JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line treatment for acute graft-versus-host disease: Impact on six month freedom from treatment failure.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6 month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from 3 centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6 month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 vs. 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P <0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6 month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P <0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6 month freedom from treatment failure, 1-y, 2-y and 3-y survival were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid refractory or dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6 month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal Elafin Expression is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis in Cutaneous Graft-versus-Host Disease.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a common and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. In the skin, GVHD can present in an acute (aGVHD), chronic lichenoid or chronic sclerotic form (clGVHD, csGVHD). Measuring peripheral blood levels of the keratinocyte-derived protease inhibitor elafin has recently emerged as a promising tool for diagnosing cutaneous aGVHD. We evaluated whether the analysis of elafin expression in skin would allow distinguishing aGVHD from drug hypersensitivity rashes (DHR) and whether cutaneous elafin expression would correlate with disease severity or altered prognosis of aGVHD and clGVHD/csGVHD. Skin biopsies from aGVHD (n=22), clGVHD (n=15), csGVHD (n=7) and DHR (n=10) patients were collected and epidermal elafin expression and its association with diverse clinical/histological parameters were analyzed. Acute GVHD and DHR displayed varying degrees of elafin expression. No elafin was detectable in csGVHD, while the molecule was increased in clGVHD as compared to aGVHD. Elafin-high aGVHD/clGVHD lesions presented with epidermal thickening and were associated with poor prognosis, i.e. decreased overall survival in aGVHD and corticosteroid resistance in clGVHD. Although cutaneous elafin does not seem to discriminate aGVHD from DHR lesions, our study strongly suggests an association between cutaneous elafin expression and poor prognosis for patients with cutaneous GVHD.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 18 November 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.489.
Related JoVE Video
Extracorporeal photopheresis in acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation causing significant morbidity and mortality. Corticosteroids are the established first-line treatment of GvHD. Patients not responding to corticosteroids have a dismal prognosis. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has objective activity in the treatment of both acute and chronic corticosteroid-refractory GvHD patients, has an excellent safety profile and is internationally well-established. ECP has been recommended by a significant number of renowned scientific organizations as an efficient treatment option for patients with GvHD. ECP has a proven corticosteroid-sparing effect and favourably impacts on survival and quality of life of responding patients.
Related JoVE Video
Clofarabine/cyclophosphamide for debulking before stem cell transplantation.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative rescue therapy for patients (pts) with chemotherapy-refractory acute leukaemia. Disease control prior to HSCT is essential for long-term disease-free survival after HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus on the histopathological evaluation of liver biopsies from patients following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) liver biopsy is performed for enigmatic liver disorders when noninvasive diagnostic steps have failed in establishing a definitive diagnosis. This document provides an updated consensus on the prerequisites for proper evaluation of liver biopsies in alloHCT patients and the histological diagnostic criteria for liver graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The Working Group's recommendations for the histological diagnosis of liver GvHD were derived from the peer-reviewed literature and from the consensus diagnosis of a total of 30 coded liver biopsies. Acceptance of the recommendations was tested by a survey distributed to all HCT centers in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Consensus was achieved for biopsy indications, methods of sample acquisition and processing, reporting and interpretation of biopsy findings. As GvHD is variably treated and the treatment modalities have changed over time, the panel endorses the use of more frequent biopsies in clinical studies in order to improve the present challenging clinical and diagnostic situation.
Related JoVE Video
Diverse T cell responses characterize the different manifestations of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and can present in an acute (aGVHD), a chronic lichenoid (clGVHD) and a chronic sclerotic form (csGVHD). It is unclear whether similar or different pathomechanisms lead to these distinct clinical presentations. To address this issue, we collected lesional skin biopsies from aGVHD (n=25), clGVHD (n=17) and csGVHD (n=7) patients as well as serial non-lesional biopsies from HCT-recipients (prior/post-HCT) (n=14) and subjected them to phenotypic and functional analyses. Our results revealed striking differences between aGVHD and clGVHD. In aGVHD, we found a clear predominance of Th2 cytokines/chemokines and, surprisingly, of IL-22 mRNA as well as an increase of IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells. TSLP, a cytokine skewing the immune response towards a Th2 direction, was elevated at day 20-30 post-HCT in the skin of patients who later developed aGVHD. In sharp contrast to aGVHD, the immune response occurring in clGVHD showed a mixed Th1/Th17 signature with up-regulated Th1/Th17 cytokine/chemokine transcripts and elevated numbers of IFN-?- and IL-17-producing CD8(+) T cells. Our findings shed new light on the T cell responses involved in the different manifestations of cutaneous GVHD and identify molecular signatures indicating the development of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term follow-up after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary acute myeloid leukemia: a single center experience.
