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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Treatment of Patients with Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma with Cord Blood Transplantation: A Japanese Nationwide Retrospective Survey.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Allogeneic bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantations are curative treatment modalities for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) because of the intrinsic graft-versus-ATLL effect. However, limited information is available regarding whether cord blood transplantation (CBT) induces a curative graft-versus-ATLL effect against aggressive ATLL. To evaluate the effect of CBT against ATLL, we retrospectively analyzed data from 175 patients with ATLL who initially underwent single-unit CBT. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 20.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.8% to 27.4%). A multivariate analysis revealed that the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was a favorable prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio, .10; 95% CI, .01 to .94; P = .044). Furthermore, the 2-year OS (42.7%; 95% CI, 28.1% to 56.6%) of patients with grade 1 to 2 acute GVHD was higher than that of patients without acute GVHD (24.2%; 95% CI, 11.2% to 39.8%; P = .048). However, the cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) was high (46.1%; 95% CI, 38.2% to 53.7%), and early death was particularly problematic. In conclusion, CBT cures patients with ATLL partly through a graft-versus-ATLL effect. However, novel interventions will be required, particularly in the early phase, to reduce TRM and optimize GVHD.
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Diagnostic performance of serum high-sensitivity procalcitonin and serum C-reactive protein tests for detecting bacterial infection in febrile neutropenia.
Infection
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Although a few prospective studies have addressed the question as to which biomarker of infection in adult patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) is superior, procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP), the results have been inconsistent and inconclusive. This was possibly due to the poor sensitivity of previous PCT tests that have a functional sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml.
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following acute pancreatitis during chemotherapy for acute monocytic leukemia.
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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We describe an 18-year-old man with acute leukemia who presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) shortly after developing acute pancreatitis. On day 15 after the third consolidation course with high-dose cytarabine, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was initiated for febrile neutropenia. On day 16, he developed septic shock, and subsequently, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After adding vancomycin, micafungin and high-dose methylprednisolone (mPSL) to his treatment regimen, these manifestations subsided. On day 22, he received hemodialysis for drug-induced acute renal failure. On day 24, he developed acute pancreatitis possibly due to mPSL; the following day he had generalized seizures, and was intubated. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were normal. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense signals on FLAIR images and increased apparent diffusion coefficient values in the sub-cortical and deep white matter areas of the bilateral temporal and occipital lobes, indicative of vasogenic edema. Thus, we diagnosed PRES. Blood pressure, seizures and volume status were controlled, with MRI findings showing improvement by day 42. He was extubated on day 32 and discharged on day 49 without complications. Although little is known about PRES following acute pancreatitis, clinicians should be aware that this condition may develop.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with hemolytic crisis developed twenty years after the onset of Evans syndrome.
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with Coombs-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in May 1992. One month later, her PRCA went into remission following treatment but she developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and was diagnosed with Evans syndrome. Although her condition resolved with administration of prednisolone and azathioprine, it was necessary to continue treatment with gradual tapering over the following two decades. In October 2012, her hemolytic anemia again worsened, and lymph node swelling, splenomegaly and B symptoms developed. She was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) based on lymph node biopsy. However, AIHA was not considered to be the cause of her hemolytic anemia, but rather to be related to DLBCL. This was because a Coombs test and other extensive investigations for Coombs negative-AIHA yielded negative results. The patient underwent CHOP therapy, and all of her symptoms improved. Herein, we report this rare case in which DLBCL developed after the onset of Evans syndrome.
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Cerebral toxoplasmosis after umbilical cord blood transplantation diagnosed by the detection of anti-toxoplasma specific IgM antibody in cerebrospinal fluid.
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a rare, potentially fatal, complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Early definitive diagnosis is very difficult and it may be associated with a poor prognosis. Herein, we describe a 60-year-old woman who developed cerebral toxoplasmosis after cord blood transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome. During treatment with tacrolimus and methylprednisolone for relapsed grade 2 acute gut GVHD, fever and disturbance of consciousness occurred on day 210. Brain MRI showed multiple ring-enhancing nodular lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, brainstem, and subcortical white matter. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment revealed elevations of both anti-to-xoplasma IgM and IgG, which were also elevated in serum, but no evidence of other infections or malignancies. Notably, the IgM level was higher in the CSF than in serum. Thus, cerebral toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Soon after administration of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and intravenous clindamycin in combination with short-term dexamethasone for the cerebral edema, her symptoms and signs began to improve. On day 229, both IgM and IgG titers in CSF had clearly decreased but remained essentially constant in serum. She was discharged without clinically significant neurological disorders. This case suggests that CSF specific anti-toxoplasma IgM titers might be useful for early diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis after transplantation.
