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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Manufacturing and characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 reference standard material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Gene therapy approaches using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) and serotype 8 (rAAV8) have achieved significant clinical benefits. The generation of rAAV Reference Standard Materials (RSM) is key to providing points of reference for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for gene transfer vectors. Following the example of the rAAV2RSM, here we have generated and characterized a novel RSM based on rAAV serotype 8. The rAAV8RSM was produced using transient transfection, and the purification was based on density gradient ultracentrifugation. The rAAV8RSM was distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols to 16 laboratories worldwide. Mean titers and 95% confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles (mean, 5.50×10(11) pt/ml; CI, 4.26×10(11) to 6.75×10(11) pt/ml), vector genomes (mean, 5.75×10(11) vg/ml; CI, 3.05×10(11) to 1.09×10(12) vg/ml), and infectious units (mean, 1.26×10(9) IU/ml; CI, 6.46×10(8) to 2.51×10(9) IU/ml). Notably, there was a significant degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This outcome emphasizes the need to use RSMs to calibrate the titers of rAAV vectors in preclinical and clinical studies at a time when the field is maturing rapidly. The rAAV8RSM has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (VR-1816) and is available to the scientific community.
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Nanosilica-induced placental inflammation and pregnancy complications: Different roles of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract Despite the increasing commercial use of nanoparticles, little is known about their effects on placental inflammation and pregnancy complications. In this study, nanosilica (NS) particles upregulated the inflammasome component nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and induced placental inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, resulting in pregnancy complications. Furthermore, NS-induced pregnancy complications were markedly improved in Nlrp3(-/-) mice but not in component apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-deficient (Asc(-/-)) mice, indicating the independence of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Pregnancy complications in Nlrp3(-/-) and Asc(-/-) mice phenotypes were dependent on the balance between interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10. NS-induced pregnancy complications were completely prevented by either inhibition of ROS generation or forced expression of IL-10. Our findings provide important information about NS-induced placental inflammation and pregnancy complications and the novel pathophysiological roles of NLRP3 and ASC in pregnancy.
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Comparative analyses of adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 in marmoset, mouse and macaque cerebral cortex.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Here we investigated the transduction characteristics of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 in the marmoset cerebral cortex. Using three constructs that each has hrGFP under ubiquitous (CMV), or neuron-specific (CaMKII and Synapsin I (SynI)) promoters, we investigated (1) the extent of viral spread, (2) cell type tropism, and (3) neuronal transduction efficiency of each serotype. AAV2 was clearly distinct from other serotypes in small spreading and neuronal tropism. We did not observe significant differences in viral spread among other serotypes. Regarding the cell tropism, AAV1, 5, 8 and 9 exhibited mostly glial expression for CMV construct. However, when the CaMKII construct was tested, cortical neurons were efficiently transduced (>?70% in layer 3) by all serotypes, suggesting that glial expression obscured neuronal expression for CMV construct. For both SynI and CaMKII constructs, we observed generally high-level expression in large pyramidal cells especially in layer 5, as well as in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. The expression from the CaMKII construct was more uniformly observed in excitatory cells compared with SynI construct. Injection of the same viral preparations in mouse and macaque cortex resulted in essentially the same result with some species-specific differences.
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Simultaneous visualization of extrinsic and intrinsic axon collaterals in Golgi-like detail for mouse corticothalamic and corticocortical cells: a double viral infection method.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Here we present a novel tracing technique to stain projection neurons in Golgi-like detail by double viral infection. We used retrograde lentiviral vectors and adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to drive "TET-ON/TET-OFF system" in neurons connecting two regions. Using this method, we successfully labeled the corticothalamic (CT) cells of the mouse somatosensory barrel field (S1BF) and motor cortex (M1) in their entirety. We also labeled contra- and ipsilaterally-projecting corticocortical (CC) cells of M1 by targeting contralateral M1 or ipsilateral S1 for retrograde infection. The strength of this method is that we can observe the morphology of specific projection neuron subtypes en masse. We found that the group of CT cells extends their dendrites and intrinsic axons extensively below but not within the thalamorecipient layer in both S1BF and M1, suggesting that the primary target of this cell type is not layer 4. We also found that both ipsi- and contralateral targeting CC cells in M1 commonly exhibit widespread collateral extensions to contralateral M1 (layers 1-6), bilateral S1 and S2 (layers 1, 5 and 6), perirhinal cortex (layers 1, 2/3, 5, and 6), striatum and claustrum. These findings not only strengthened the previous findings of single cell tracings but also extended them by enabling cross-area comparison of CT cells or comparison of CC cells of two different labeling.