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a single center analysis of 60 adult patients (33 males and 27 females) with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) at our institution.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of advanced therapy medicinal products in Europe and the role of academia.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are gene therapy, somatic cell therapy or tissue-engineered products regulated under (EC) No. 1394/2007 to ensure their free movement within the European Union while guaranteeing the highest level of health protection for patients. Academic good manufacturing practice (GMP) centers are major contributors in the development of ATMPs and this study assessed the impact of regulations on them.
Related JoVE Video
Autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation vs autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma: long-term results of the EBMT-NMAM2000 study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long-term follow-up of prospective studies comparing allogeneic transplantation to autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma is few and controversial. This is an update at a median follow-up of 96 months of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Multiple Myeloma (NMAM)2000 study that prospectively compares tandem autologous/reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation (auto/RICallo) to autologous transplantation alone (auto). There are 357 myeloma patients up to age 69 years enrolled. Patients with an HLA-identical sibling were allocated to auto/RICallo (n = 108) and those without to auto alone (n = 249). At 96 months progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 22% and 49% vs 12% (P = .027) and 36% (P = .030) with auto/RICallo and auto respectively. The corresponding relapse/progression rate (RL) was 60% vs 82% (P = .0002). Non-relapse mortality at 36 months was 13% vs 3% (P = .0004). In patients with the del(13) abnormality corresponding PFS and OS were 21% and 47% vs 5% (P = .026), and 31% (P = .154). Long-term outcome in patients with multiple myeloma was better with auto/RICallo as compared with auto only and the auto/RICallo approach seemed to overcome the poor prognostic impact of del(13) observed after autologous transplantation. Follow up longer than 5 years is necessary for correct interpretation of the value of auto/RICallo in multiple myeloma.
Related JoVE Video
Extracorporeal photopheresis versus anticytokine therapy as a second-line treatment for steroid-refractory acute GVHD: a multicenter comparative analysis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The optimal therapy for steroid-refractory (SR) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is undefined. We studied patients with SR aGVHD, comparing extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP; n = 57) and anticytokine therapy (n = 41). In multivariate analyses, ECP, adjusted for steroid dose (odds ratio, 3.42; P = .007), and grade >II aGVHD (odds ratio, 68; P < .001) were independent predictors of response. ECP therapy, adjusted for conditioning regimen intensity and steroid dose, was associated with superior survival (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; P = .016) in patients with SR grade II aGVHD. Grade >II aGVHD at onset of salvage therapy (HR, 9.4; P < .001) and lack of response to therapy (HR, 3.09; P = .011) were associated with inferior survival. These findings require validation in a prospective randomized study.
Related JoVE Video
Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: results from a survey among German-Austrian-Swiss hematopoietic stem cell transplant centers.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess current clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), we performed a survey among German, Austrian, and Swiss allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) centers. Thirty-four of 72 contacted centers (47%) completed both the diagnostic and therapeutic sections of the survey, representing 65% of allo-HSCT activity within the participating countries in 2011. Three pediatric centers answered as requested only the diagnostic part of the survey. In the presence of diarrhea and decreased oral intake after engraftment, only 4 centers (12%) do not perform any endoscopy before the start of immunosuppressive treatment. In case of a skin rash with the differential diagnosis of drug reaction, only 12 centers (35%) perform a skin biopsy up front, whereas 19 do so after failure of systemic steroids. In the presence of rapidly increasing cholestasis occurring without any other signs of aGVHD, 11 centers (32%) perform a liver biopsy up front and 14 only after failure of steroid treatment, whereas 9 centers do not perform a liver biopsy at all. Twenty centers (59%) use a percutaneous approach, 12 a transvenous approach, and 1 mini-laparoscopy for liver biopsies. First-line treatment of cutaneous aGVHD stage 1 consists of topical treatment alone in 17 of 31 responding centers (61%), whereas isolated cutaneous aGVHD stage III is treated with systemic steroids (prednisolone below 0.5 mg/kg/day n = 2, 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg/day n = 10, above 1.0 to 2.5 mg/kg/day n = 19) without or with topical agents (steroids n = 10; calcineurin inhibitors n = 3). In gastrointestinal manifestations of aGVHD, 9 centers (29%) add topical to systemic steroids, and 3 consider topical steroids as the only treatment for mild gastrointestinal and cutaneous aGVHD. The choice of agent for second-line treatment as well as the sequence of administration are extremely heterogeneous, most likely due to a lack of convincing data published. Most frequently used are mycophenolate mofetil (n = 14) and extracorporeal photopheresis (n = 10). Our survey also demonstrates that clinicians chose salvage therapies for steroid-refractory aGVHD based on their centers own clinical experience.