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Donor lymphocyte infusion for the treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis by the adult acute myeloid leukemia working group of the Japan society for hematopoietic cell transplantatio
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Because the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population, a nationwide registry study was retrospectively performed by the Adult AML Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation to identify the factors affecting the patient survival after DLI. Among 143 adult AML patients who received DLI for the treatment of first hematological relapse after HSCT, the overall survival rates at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years were 32% ± 4%, 17% ± 3%, and 7% ± 3%, respectively. Complete remission (CR) at the time of DLI, which was obtained in 8% of the patients, was the strongest predictive factor for survival after DLI. Therefore, long-term survival after DLI was achieved almost exclusively in patients who successfully achieved a CR before DLI, indicating the limited efficacy of DLI in a minority of patients.
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Prospective long-term study of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematologic malignancy.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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To elucidate the clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus reactivation (HBV-R), we performed a prospective long-term study of patients with hematologic malignancy, including both hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers and those with resolved HBV infection.
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[Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma complicated with endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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A 30-year-old female developed fever and multiple lymphadenopathy in September 2011. Her symptoms improved with antibiotic treatment. However, she again presented with fever and multiple lymphadenopathy in December 2011. In addition, she suffered from nephrotic syndrome with severe edema. She was therefore hospitalized to undergo detailed examinations. Renal biopsy revealed endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis. Since her renal function deteriorated rapidly, she was given steroid pulse therapy with methylprednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy with prednisolone. After treatment, her renal function improved but multiple lymphadenopathy persisted. Biopsy of a left axillary lymph node was then performed and revealed angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). She received CHOP therapy but showed no response. Therefore, she was given ESHAP therapy. A partial response was achieved and the nephrotic syndrome also resolved completely. We report this extremely rare case of renal dysfunction due to endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis complicated by AITL.
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Prognostic factors and outcomes of unrelated bone marrow transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) pre-treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Osaka City Med J
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The treatment and prognosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), including Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL (Ph+ALL), a poor prognostic factor, has changed with the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Nevertheless, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still recommended as the first-line curative treatment. To date, no study has investigated the prognostic factors and outcomes of unrelated bone marrow transplantation (u-BMT) for Ph+ALL following pre-transplant treatment with a TKI-containing regimen.
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[Acute transverse myelitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia--a case report].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Transverse myelitis is an inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord that results in motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old Japanese female who developed acute transverse myelitis (ATM) after an unrelated bone marrow transplantation for Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in molecular complete remission. Approximately 90 days after transplantation, she suffered from paresthesias, sphincter dysfunction, and lower extremity weakness. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated findings consistent with ATM. The symptoms were resolved with the administration of steroids, followed by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for a few sequelae. To the best of our knowledge, the presentation of ATM after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is relatively rare. As the functional prognosis of ATM depends on prompt diagnosis and treatment, we consider that ATM should be included in the differential diagnosis of post-transplant myelopathies.
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Efficacy and safety of dasatinib versus imatinib in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP): Subset analysis of the DASISION trial with 2-year follow-up.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Dasatinib is a highly potent BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor with established efficacy and safety in imatinib-resistant or -intolerant patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the global phase III DASISION trial in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML (CML-CP), dasatinib was found to have an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated significantly faster and higher rates of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and major molecular response (MMR) compared with imatinib. Here, we report the results of a subset analysis of Japanese patients enrolled in the DASISION trial, showing safety and efficacy profiles generally consistent with patients enrolled worldwide, including higher response rates (CCyR, MMR) with dasatinib compared with imatinib and similar high rates of progression-free and overall survival with both therapies. However, the small sample size of the present study limits the strength of these conclusions, and further exploration is needed to confirm any differences observed in Japanese patients compared with the total treated population. These findings support the use of dasatinib 100 mg QD as a first-line treatment in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP.