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DNA methylation and methyl-binding proteins control differential gene expression in distinct cortical areas of macaque monkey.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Distinct anatomical regions of the neocortex subserve different sensory modalities and neuronal integration functions, but mechanisms for these regional specializations remain elusive. Involvement of epigenetic mechanisms for such specialization through the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression is an intriguing possibility. Here we examined whether epigenetic mechanisms might play a role in the selective gene expression in the association areas (AAs) and the primary visual cortex (V1) in macaque neocortex. By analyzing the two types of area-selective gene promoters that we previously identified, we found a striking difference of DNA methylation between these promoters, i.e., hypermethylation in AA-selective gene promoters and hypomethylation in V1-selective ones. Methylation levels of promoters of each area-selective gene showed no areal difference, but a specific methyl-binding protein (MBD4) was enriched in the AAs, in correspondence with expression patterns of AA-selective genes. MBD4 expression was mainly observed in neurons. MBD4 specifically bound to and activated the AA-selective genes both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that methylation in the promoters and specific methyl-binding proteins play an important role in the area-selective gene expression profiles in the primate neocortex.
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An R132H mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 enhances p21 expression and inhibits phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in glioma cells.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) with an R132H mutation in brain tumors loses its enzymatic activity for catalyzing isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) and acquires new activity whereby it converts ?-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate. The IDH1 mutation induces down-regulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and up-regulation of lipid metabolism. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate not only the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids but also acyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 that halts the cell cycle at G1. Here we show that SREBPs were up-regulated in U87 human glioblastoma cells transfected with an IDH1(R132H)-expression plasmid. Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for SREBP1 specifically decreased p21 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels independent of the p53 pathway. In IDH1(R132H)-expressing U87 cells, phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein also decreased. We propose that metabolic changes induced by the IDH1 mutation enhance p21 expression via SREBP1 and inhibit phosphorylation of Rb, which slows progression of the cell cycle and may be associated with non-aggressive features of gliomas with an IDH1 mutation.
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The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against adeno-associated virus capsids is reduced in young Japanese individuals.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Pre-existing antibodies against adeno-associated virus (AAV), caused by natural AAV infections, interfere with recombinant AAV vector-mediated gene transfer. We studied the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8, and 9 in healthy subjects (n?=?85) and hemophilia patients (n?=?59) in a Japanese population. For healthy subjects, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8, and 9 was 36.5%, 35.3%, 37.6%, 32.9%, and 36.5%, respectively, while that in hemophilia patients was 39.7%, 28.8%, 35.6%, 32.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of neutralizing antibody against each AAV serotype between the healthy subjects and the hemophilia patients. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against all AAV serotypes increased with age in both healthy subjects and hemophilia patients. High titers of neutralizing antibodies against AAV2 (?1:224) and AAV8 (?1:224) were more evident in older individuals (?42 years old). Approximately 50% of all screened individuals were seronegative for neutralizing antibodies against each AAV tested, while approximately 25% of individuals were seropositive for each AAV serotype tested. The prevalence of seronegativity for all AAV serotypes was 67.0% (healthy subjects, 68.6%; hemophilia patients, 65.0%) and 18.6% (healthy subjects, 20.5%; hemophilia patients, 15.7%) in young (<42 years old) and older subjects (?42 years old), respectively. The findings from this study suggested that young subjects are more likely to be eligible for gene therapy based on AAV vectors delivered via an intravascular route because of the low prevalence of antibodies to AAV capsids. J. Med. Virol. 