Related JoVE Video
CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells and patients at risk for NIH-defined chronic graft-versus-host disease with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), pathognomonic for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) of the lung, is a progressive and often fatal complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Biomarkers for the prediction and diagnosis of BOS are urgently needed to improve patients prognosis. We prospectively evaluated B-cell subpopulations and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in 136 patients (46 BOS, 41 no cGVHD, 49 cutaneous cGVHD) to define novel biomarkers for early diagnosis of National Institutes of Health-defined BOS diagnosed a median of 11 mo after HCT. Patients with newly diagnosed BOS had significantly higher percentages of CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (25.5 versus 6.6%, P < .0001), BAFF (7.3 versus 3.5 ng/mL, P = .02), and BAFF/CD19(+) ratio (0.18 versus 0.02 ng/10(3) CD19(+) B cells, P 5 .007) compared with patients without cGVHD. The area under the receiver operating curve for CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells was 0.97 (95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.99) and a cutoff point >9% was optimal for diagnosing BOS in patients with first drop of pulmonary function tests with a sensitivity of 96% and a negative predictive value of 94%. Thus, elevated levels of CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells are a potential novel biomarker for HCT patients at risk for developing BOS at an early stage and could allow improvement of patient outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Lung transplantation for bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-center experience.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a detrimental late pulmonary complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD). When systemic immunosuppressive treatment fails to improve, severe BO patients should be considered for lung transplantation (LuTX). We present seven patients undergoing LuTX for severe refractory BO after HCT.
Related JoVE Video
Frequency and prognostic value of D alloantibodies after D-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to the fact that the ABO and D system is inherited independently from the HLA system, approximately 40% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) are performed across the blood group barrier. Reports on the development of de novo anti-D in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) followed by D-mismatched allogeneic HSCT are rare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-D alloimmunization after D-mismatched HSCT following RIC and its prognostic impact on transplant outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Tandem autologous/reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem-cell transplantation versus autologous transplantation in myeloma: long-term follow-up.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Results of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo) in myeloma are controversial. In this trial autologous stem-cell transplantation (auto) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning matched sibling donor allo (auto-allo) was compared with auto only in previously untreated multiple myeloma.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic bone diseases in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With improved outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for hematologic malignancies, long-term complications gain greater importance. Skeletal complications such as osteoporosis or avascular necrosis (AVN) occur frequently in allogeneic recipients with a cumulative incidence of diminished bone mineral density of 24-50% between 2 and 12 months after allo-SCT and a cumulative incidence of AVN in as many as 19% of patients 3 years after allo-SCT. Here, we present a review as part of the German, Austrian, and Swiss Consensus Conference on clinical practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease, held 2009 in Regensburg. The Consensus Conference aimed to achieve a consensus on the current evidence of diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic options of late complications after allo-SCT summarizing and discussing the literature on these topics. In this report, we provide recommendations for metabolic bone diseases agreed upon by the working party. This includes guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic options in patients with low bone mass or AVN.
Related JoVE Video
The treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease: consensus recommendations of experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the commonest complication of allogeneic bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplantation, occurring in 50% of all cases and causing late mortality in as many as 25%. There are now about 10 000 patients with cGVHD in Germany, and their number is growing by about 500 each year. cGVHD is a chronic multisystem disease due to impaired tolerance mechanisms. It affects many organs in variable ways, impairing organ function and lowering quality of life.
Related JoVE Video
Progressive improvement in cutaneous and extracutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease after a 24-week course of extracorporeal photopheresis--results of a crossover randomized study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a prior multicenter randomized controlled trial, we found that a 12-week course of extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) plus standard immunosuppressive therapy resulted in several beneficial outcomes in patients with corticosteroid-refractory/intolerant/dependent chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we report the results of an open-label crossover ECP study in 29 eligible participants randomized initially to the standard of care non-ECP (control) arm. Eligible for the crossover ECP study were control arm patients who either (1) had progression of cutaneous chronic GVHD (cGVHD), defined as >25% worsening from baseline as measured by the percent change in the total skin score (TSS) at any time, or (2) had less than 15% improvement in the TSS, or had a ?25% reduction in corticosteroid dose at week 12 of the initial study. ECP was administered 3 times during week 1, then twice weekly until week 12, followed by 2 treatments monthly until week 24. The median age of the study cohort was 43 (20-67) years and 90% had extensive cGVHD. The median months from onset of cGVHD to start of ECP were 26 (range: 4-79). Twenty-five of 29 patients (86%) completed the 24-week course of ECP. Complete or partial skin response at week 24 was noted in 9 patients (31%). The median percent of decrease in TSS from baseline to weeks 12 and 24 was -7.9 and -25.8, respectively. In 4 (17%) and 8 (33%) patients, a ?50% reduction in corticosteroid dose at weeks 12 and 24 was observed. Extracutaneous cGVHD response was highest in oral mucosa with 70% complete and partial resolution after week 24. In conclusion, progressive improvement in cutaneous and extracutaneous cGVHD was observed after a 24-week course of ECP in patients who previously had no clinical improvement or exhibited worsening of cGVHD while receiving standard immunosuppressive therapy alone in a randomized study. These results confirm previous findings and support the notion that prolonged ECP appears to be necessary for optimal therapeutic effects in corticosteroid-refractory cGVHD patients.