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A multicenter clinical study evaluating the confirmed complete molecular response rate in imatinib-treated patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia by using the international scale of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Achievement of complete molecular response in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia has been recognized as an important milestone in therapy cessation and treatment-free remission; the identification of predictors of complete molecular response in these patients is, therefore, important. This study evaluated complete molecular response rates in imatinib-treated chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with major molecular response by using the international standardization for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson1 gene. The correlation of complete molecular response with various clinical, pharmacokinetic, and immunological parameters was determined. Complete molecular response was observed in 75/152 patients (49.3%). In the univariate analysis, Sokal score, median time to major molecular response, ABCG2 421C>A, and regulatory T cells were significantly lower in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with complete molecular response than in those without complete molecular response. In the multivariate analysis, duration of imatinib treatment (odds ratio: 1.0287, P=0.0003), time to major molecular response from imatinib therapy (odds ratio: 0.9652, P=0.0020), and ABCG2 421C/C genotype (odds ratio: 0.3953, P=0.0284) were independent predictors of complete molecular response. In contrast, number of natural killer cells, BIM deletion polymorphisms, and plasma trough imatinib concentration were not significantly associated with achieving a complete molecular response. Several predictive markers for achieving complete molecular response were identified in this study. According to our findings, some chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib may benefit from a switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ClinicalTrials.gov, UMIN000004935).
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[Acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7 and inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated with central diabetes insipidus].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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A 20-year-old female presented with thirst, polyposia, and polyuria and was referred to our hospital because of leukocytosis and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 66.8% myeloperoxidase-positive blasts and trilineage myelodysplasia. The karyotype was 45, XX, inv(3)(q21q26.2), -7[19]. Therefore, a diagnosis of AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated by -7 was made. Moreover, hyposthenuria and a low anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) level were observed. Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the absence of hyperintensity in the neurohypophysis in T1-weighted images. Therefore, she was also diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. After she was administered a desmopressin nasal spray, the volume of urine produced decreased. Following treatment with second induction therapy containing high-dose cytarabine for AML, she achieved complete remission in the bone marrow. Moreover, when the abnormality on MRI and the volume of urine were normalized, she discontinued desmopressin. Although diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of AML, the majority of AML patients who have diabetes insipidus have the abnormal karyotypes with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis and develop a strategy for the treatment of this category of AML.
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Potential contribution of a novel Tax epitope-specific CD4+ T cells to graft-versus-Tax effect in adult T cell leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an effective treatment for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We previously reported that Tax-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) contributed to graft-versus-ATL effects in ATL patients after allo-HSCT. However, the role of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in the effects remains unclear. In this study, we showed that Tax-specific CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cell responses were induced in some ATL patients following allo-HSCT. To further analyze HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, we identified a novel HLA-DRB1*0101-restricted epitope, Tax155-167, recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) Th1-like cells, a major population of HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell line, which was established from an ATL patient at 180 d after allo-HSCT from an unrelated seronegative donor by in vitro stimulation with HTLV-1-infected cells from the same patient. Costimulation of PBMCs with both the identified epitope (Tax155-167) and known CTL epitope peptides markedly enhanced the expansion of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cells in PBMCs compared with stimulation with CTL epitope peptide alone in all three HLA-DRB1*0101(+) patients post-allo-HSCT tested. In addition, direct detection using newly generated HLA-DRB1*0101/Tax155-167 tetramers revealed that Tax155-167-specific CD4(+) T cells were present in all HTLV-1-infected individuals tested, regardless of HSCT. These results suggest that Tax155-167 may be the dominant epitope recognized by HTLV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells in HLA-DRB1*0101(+)-infected individuals and that Tax-specific CD4(+) T cells may augment the graft-versus-Tax effects via efficient induction of Tax-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.
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Double-unit cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning for patients with hematologic malignancies: a multicenter phase II study in Japan.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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We analyzed the outcomes of 61 patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent double-unit cord blood transplantation (dCBT) after myeloablative conditioning performed as part of a prospective multicenter phase II study. The conditioning regimen for dCBT included total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor combined with cytosine arabinoside for myeloid malignancies and with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide for lymphoid malignancies. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment after dCBT was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73%-92%). All 51 of the patients who engrafted had complete chimerism derived from a single donor by day +60. Only the degree of HLA disparity in the host-versus-graft direction had an impact on unit dominance. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease was 25% (95% CI, 15%-37%), and that of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 32% (95% CI, 20%-44%). The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 23% (95% CI, 13%-34%), and that of transplantation-related mortality was 28% (95% CI, 17%-39%). With a median follow-up of 41 months, event-free survival was 48% (90% CI, 37%-58%) at 1 year and 46% (90% CI, 35%-56%) at 3 years. Event-free survival at 3 years was 67% (95% CI, 46%-81%) for patients with standard risk and 29% (95% CI, 15%-45%) for those with advanced risk. This study suggests that dCBT after myeloablative conditioning is a promising alternative for adults and large children with hematologic malignancies who need stem cell transplantation but lack a suitable adult donor or an adequate single-unit cord blood graft.