9999:1-8, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Oxytocin receptor in the hypothalamus is sufficient to rescue normal thermoregulatory function in male oxytocin receptor knockout mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Oxytocin (OXT) and OXT receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. We recently showed late-onset obesity and impaired cold-induced thermogenesis in male OXTR knockout (Oxtr(-/-)) mice. Here we demonstrate that the OXTR in the hypothalamus has important functions in thermoregulation. Male Oxtr(-/-) mice failed to maintain their body temperatures during exposure to a cold environment. Oxtr(-/-) mice also showed decreased neuronal activation in the thermoregulatory hypothalamic region during cold exposure. Normal cold-induced thermogenesis was recovered in Oxtr(-/-) mice by restoring OXTR to the hypothalamus with an adeno-associated virus-Oxtr vector. In addition, brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Oxtr(-/-) mice contained larger lipid droplets in both 10- and 20-week-old compared with BAT from age-matched Oxtr(+/+) control mice. In BAT, the expression level of ?3-adrenergic receptor at normal temperature was lower in Oxtr(-/-) mice than that in control mice. In contrast, ?2A-adrenergic receptor expression level was higher in BAT from Oxtr(-/-) mice in both normal and cold temperatures. Because ?3- and ?2A-adrenergic receptors are known to have opposite effects on the thermoregulation, the imbalance of adrenergic receptors is suspected to affect this dysfunction in the thermoregulation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the central OXT/OXTR system plays important roles in the regulation of body temperature homeostasis.
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CD19 target-engineered T-cells accumulate at tumor lesions in human B-cell lymphoma xenograft mouse models.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Adoptive T-cell therapy with CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is promising for treatment of advanced B-cell malignancies. Tumor targeting of CAR-modified T-cells is likely to contribute therapeutic potency; therefore we examined the relationship between the ability of CD19-specific CAR (CD19-CAR)-transduced T-cells to accumulate at CD19(+) tumor lesions, and their ability to provide anti-tumor effects in xenograft mouse models. Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes, activated with immobilized RetroNectin and anti-CD3 antibodies, were transduced with retroviral vectors that encode CD19-CAR. Expanded CD19-CAR T-cells with a high transgene expression level of about 75% produced IL-2 and IFN-? in response to CD19, and lysed both Raji and Daudi CD19(+) human B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, these cells efficiently accumulated at Raji tumor lesions where they suppressed tumor progression and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing Rag2(-/-)?c(-/-) immunodeficient mice compared to control cohorts. These results show that the ability of CD19-CAR T-cells to home in on tumor lesions is pivotal for their anti-tumor effects in our xenograft models, and therefore may enhance the efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy for refractory B-cell lymphoma.
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Novel anti-tumor mechanism of galanin receptor type 2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Galanin and its receptors, GALR1 and GALR2, are known tumor suppressors and potential therapeutic targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Previously, we demonstrated that, in GALR1-expressing HNSCC cells, the addition of galanin suppressed tumor proliferation via upregulation of ERK1/2 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, whereas, in GALR2-expressing cells, the addition of galanin not only suppressed proliferation, but also induced apoptosis. In this study, we first transduced HEp-2 and KB cell lines using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector and confirmed a high GFP expression rate (>90%) in both cell lines at the standard vector dose. Next, we demonstrated that GALR2 expression in the presence of galanin suppressed cell viability to 40-60% after 72 h in both cell lines. Additionally, the annexin V-positive rate and sub-G0/G1 phase population were significantly elevated in HEp-2 cells (mock vs GALR2: 12.3 vs 25.0% (P < 0.01) and 9.1 vs 32.0% (P < 0.05), respectively) after 48 h. These changes were also observed in KB cells, although to a lesser extent. Furthermore, in HEp-2 cells, GALR2-mediated apoptosis was caspase-independent, involving downregulation of ERK1/2, followed by induction of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, Bim. These results illustrate that transient GALR2 expression in the presence of galanin induces apoptosis via diverse pathways and serves as a platform for suicide gene therapy against HNSCC.