Related JoVE Video
Vaccination of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: report from the international consensus conference on clinical practice in chronic GVHD.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients lose protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, revaccination of HSCT recipients represents an important strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality associated with these infections. Since there is little consensus on vaccine recommendations and practices for allogeneic HSCT recipients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) the German-Austrian-Swiss-Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in Chronic GVHD developed an immunization schedule with the aim to provide optimal patient care. The proposed vaccine recommendations include immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type b, pertussis, pneumococci, meningococci, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis A and B, measles, mumps and rubella, influenza, poliomyelitis, varicella-zoster virus, human papilloma virus, and tick-borne encephalitis with a particular focus on vaccination of patients with active chronic GVHD.
Related JoVE Video
Significant differences in B-cell subpopulations characterize patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease-associated dysgammaglobulinemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) can resemble those seen in immunodeficiency states and autoimmune disorders. Reports by us and others suggest an involvement of B cells in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. We investigated B-lymphocyte subpopulations in cGVHD cohorts defined by serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to characterize novel biomarkers for impairment of humoral immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Seventy-six patients were enrolled a median of 46 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The hypogammaglobulinemia group had significantly diminished CD19(+) B cells (165 vs 454 vs 417 × 10?L) with elevated CD19(+)CD21(low) immature (16.5%, 7.7%, and 9.1%) and CD19(+)CD21(int-high)CD38(high)IgM(high) transitional (10.5% vs 4.2% vs 6.3%) B-cell proportions compared with the normogammaglobulinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia groups. CD19(+)CD10(-)CD27(-)CD21(high) naive B cells were highly elevated in all patients with cGVHD. CD19(+)CD27(+)IgD(+) non-class-switched (4 vs 12 vs 11 × 10?/L) and class-switched (7 vs 35 vs 42 × 10?/L) memory B cells were significantly lower in the hypogammaglobulinemia group compared with the others. Besides significantly higher B-cell activation factor/B-cell ratios, significantly more cGVHD patients with hypergammaglobulinemia had autoantibodies compared with the hypogammaglobulinemia subgroup (68% vs 24%, P = .024). In conclusion, B-cell subpopulations can serve as novel cellular biomarkers for immunodeficiency and autoimmunity indicating different pathogenetic mechanisms of cGVHD and encouraging future prospective longitudinal studies.
Related JoVE Video
Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia: report from the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) is a curative therapeutic option for patients with low-grade lymphoid malignancies. Information regarding alloSCT in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is limited. This study presents the long-term outcome of a large series of patients with WM treated with alloSCT.
Related JoVE Video
Plerixafor and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma previously failing mobilization with G-CSF with or without chemotherapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization: the Austrian experienc
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to enhance stem cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and Hodgkins disease who demonstrated with previous mobilization failure. In this named patient program we report the Austrian experience in insufficiently mobilizing patients.
Related JoVE Video
Neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major obstacle of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is graft-versus-host disease, an immune-mediated disorder that affects multiple tissues and organs with varying severity. Neurological complications of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are rare but can produce severe clinical problems with significant morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease that comprise immune-mediated neuropathies, myasthenia gravis and myositis in the peripheral nervous system and various cerebrovascular complications, demyelination and immune-mediated encephalitis in the central nervous system. The National Institutes of Health consensus on criteria for clinical trials in chronic graft-versus-host disease recommended that the diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease of the nervous system can be made only when other organs are affected by graft-versus-host disease and frequent neurological differential diagnoses such as drug-induced toxicities or opportunistic infections are excluded. The Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease, held in autumn 2009 in Regensburg, aimed to summarize the literature and to provide guidelines for the diagnostic approach in children and adults with neurological manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Moreover, we present therapeutic recommendations and their level of evidence for the management of these complications. Overlapping symptoms and comorbidities after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the limited knowledge about the underlying biological mechanisms of chronic graft-versus-host disease affecting the nervous system emphasize the need for further experimental and clinical investigations.
