibody was markedly elevated. Five mo after the diagnosis of PBC, she was found to have gastric cancer. Abdominal computed tomography disclosed a liver nodule in S8, suggesting metastatic gastric carcinoma. Histopathologically, the resected liver lesion comprised of a nodular proliferation of small lymphocytes with lymphoid follicles. This is the first reported case of hepatic RLH in a patient with both PBC and gastric cancer. Pre-operative diagnosis of hepatic RLH by clinical imaging is extremely difficult. Therefore, a needle biopsy could be useful to make a diagnosis of hepatic RLH, especially to differentiate from metastatic gastrointestinal carcinoma.
Acquired cystic disease of the kidney (ACDK) in patients undergoing haemodialysis is known to develop into renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but its pathogenesis remains unclear. The aims were to analyse the histological findings of ACDK-RCC and to determine its histogenesis.
Claudins are a family of proteins that are structural and functional components of tight junctions and have crucial roles in the maintenance of cellular arrangement, adhesion and paracellular transport. Recent studies have shown that changes and/or loss of claudin expression plays an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, and altered expression of claudins has been reported in various human carcinomas. Non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated carcinoma with characteristic clinicopathological features. The aim of this study was to investigate claudin expression profiles in EBV-associated non-keratinizing NPC. We analyzed expressions of claudin-1, -2, -3, and -4 in 18 cases of EBV-associated non-keratinizing NPC by immunohistochemical methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in all 18 cases, but claudin-2 was not expressed in any of the 18 cases. Claudin-3 expression was variable, with 8 of the 18 cases (45%) showing no immunoreactivity for claudin-3. Claudin-4 displayed positive immunoreactivity in all cases, even in claudin-3-negative cases. Claudin-3 and -4 are receptors for cytotoxic Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and CPE has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for malignant tumors expressing claudin-3 and/or -4, because CPE specifically and rapidly lyses cells expressing these proteins. Clinically, treatment of distant metastases is a serious problem in EBV-associated non-keratinizing NPC, because frequently there is lymph node involvement and distant metastasis before detection of the primary tumor. Therefore, CPE therapy may be a potential therapeutic target for EBV-associated non-keratinizing NPC, since our results clearly showed claudin-3 and/or -4 expression in all cases studied.
Two cases of skull base chordoma (case 1, a 57-year-old woman; case 2, a 69-year-old woman) were investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. The tumors showed histopathological features typical of chondroid chordoma and contained both classical chordomatous and hyaline cartilaginous components. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin, vimentin, and S-100 protein, but negative for microtubule-associated protein 2 and class III beta-tubulin (tub-B3). Tumor cells of case 2 were immunoreactive for tau-protein and class II beta-tubulin (tub-B2), whereas those of case 1 were negative. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells in both cases showed the presence of abundant glycogen granules, well-developed intracellular organelles, and desmosome-like junctions. In case 2, several microtubules were closely packed and ran parallel or in random directions within the dilated cisterns of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER). "Microtubules within rough ER" has been described in several neoplasms, including classical and chondroid chordomas. Although previous reports documented the tub-B3 immunoreactivity in chordomas, our results suggested that, in our case 2, the predominant isoform of beta-tubulin in microtubules within rough ER was not tub-B3 but tub-B2.
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