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Fear-enhancing effects of septal oxytocin receptors.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The nonapeptide oxytocin is considered beneficial to mental health due to its anxiolytic, prosocial and antistress effects, but evidence for anxiogenic actions of oxytocin in humans has recently emerged. Using region-specific manipulations of the mouse oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene (Oxtr), we identified the lateral septum as the brain region mediating fear-enhancing effects of Oxtr. These effects emerge after social defeat and require Oxtr specifically coupled to the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway.
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Overexpression of factor VII ameliorates bleeding diathesis of factor VIII-deficient mice with inhibitors.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Factor VIII (FVIII) treatment for hemophilia A has difficulties in correcting bleeding diathesis in the presence of inhibitors.
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Suppression of lymph node and lung metastases of endometrial cancer by muscle-mediated expression of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor of endometrial cancer. However, effective therapy has not been established against lymph node metastasis. In this study, we explored the efficacy of gene therapy targeting lymph node metastasis of endometrial cancer by suppressing the action of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C through soluble VEGF receptor-3 (sVEGFR-3) expression. For this purpose, we first conducted a model experiment by introducing sVEGFR-3 cDNA into an endometrial cancer cell line HEC1A and established HEC1A/sVEGFR-3 cell line with high sVEGFR-3 expression. The conditioned medium of HEC1A/sVEGFR-3 cells inhibited lymphatic endothelial cell growth in vitro, and sVEGFR-3 expression in HEC1A cells suppressed in vivo lymph node and lung metastases without inhibiting the growth of a subcutaneously inoculated tumor. To validate the therapeutic efficacy, adeno-associated virus vectors encoding sVEGFR-3 were injected into the skeletal muscle of mice with lymph node metastasis. Lymph node and lung metastases of HEC1A cells were completely suppressed by the muscle-mediated expression of sVEGFR-3 using adeno-associated virus vectors. These results suggest the possibility of gene therapy against lymph node and lung metastases of endometrial cancer by using muscle-mediated expression of sVEGFR-3.
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Prophylaxis and treatment of Alzheimers disease by delivery of an adeno-associated virus encoding a monoclonal antibody targeting the amyloid Beta protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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We previously reported on a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that targeted amyloid beta (Aß) protein. Repeated injection of that mAb reduced the accumulation of Aß protein in the brain of human Aß transgenic mice (Tg2576). In the present study, cDNA encoding the heavy and light chains of this mAb were subcloned into an adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV) vector with a 2A/furin adapter. A single intramuscular injection of 3.0×10(10) viral genome of these AAV vectors into C57BL/6 mice generated serum anti-Aß Ab levels up to 0.3 mg/ml. Anti-Aß Ab levels in excess of 0.1 mg/ml were maintained for up to 64 weeks. The effect of AAV administration on Aß levels in vivo was examined. A significant decrease in Aß levels in the brain of Tg2576 mice treated at 5 months (prophylactic) or 10 months (therapeutic) of age was observed. These results support the use of AAV vector encoding anti-Aß Ab for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimers disease.