Related JoVE Video
Improved outcome in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation over the past 25 years: a single-center experience.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although imatinib has become standard first-line therapy in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still considered to be an important treatment alternative for patients with drug resistance or advanced disease. We retrospectively analyzed 175 adult CML patients who underwent HSCT at our institution between 1983 and 2007, with the aim to compare outcomes in patient subgroups and to identify prognostic variables. The median follow-up was 65 months. The probability of overall survival (OS) for all patients was 62%, with a significant improvement seen in the imatinib-era (2001-2007) compared to previous time periods (P <.05). Furthermore, a significantly better outcome for patients with chronic phase CML compared to patients with accelerated or blast phase could be observed (P < .05). Cumulative incidence (CI) of treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 9.7% at 100 days and 1 year after HSCT. CI of relapse was 5% at 1 year and 7.5% at 3 years after HSCT. Post-HSCT outcome was not influenced by pretreatment therapy with imatinib, donor type, or a conditioning regimen with total body irradiation (TBI). These data confirm earlier observations and suggest that allogeneic HSCT is still an important treatment option for high-risk patients with CML, and should thus remain an integral component in current and future treatment algorithms.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of the human activity profile questionnaire in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) associated morbidity and mortality remain major barriers for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Currently, no reliable measures are established to monitor cGVHD activity changes for use in clinical trials. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) patient self-report was proposed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cGVHD consensus project as an independent measure of patients functional status that could also indirectly reflect improvement of cGVHD, but that has not been validated in an alloHSCT patient population. One hundred seventy-six patients (median age 44 years [range: 18-72 years] after alloHSCT were evaluated with a German translation of the HAP, the NIH criteria-based cGVHD activity assessment, the Lee cGVHD Symptom-Scale, FACT-BMT, SF36, Berlin Social Support Scale, 24-Item Adjective Measure (24-AM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the NCCN-Distress-Thermometer. Enrollment occurred a median of 286 (range: 85-4003) days after alloHSCT. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 12 months after the baseline survey. Although 117 patient had cGVHD at time of enrollment (mild n = 33, moderate n = 50, or severe n = 34), 59 patients were included into the study in the absence of cGVHD between days 85 and 395 after transplantation. The maximum activity score (MAS) and adjusted activity score (AAS) of the HAP correlated inversely with grading of cGVHD severity (mild, moderate, or severe) (r = -0.25 for MAS and -0.24 for AAS). Lung manifestations of cGVHD correlated with AAS (r = 0.17), but not with MAS. HAP scores correlated with subscales from other instruments measuring physical domains, especially the physical functioning scale of the SF36. Performance was improved by use of an HSCT-modified HAP scoring system that excluded activities prohibited within the first year after alloHSCT. No significant correlation of the HAP was found with personality, age, sex, symptom burden, or social functioning or social well-being. Moreover, the HAP displayed a higher sensitivity to change of cGVHD activity compared to the SF36 and the FACT-BMT. In addition, steroid myopathy correlated with both HAP scores, but not the SF36. The HAP is a simple and valid questionnaire for the evaluation of the physical activity in patients after alloHSCT, with the advantage of detecting changes in cGVHD status independently of other quality-of-life measures and with a superior sensitivity compared to the SF36.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in Chronic GVHD: Second-Line Treatment of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Steroid refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although first-line treatment of cGVHD is based on controlled trials, second-line treatment is almost solely based on phase II trials or retrospective analyses. The consensus conference on clinical practice in cGVHD held in Regensburg aimed to achieve a consensus on the current evidence of treatment options as well as to provide guidelines for daily clinical practice. Treatment modalities are the use of steroids and calcineurin inhibitors as well as immunomodulating modalities (photopheresis, mTOR-inhibitors, thalidomide, hydroxychloroquine, vitamin A analogs, clofazimine), and cytostatic agents (mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, pentostatin). Recent reports showed some efficacy of rituximab, alemtuzumab, and etanercept in selected patients. Moreover, tyrosine kinase inihibitors such as imatinib came into the field because of their ability to interfere with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-R) pathway involved in fibrosis. An other treatment option is low-dose thoracoabdominal irradiation. Although different treatment options are available, the "trial-and-error system" remains the only way to identify the drug effective in the individual patient, and valid biomarkers are eagerly needed to identify the likelihood of response to a drug in advance. Moreover, the sparse evidence for most treatment entities indicates the urgent need for systematic evaluation of second-line treatment options in cGVHD.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus conference on clinical practice in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD): first-line and topical treatment of chronic GVHD.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. First-line treatment of cGVHD is based on steroids of 1 mg/kg/day of prednisone. The role of calcineurin inhibitors remains controversial, especially in patients with low risk for mortality (normal platelets counts), whereas patients with low platelets at diagnosis and/or high risk for steroid toxicity may be treated upfront with the combination of prednisone and a calcineurin inhibitor. Additional systemic immunosuppressive agents, like thalidomide, mycophenolic acid, and azathioprine, failed to improve treatment results in the primary treatment of cGVHD and are in part associated with higher morbidity, and in the case of azathioprine, with higher mortality. Despite advances in diagnosis of cGVHD as well as supportive care, half of the patients fail to achieve a long-lasting response to first-line treatment, and infectious morbidity continues to be significant. Therefore, immunomodulatory interventions with low infectious morbidity and mortality such as photopheresis need urgent evaluation in clinical trials. Beside systemic immunosuppression, the use of topical immunosuppressive interventions may improve local response rates and may be used as the only treatment in mild localized organ manifestations of cGVHD.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis and staging of chronic graft-versus-host disease in the clinical practice.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Based on expert opinion and retrospective data the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Project proposed criteria for diagnosis and staging of both overall severity as well as organ severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) for use in clinical trials. In 2008, representatives of German and Austrian allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers established a study group on cGVHD during the annual meeting of the German Working Group on Bone Marrow and Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (DAG-KBT) to intensify a dialog among HSCT physicians, pathologists, and medical consultants focusing on the usefulness of the NIH consensus criteria for patient care in clinical practice and to promote collaborations between HSCT centers as well as different medical specialities involved in HSCT. We first conducted a survey of current practices of diagnosis, staging, and overall grading of cGVHD in daily clinical routine by sending an electronic questionnaire to the heads of the HSCT centers. During 3 meetings in 2009, more representatives of allogeneic HSCT centers were included into the discussion process, resulting in 81% participation representing 88% of all allogeneic HSCT activities in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. During the third consensus meeting held in Regensburg, Germany, from November 6 to November 7, 2009, important agreements were achieved among participant having a strong impact on care of patients with cGVHD. Areas of disagreement such as distinction between classical NIH cGVHD and overlap syndrome or assignment of liver GVHD after day 100 to acute or chronic category will be further assessed in prospective observational studies among participants in the near future.