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Refractoriness to platelet transfusion in acute myeloid leukemia correlated with the optical density of anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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A small number of reports have described cases of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia complicating hematological disorders with impaired platelet production. We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia who exhibited unexplained refractoriness to platelet transfusion, while receiving heparin flushes, and was found to have anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies with high optical density (OD) values (>2 units) detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After cessation of heparin flushes, her refractoriness to platelet transfusion resolved. We retrospectively confirmed that the OD values for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies declined gradually; refractoriness to platelet transfusion resolved when the OD values fell below 1.0 units. Given the absence of any other evident explanation for this phenomenon, and the correlation between the OD values for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies and the efficacy of platelet transfusions, we conclude that the patients refractoriness to platelet transfusion was most likely caused by anti-PF4/heparin antibodies that had platelet-activating properties.
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Dasatinib maintenance therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for an isolated central nervous system blast crisis in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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A 22-year-old male with Ph-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) was started on treatment with imatinib. After 12 months of therapy, he achieved a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). Although the CCyR persisted in his bone marrow, he developed an isolated CML blast crisis in his central nervous system (CNS) after 29 months of therapy. He underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following combination therapy with dasatinib, intrathecal chemotherapy and cranial irradiation. Subsequently, 168 days after allogeneic HSCT, he was started on dasatinib maintenance therapy to prevent a CNS relapse. Thirty-eight months after allogeneic HSCT, he has sustained a complete molecular response in both bone marrow and CNS. We believe dasatinib has the potential to prevent CNS relapse if used for maintenance therapy after allogeneic HSCT.
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Prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia harboring monosomal karyotype in patients treated with or without allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after achieving complete remission.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To evaluate the prognostic impact of monosomal karyotype on post-remission outcome in acute myeloid leukemia, we retrospectively analyzed 2,099 patients who had achieved complete remission. Monosomal karyotype was noted in 73 patients (4%). Of these, the probability of overall survival from first complete remission was 14% at four years, which was significantly lower than that reported in patients without monosomal karyotype, primarily due to a high relapse rate (86%). Monosomal karyotype remained significantly associated with worse overall survival among patients with unfavorable cytogenetics or complex karyotype, and even in patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation during first complete remission. These findings confirm that monosomal karyotype has a significantly adverse effect on post-remission outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with and without allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first complete remission, emphasizing the need for the development of alternative therapies for this patient population.
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Population pharmacokinetic and exposure-response analysis of nilotinib in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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We investigated the population pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of nilotinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase.
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Cytopenias after day 28 in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of recipient/donor factors, transplant conditions and myelotoxic drugs.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Secondary cytopenias are serious complications following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Etiologies include myelotoxic agents, viral infections, and possibly transplant-related factors such as the intensity of the conditioning regimen and the source of stem cells.
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Nilotinib versus imatinib for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase, Philadelphia chromosome-positive, chronic myeloid leukaemia: 24-month minimum follow-up of the phase 3 randomised ENESTnd trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Nilotinib has shown greater efficacy than imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase after a minimum follow-up of 12 months. We present data from the Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in clinical Trials-newly diagnosed patients (ENESTnd) study after a minimum follow-up of 24 months.
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[Membranous nephropathy with nephrotic syndrome developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We performed myeloablative bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor during the patients first complete remission. After engraftment, he developed acute graft-versus-host disease involving the gastrointestinal tract on day 32. Steroids and mycophenolate mofetil were initiated from day 39. His symptoms improved and the dose of immunosuppressants was tapered and then discontinued on day 421. On day 491, he developed nephrotic syndrome (NS). Based on renal biopsy, membranous nephropathy was diagnosed. There were no apparent symptoms or abnormal laboratory data suggestive of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Steroid therapy was initiated from day 518 and proteinuria improved significantly. NS is very rare following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). When there is no concomitant cGVHD, as in this case, allo-HSCT-associated NS is difficult to distinguish from idiopathic NS.
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[Chronic myelogenous leukemia complicated by drug-induced agranulocytosis].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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We describe a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who developed drug-induced agranulocytosis. A 75-year-old female was diagnosed with CML in December 2001. She had been receiving imatinib therapy for more than five years. In August 2007, she was hospitalized due to a severe neutropenia 10 days after colonoscopy. She was diagnosed as having agranulocytosis induced by colonoscopy premedication including scopolamine butylbromide and flumazenil. Severe neutropenia was resolved by G-CSF treatment without CML progression. Agranulocytosis in patients with CML is rare, but potentially lethal. Here, we report the clinical course in this patient.