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Development of a mouse model for lymph node metastasis with endometrial cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Controlling lymph node metastasis is currently a key issue in cancer therapy. Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors in various types of cancers, including endometrial cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) plays a crucial role in lymphangiogenesis, and is implicated to play an important role in lymph node metastasis. To evaluate the role of VEGF-C in lymph node metastasis, we developed an animal model by using an endometrial cancer cell line, HEC1A. This cell line is not invasive by nature and secretes moderate amounts of VEGF-C; intrauterine injection of HEC1A cells into Balb/c nude mice resulted in uterine cancer with lymph node metastasis after 8 weeks. To analyze the contribution of VEGF-C to lymph node metastasis, its corresponding gene was stably introduced into HEC1A cells (HEC1A/VEGF-C), which then produced more than 10 times the amount of VEGF-C. The number of lymph node metastases was significantly higher in HEC1A/VEGF-C cells than in HEC1A cells (3.2 vs 1.1 nodes/animal, respectively). Augmented lymphangiogenesis was observed within tumors when HEC1A/VEGF-C cells were inoculated. These results indicate that VEGF-C plays a critical role in lymph node metastasis, in addition to serving as a platform to test the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities against lymph node metastasis.
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Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, an immunosuppressive enzyme that inhibits natural killer cell function, as a useful target for ovarian cancer therapy.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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This study examined the role of the immuno-suppressive enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in ovarian cancer progression, and the possible application of this enzyme as a target for ovarian cancer therapy. We transfected a short hairpin RNA vector targeting IDO into the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3, that constitutively expresses IDO and established an IDO downregulated cell line (SKOV-3/shIDO) to determine whether inhibition of IDO mediates the progression of ovarian cancer. IDO downregulation suppressed tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination in vivo, without influencing cancer cell growth. Moreover, IDO downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to natural killer (NK) cells in vitro, and promoted NK cell accumulation in the tumor stroma in vivo. These findings indicate that downregulation of IDO controls ovarian cancer progression by activating NK cells, suggesting IDO targeting as a potential therapy for ovarian cancer.
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Selective optical control of synaptic transmission in the subcortical visual pathway by activation of viral vector-expressed halorhodopsin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The superficial layer of the superior colliculus (sSC) receives visual inputs via two different pathways: from the retina and the primary visual cortex. However, the functional significance of each input for the operation of the sSC circuit remains to be identified. As a first step toward understanding the functional role of each of these inputs, we developed an optogenetic method to specifically suppress the synaptic transmission in the retino-tectal pathway. We introduced enhanced halorhodopsin (eNpHR), a yellow light-sensitive, membrane-targeting chloride pump, into mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by intravitreously injecting an adeno-associated virus serotype-2 vector carrying the CMV-eNpHR-EYFP construct. Several weeks after the injection, whole-cell recordings made from sSC neurons in slice preparations revealed that yellow laser illumination of the eNpHR-expressing retino-tectal axons, putatively synapsing onto the recorded cells, effectively inhibited EPSCs evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve layer. We also showed that sSC spike activities elicited by visual stimulation were significantly reduced by laser illumination of the sSC in anesthetized mice. These results indicate that photo-activation of eNpHR expressed in RGC axons enables selective blockade of retino-tectal synaptic transmission. The method established here can most likely be applied to a variety of brain regions for studying the function of individual inputs to these regions.
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Complete restoration of phenylalanine oxidation in phenylketonuria mouse by a self-complementary adeno-associated virus vector.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Classical phenylketonuria (PKU) arises from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) that catalyses phenylalanine oxidation in the liver. Lack of PAH activity causes massive hyperphenylalaninemia and consequently severe brain damage. Preclinical studies showed that conventional adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors could correct hyperphenylalaninemia in a mouse model of PKU, although limitations such as very large dose requirement and relative inefficiency in female animals were recognized.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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A phase I study of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene therapy for Parkinsons disease.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Gene transfer of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes into the striatal neurons has led to behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinsons disease (PD). We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene delivery of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) into the putamen of PD patients. Six PD patients were evaluated at baseline and at 6 months, using multiple measures, including the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), motor state diaries, and positron emission tomography (PET) with 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (FMT), a tracer for AADC. The short-duration response to levodopa was measured in three patients. The procedure was well tolerated. Six months after surgery, motor functions in the OFF-medication state improved an average of 46% based on the UPDRS scores, without apparent changes in the short-duration response to levodopa. PET revealed a 56% increase in FMT activity, which persisted up to 96 weeks. Our findings provide class IV evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of AADC gene therapy and warrant further evaluation in a randomized, controlled, phase 2 setting.