Related JoVE Video
Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease: report from the International Consensus Conference on clinical practice in cGVHD.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a multi-organ disease that occurs post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with the mouth being one of the most frequently affected organs. In 2009, the German-Austrian-Swiss working party on bone marrow and blood stem cell transplantation held a consensus conference to define clinical management of cGVHD. The consensus conference aimed to summarize the literature on diagnosis and topical treatment options for oral cGVHD and to provide recommendations for clinical practice, including routine dental and oral care as well as monitoring for secondary malignancies and bisphophonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw.
Related JoVE Video
Allogeneic disparities in immunoglobulin-like transcript 5 induce potent antibody responses in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, the recognition of polymorphic antigens by the donor-derived immune system is an important mechanism underlying both graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Here we show that a subset of HSCT recipients (13.9%, n = 108) have antibodies directed to surface molecules of dendritic cells. We have used one such serum in conjunction with retroviral expression cloning to identify the highly polymorphic surface molecule immunoglobulin-like transcript 5 (ILT5) as one of the targets of dendritic cell-reactive antibodies. ILT5 reactive antibodies were found in 5.4% of HSCT patients but not in solid organ transplantation recipients, patients with collagen diseases, multiparous women, or polytransfused or healthy persons. We show that ILT5-specific antibodies can mediate killing of ILT5-bearing cells and furthermore demonstrate ILT5 expression in some leukemic cells, indicating that it might be a target for GVL effects. Thus, our results represent the first description of potent allogeneic antibody responses to a non-major histocompatibility complex cell surface molecule in hematopoietic stem cell transplanted patients and warrant further studies to elucidate the role of antibodies to polymorphic cell surface molecules in GVL and graft-versus-host responses.
Related JoVE Video
New agents for mobilizing peripheral blood stem cells.
Transfus. Apher. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transplantation with bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has been used for curative therapy of hematologic diseases and inborn errors of metabolism for decades. More recently, alternative sources of HSC, particularly those induced to exit marrow and traffic to peripheral blood in response to external stimuli, have become the most widely used hematopoietic graft and show significant superiority to marrow HSC. Although a variety of agents can mobilize stem cells with different kinetics and efficiencies and these agents can be additive or synergistic when used in combination, currently G-CSF is the predominant stem cell mobilizer used clinically based upon potency, predictability and safety. Recent studies have demonstrated that the interaction between the chemokine stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 serves as a key regulator of HSC trafficking. AMD3100, a novel bicyclam CXCR4 antagonist, induces the rapid mobilization of HSC with both short- and long-term repopulation capacity. Mobilization with G-CSF and AMD3100 in clinical trials resulted in more patients achieving sufficient PBSC for transplantation than with G-CSF alone. Thus, chemokine axis-mobilization could allow rapid PBSC harvests with increased cell yields in difficult-to mobilize patients. Studies of autologous and allogeneic transplantation of AMD3100 mobilized grafts demonstrated prompt and stable engraftment. Enhanced homing properties of chemokine axis-mobilized PBSC suggest that these cells may have greater therapeutic utility in other areas including tissue repair and regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
Minor ABO-mismatches are risk factors for acute graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the impact of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group matching on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) of 154 patients matched at 10/10 HLA loci with unrelated donors. ABO and Rh, as potential risk factors, were modeled with the clinical outcome--acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD), relapse, treatment-related mortality (TRM), and overall survival (OS)--by simple, multiple, and competing risk analyses. We found that minor ABO-mismatches represent a significant risk factor for aGVHD (II-IV) with an estimated risk increase of almost 3-fold (hazard ratio [HR]=2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.43-5.95, P=.003), and even 4-fold for aGVHD (III-IV) (HR=4.24, 95% CI: 1.70-10.56, P=.002), but not for other transplant endpoints. No significant association of the Rh matching status with any of the HSCT endpoints was seen. These results suggest that ABO minor mismatches may play a role in aGvHD pathophysiology, possibly by providing the setting for T cell activation and antibody mediated damage. To decrease the risk of aGVHD, ABO matching should be considered in HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
