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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Characterization of the Heterotrimeric G-Protein Complex and Its Regulator from the Green Alga Chara braunii Expands the Evolutionary Breadth of Plant G-Protein Signaling.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the G?, G?, and G? subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbG? and CbG?, CbG? and CbG?, and CbG? and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae.
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Molecular and biochemical analysis of the first ARA6 homologue, a RAB5 GTPase, from green algae.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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RAB5 GTPases are important regulators of endosomal membrane traffic in yeast, plants, and animals. A specific subgroup of this family, the ARA6 group, has been described in land plants including bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. Here, we report on the isolation of an ARA6 homologue in a green alga. CaARA6 (CaRABF1) from Chara australis, a member of the Characeae that is a close relative of land plants, encodes a polypeptide of 237 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 25.4kDa, which is highly similar to ARA6 members from Arabidopsis thaliana and other land plants and has GTPase activity. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells, fluorescently tagged CaARA6 labelled organelles with diameters between 0.2 and 1.2 ┬Ám, which co-localized with fluorescently tagged AtARA6 known to be present on multivesicular endosomes. Mutations in the membrane-anchoring and GTP-binding sites altered the localization of CaARA6 comparable to that of A. thaliana ARA6 (RABF1). In characean internodal cells, confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy with antibodies against AtARA6 and CaARA6 revealed ARA6 epitopes not only at multivesicular endosomes but also at the plasma membrane, including convoluted domains (charasomes), and at the trans-Golgi network. Our findings demonstrate that ARA6-like proteins have a more ancient origin than previously thought. They indicate further that ARA6-like proteins could have different functions in spite of the high similarity between characean algae and flowering plants.
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An extended phylogenetic analysis reveals ancient origin of "non-green" phosphoribulokinase genes from two lineages of "green" secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes: Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta are groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes harboring secondary plastids of distinct green algal origins. Although previous phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding Calvin cycle enzymes demonstrated the presence of genes apparently not derived from green algal endosymbionts in the nuclear genomes of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) and Bigelowiella natans (Chlorarachniophyta), the origins of these "non-green" genes in "green" secondary phototrophs were unclear due to the limited taxon sampling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.