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Mutant macaque factor IX T262A: a tool for hemophilia B gene therapy studies in macaques.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Gene therapy is expected to be the next generation therapy for hemophilia, and a good animal model is required for hemophilia gene therapy preclinical studies.
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Liver-restricted expression of the canine factor VIII gene facilitates prevention of inhibitor formation in factor VIII-deficient mice.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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Gene therapy for hemophilia A with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors involves difficulties in the efficient expression of factor VIII (FVIII) and in antibody formation against transgene-derived FVIII.
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Generation of adeno-associated virus vector enabling functional expression of oxytocin receptor and fluorescence marker genes using the human eIF4G internal ribosome entry site element.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2009
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We developed the AAV-Oxtr-IRES-Venus vector to rescue the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene functionally at restricted regions in the brains of Oxtr knockout mice. First we chose human eIF4G gene-derived IRES to co-express Venus, a fluorescent marker gene, with Oxtr. With selected human eIF4G IRES, we constructed the AAV-Oxtr-IRES-Venus vector, and it caused expression of the Venus gene in the brain when 1 microl of viral solution (9.4x10(7) vg) was injected into the medial amygdaloid nucleus. In primary neuronal cells transduced with this viral vector and followed by oxytocin administration, functional expression of OXTR was detected by Ca(2+) imaging assay.
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A convenient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid screening of anti-adeno-associated virus neutralizing antibodies.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (AAV-2) have become leading vehicles for gene therapy. Most humans in the general population have anti-AAV-2 antibodies as a result of naturally acquired infections. Pre-existing immunity to AAV-2 might affect the functional and safety consequences of AAV-2 vector-mediated gene transfer in clinical applications.
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The cardiac pacemaker-specific channel Hcn4 is a direct transcriptional target of MEF2.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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Hcn4, which encodes the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive channel (I(h)), is a well-established marker of the cardiac sino-atrial node. We aimed to identify cis-elements in the genomic locus of the Hcn4 gene that regulate the transcription of Hcn4.
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Retroviral vector-producing mesenchymal stem cells for targeted suicide cancer gene therapy.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising vehicle for targeted cancer gene therapy because of their potential of tumor tropism. For efficient therapeutic application, we developed retroviral vector-producing MSCs that enhance tumor transduction via progeny vector production.
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Minimizing the inhibitory effect of neutralizing antibody for efficient gene expression in the liver with adeno-associated virus 8 vectors.
Mol. Ther.
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Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are known to interfere with AAV vector-mediated gene transfer by intravascular delivery. Evading the inhibitory effects of antibodies against AAV vectors is necessary for efficient transfer of therapeutic genes clinically. For this purpose, we tested the efficacy of saline flushing in order to avoid contact of vectors with NAbs present in blood. Direct injection of the AAV8 vector carrying the factor IX (FIX) gene into the portal vein of macaques using saline flushing achieved transgene-derived FIX expression (4.7 ± 2.10-10.1 ± 5.45% of normal human FIX concentration) in the presence of NAbs. Expression was as efficient as that (5.43 ± 2.59-12.68 ± 4.83%) in macaques lacking NAbs. We next tested the efficacy of saline flushing using less invasive balloon catheter-guided injection. This approach also resulted in efficient expression of transgene-derived FIX (2.5 ± 1.06-9.0 ± 2.37%) in the presence of NAbs (14-56× dilutions). NAbs at this range of titers reduced the efficiency of transduction in the macaque liver by 100-fold when the same vector was injected into mesenteric veins without balloon catheters. Our results suggest that portal vein-directed vector delivery strategies with flushing to remove blood are efficacious for minimizing the inhibitory effect of anti-AAV antibodies.
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NF-?B activity regulates mesenchymal stem cell accumulation at tumor sites.
Cancer Res.