G to C transition at position -173 of MIF gene of the recipient is associated with reduced relapse rates after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pro-inflammatory and dendritic cell-activating properties of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) suggest a potentially important role for MIF in alloantigen-specific immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). We tested whether MIF -173 G/C gene polymorphism of donor or patient had impacts on the outcomes after allo-SCT. Four hundred and fifty-four donor-patient pairs were genotyped and mortality, relapse, and development of complications were analyzed. Patient but not donor MIF -173 *C allele was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (5 years: 60.8% versus 46.3%, p=0.042) and disease free survival (DFS) (5 years: 55.4% versus 39.5%; p=0.014) due to a reduction in relapse (day 2000: 22.8% versus 42.0% p=0.006) but not due to decreased transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (p=0.44). Multivariate analysis proved patient -173 *C allele as an independent factor for reducing relapse after allo-SCT (p=0.023). Subgroup analysis showed a clear MIF -173 *C allele-related reduction in relapse for those patients who did not receive T cell depleted (TCD) SCT (p=0.01) in contrast to patients receiving TCD SCT (p=0.20). In summary, patient MIF -173 *C allele may be linked to specific, yet unrevealed functions in tumor biology and graft versus leukemia and lymphoma effects and potentially presents a novel prognostic marker for patient-tailored counseling and therapy in allo-SCT.
Related JoVE Video
Severe events in donors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk for donors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplants is generally considered negligible. Scattered reports of severe complications and a recent controversy on hematopoietic malignancies after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration have challenged this opinion.
Related JoVE Video
Extracorporeal photopheresis: past, present, and future.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a leukapheresis-based therapy that uses 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A irradiation. Used alone or in combination with biological agents, ECP is an established and effective therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. ECP has also shown promising efficacy in a number of other severe and difficult-to-treat conditions, including systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, prevention and treatment of rejection in solid organ transplantation, and Crohn disease. Furthermore, the use of ECP in some of these conditions may allow a significant reduction in the use of systemic steroids and other immunosuppressants, reducing long-term morbidity and mortality. The accumulated experience shows ECP to be well tolerated, with no clinically significant side effects. Progress is also being made in the search for understanding of the mechanisms of action of ECP, which will ultimately facilitate improvements in the use of this therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of molecular subgroups on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype in 141 patients undergoing salvage allogeneic stem cell transplantation in primary induction failure or beyond first relapse.
Haematologica
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Based on molecular aberrations, in particular the NPM1 mutation (NPM1(mut)) and the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD), prognostic subgroups have been defined among patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype. Whereas these subgroups are known to play an important role in outcome in first complete remission, and also in the indication for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, data are limited on their role after transplantation in advanced disease. To evaluate the role of molecular subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission, we analyzed the data from 141 consecutive adults (median age: 51.0 years, range 18.4-69.3 years) who had received an allogeneic transplant either in primary induction failure or beyond first complete remission. A sequential regimen of cytoreductive chemotherapy (fludarabine, high-dose AraC, amsacrine) followed by reduced intensity conditioning (FLAMSA-RIC), was uniformly used for conditioning. After a median follow up of three years, overall survival from transplantation was 64 ± 4%, 53 ± 4% and 44 ± 5% at one, two and four years, respectively. Forty patients transplanted in primary induction failure achieved an encouraging 2-year survival of 69%. Among 101 patients transplanted beyond first complete remission, 2-year survival was 81% among patients with the NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt) genotype in contrast to 43% in other genotypes. Higher numbers of transfused CD34(+) cells (hazard ratio 2.155, 95% confidence interval 0.263-0.964, P=0.039) and favorable genotype (hazard ratio 0.142, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.898, P=0.048) were associated with superior overall survival in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, patients with acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype can frequently be rescued after primary induction failure by allogeneic transplantation following FLAMSA-RIC. The prognostic role of NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD based subgroups was carried through after allogeneic stem cell transplantation beyond first complete remission.
Related JoVE Video
Leucocyte scintigraphy with 111In-oxine for assessment of cell trafficking after extracorporeal photopheresis.
Exp. Dermatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an established therapy for transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic sclerosis. Knowledge regarding the in vivo behaviour of the cells after reinfusion is very limited. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the path of 8-MOP-/UVA-exposed radiolabelled cells after ECP treatment and reinfusion. In this prospective single-centre study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils of 10 patients undergoing ECP as part of their regular treatment were labelled separately with (111) In-oxine after exposure to 8-MOP/UVA and prior to reinfusion. The fate of the labelled leucocytes was monitored at 10 min, 3.5 and 24 h following reinfusion with whole-body scintigraphy. Comparison of distribution patterns showed that PBMC and neutrophils have different kinetic patterns after intravenous reinjection. The most prominent difference was immediate retention of PBMC but not of neutrophils in the lungs corresponding to a signal three times more intense. After 24 h, more than 80% of both cell populations could be detected in liver and spleen. By means of a novel tool allowing for tracking of 8-MOP-/UVA-exposed leucocytes in ECP, we could show that organ-specific homing of leucocytes after ECP can be visualized in vivo and that migration patterns differ between PBMC and neutrophils. Based on our results, further studies should (i) extend the morphometric studies described here to specific ECP-responsive conditions and (ii) functionally address the interaction of ECP-modified PBMC with pulmonary tissue in experimental models.
Related JoVE Video
Early autologous stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-term follow-up of the German CLL Study Group CLL3 trial.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The CLL3 trial was designed to study intensive treatment including autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) as part of first-line therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we present the long-term outcome of the trial with particular focus on the impact of genomic risk factors, and we provide a retrospective comparison with patients from the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) arm of the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG) CLL8 trial. After a median observation time of 8.7 years (0.3-12.3 years), median progression-free survival (PFS), time to retreatment, and overall survival (OS) of 169 evaluable patients, including 38 patients who did not proceed to autoSCT, was 5.7, 7.3, and 11.3 years, respectively. PFS and OS were significantly reduced in the presence of 17p- and of an unfavorable immunoglobulin heavy variable chain mutational status, but not of 11q-. Five-year nonrelapse mortality was 6.5%. When 110 CLL3 patients were compared with 126 matched patients from the FCR arm of the CLL8 trial, 4-year time to retreatment (75% vs 77%) and OS (86% vs 90%) was similar despite a significant benefit for autoSCT in terms of PFS. In summary, early treatment intensification including autoSCT can provide very effective disease control in poor-risk CLL, although its clinical benefit in the FCR era remains uncertain. The trial has been registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00275015.
Related JoVE Video
Mobilized peripheral blood stem cells compared with bone marrow as the stem cell source for unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission: an analysis from the
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplant (RIC-alloSCT) is being increasingly used for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with comorbidities. Few published data are currently available regarding for the use of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) compared to bone marrow (BM) in the RIC-alloSCT using unrelated donors (URDs). This retrospective report compared the outcomes of PBSC versus BM RIC-alloSCT. Between 2000 and 2007, 602 patients with AML in complete remission (CR) underwent RIC-alloSCT from URDs with PBSC (508) or BM (94) grafts. Recipients age was higher in the PBSC versus BM groups 57 (range, 17-77 years) and 51 (range, 17-76 years), respectively (P < .0001). Leukemia features and disease status at RIC-alloSCT were also comparable between the PBSC versus BM groups. Engraftment was achieved in 97% and 96% with BM versus peripheral blood (PB), respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade >II was significantly higher in the PBSC group: 27% versus 12% in the BM group (P < .002). Similarly, chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD; at 2 years) was somewhat higher in the PBSC group with 43% ± 3% versus 35% ± 6% in the BM group, respectively (P = .04). The 2-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) were 46% ± 3% for the PBSC group in comparison to 43% ± 6% for the BM transplant group (P = NS), whereas relapse incidence was significantly higher in the BM versus the PB transplant group: 46% ± 6% versus 32% ± 3%, respectively (P = .014). Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher for the PBSC versus the BM group: 28% ± 2% versus 13% ± 4%, respectively (P = .004). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for differences between both groups, the PBSC group was associated with a higher incidence of aGVHD (grade II-IV; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.33; P = .06), higher NRM (HR = 2.3; P = .015), and a decreased relapse incidence (HR, 0.61; P = .02) with no statistical difference of LFS between the 2 groups (P = .88). In conclusion, our results indicate significantly higher incidence of aGVHD and NRM and a lower incidence of relapse but not statistically different LFS comparing unrelated PBSC to BM grafts after RIC-alloSCT.
Related JoVE Video
UV treatment of chronic skin graft-versus-host disease--focus on UVA1 and extracorporeal photopheresis.
Curr. Probl. Dermatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a serious and life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cutaneous manifestations such as lichenoid or sclerotictype skin changes have been frequently observed in these patients. UVA1 phototherapy appears as a very effective treatment option for treatment-refractory lichenoid and sclerodermatous GVHD. Substantial improvements can often be achieved within 8-12 weeks of treatment allowing for subsequent reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppressive medications. UVA1 treatment acts via a local effect and is therefore only indicated for cutaneous manifestations of GVHD. In patients with multiorgan involvement by chronic GVHD, extracorporeal photopheresis is an efficacious and safe secondline therapy for steroid-refractory disease in both pediatric as well as adult patients. Besides high response rates in cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations of chronic GVHD, a substantial corticosteroid-sparing effect and improved survival rates have been reported in patients given extracorporeal photopheresis treatment.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.