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) accumulate at tumor sites when injected into tumor-bearing mice, perhaps offering cellular vectors for cancer-targeted gene therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MSC targeting the tumors are presently little understood. We focused on MSC-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion following TNF-? stimulation in an attempt to elucidate these mechanisms. Interestingly, stimulation of MSCs with TNF-? enhanced the adhesion of MSCs to endothelial cells in vitro. This adhesion was partially inhibited by blocking antibodies against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4). It is well known that TNF-? induces VCAM-1 expression via the NF-?B signaling pathway. Parthenolide has an anti-inflammatory activity and suppressed NF-?B activity by inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation after TNF-? stimulation and strongly inhibited TNF-?-induced VCAM-1 expression on MSCs. In vivo imaging using luciferase-expressing MSCs revealed that the bioluminescent signal gradually increased at tumor sites in mice injected with untreated MSCs. In contrast, we observed very weak signals at tumor sites in mice injected with parthenolide-treated MSCs. Our results suggest that NF-?B activity regulates MSC accumulation at tumors, by inducing VCAM-1 and thereby its interaction with tumor vessel endothelial cells. These findings have implications for the ongoing development of efficient MSC-based gene therapies for cancer treatment.
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Downregulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in cervical cancer cells suppresses tumor growth by promoting natural killer cell accumulation.
Oncol. Rep.
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This study examined the role of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cervical cancer progression and the possible use of this enzyme for cervical cancer therapy. We analyzed IDO protein expression in 9 cervical cancer cell lines (SKG-I, -II, -IIIa, -IIIb, SiHa, CaSki, BOKU, HCS-2 and ME-180) stimulated with interferon-?. IDO expression was observed in all cell lines except for SKG-IIIb. We transfected the human cervical cancer cell line CaSki that constitutively expresses IDO with a short hairpin RNA vector targeting IDO, and established an IDO-downregulated cell line to determine whether inhibition of IDO mediates cervical cancer progression. IDO downregulation suppressed tumor growth in vivo, without influencing cancer cell growth in vitro. Moreover, IDO downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to natural killer (NK) cells in vitro and promoted NK cell accumulation in the tumor stroma in vivo. These findings indicate that downregulation of IDO controls cervical cancer progression by activating NK cells, suggesting IDO as a potential therapy for cervical cancer.
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Efficient establishment of pig embryonic fibroblast cell lines with conditional expression of the simian vacuolating virus 40 large T fragment.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
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The pig is an important animal for both agricultural and medical purposes. However, the number of pig-derived cell lines is relatively limited when compared with mouse- and human-derived lines. We established in this study a retroviral conditional expression system for the Simian vacuolating virus 40 large T fragment (SV40T) which allowed us to efficiently establish pig embryonic fibroblast cell lines. The established cell lines showed high levels of cell proliferation and resistance to cellular senescence. A chromosome analysis showed that 84% of the cells had the normal karyotype. Transient expression of the Cre recombinase allowed us to excise the SV40T fragment from the genome. The development of this research tool will enable us to quickly establish new cell lines derived from various animals.
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Cetuximab inhibits the growth of mucinous ovarian carcinoma tumor cells lacking KRAS gene mutations.
Oncol. Rep.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody (cetuximab) for the treatment of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. We analyzed EGFR protein expression and KRAS gene mutations in 5 mucinous ovarian carcinoma cell lines RMUG-L, RMUG-S, MN-1, OMC-1 and MCAS and evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of cetuximab on each. EGFR expression was observed in all cell lines except for MN-1 cells, and a KRAS gene mutation at codon 12 was detected only in the MCAS cell line. Cetuximab inhibited RMUG-L and OMC-1 cell growth in vitro and completely blocked RMUG-L tumor growth in vivo. On the other hand, cetuximab did not affect MCAS cell growth in vitro and only partially reduced the MCAS tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with cetuximab for mucinous ovarian carcinoma cells lacking a KRAS gene mutation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.