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Nilotinib as frontline therapy for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: results from the Japanese subgroup of ENESTnd.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Recent results from the phase 3 ENESTnd (Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials-Newly Diagnosed Patients) study have demonstrated superiority of nilotinib over imatinib for the treatment of newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Here, we report results from the Japanese subset of patients in ENESTnd, and assess whether results in this subpopulation are consistent with the overall study population. Seventy-nine Japanese patients with CML-CP were randomized to receive nilotinib 300 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 30), nilotinib 400 mg BID (n = 24) or imatinib 400 mg once daily (QD) (n = 25). Major molecular response rates at 12 months, the primary endpoint, were at least twice as high for nilotinib 300 mg BID (57%) and nilotinib 400 mg BID (50%) compared with imatinib 400 mg QD (24%). No patient on nilotinib progressed, while one patient progressed on imatinib. Both drugs were generally well tolerated and discontinuations due to adverse events were comparable among treatment arms. The results in the subpopulation of Japanese patients from ENESTnd closely mirror the results of the overall population, and support the use of nilotinib at 300 mg BID in Japanese patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning by fludarabine/busulfan without additional irradiation or T-cell depletion leads to low non-relapse mortality in unrelated bone marrow transplantation.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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In reduced intensity, allogeneic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors (u-RIST), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft failure, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) are persistent problems. Although anti-thymocyte globulin, alemtuzumab, and total body irradiation (TBI) have been explored as conditioning modalities for u-RIST, the necessity for T-cell depletion or TBI to prevent GVHD or facilitate engraftment in u-RIST has not been determined. We here report the use of u-RIST with bone marrow grafting, following a simple conditioning regimen of 180 mg/m(2) fludarabine and 8 mg/kg of oral or intravenous busulfan without TBI or T-cell depletion. The study population was exclusively Japanese patients with a history of prior chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed 31 consecutive patients (median age 53 years). Twenty-five patients (81%) were transplanted from HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 allele-matched donors. In all patients, neutrophil engraftment was achieved. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 42%. However, 77% of patients with acute GVHD improved with, and could be managed by, initial, systemic, high-dose steroid treatment alone. Two-year overall and event-free survival was 62 and 53%, respectively. The NRM of 10% at 2 years was relatively low. Our results suggest that u-RIST without TBI or T-cell depletion may improve the prognosis after u-RIST in certain patient populations.
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Cytosine-arabinoside stimulates the capability of human marrow stromal cells to support normal hematopoiesis.
Osaka City Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2010
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Acute leukemia (AL) is characterized by overgrowth of neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow. After successful chemotherapy in patients with AL, the growth of leukemic cell is thought to be replaced by the recovery of normal hematopoietic cells as a consequence of the activity of anti-cancer agents in eradicating all hematopoietic cells, whether or not they are leukemic cells. However, little is known about the effects of anti-cancer agents on marrow stromal cells, which play a crucial role in supporting hematopoietic cell development. In the present study, we investigated the direct activity of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), a key drug for treatment of AL, on human non-leukemic marrow stromal cells by analyzing the effect of Ara-C on gene expression.
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[A modified myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, consisting of intravenous busulfan, cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, in advanced leukemia].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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In nine patients with advanced acute or chronic leukemia, we performed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following a modified myeloablative conditioning regimen intended to optimize the intensity of conditioning. This regimen consisted of intravenous busulfan 8mg/kg, cyclophosphamide 120mg/kg and total lymphoid irradiation 7.5 Gy. The median age of the patients was 30 years (range 18-59). Stem cell sources were related bone marrow in two, related peripheral blood in one, and unrelated bone marrow in six patients. Prophylaxis against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was cyclosporine and short-term methotrexate. Acute GVHD appeared in six patients (67%), grade II in all. Extensive chronic GVHD occurred in three of seven evaluable patients. The median follow-up period after HSCT was 813 days (248- 1,702). Of nine patients, five relapsed or progressed after HSCT. However, no patient relapsed or progressed within 100 days after HSCT. During the full follow-up period, transplant-related mortality (TRM) was not observed. The two-year overall survival and event-free survival were 88.9% and 50.0%, respectively. Our results suggested that we might reduce the incidence of TRM and simultaneously control disease by using an optimized conditioning regimen for HSCT.
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Prognostic factors and outcomes of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia after first relapse.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Patients with acute myeloid leukemia who are treated with conventional chemotherapy still have a substantial risk of relapse; the prognostic factors and optimal treatments after relapse have not been fully established. We, therefore, retrospectively analyzed data from patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had achieved first complete remission to assess their prognosis after first relapse.
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Dasatinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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Treatment with dasatinib, a highly potent BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor, has resulted in high rates of complete cytogenetic response and progression-free survival among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase, after failure of imatinib treatment. We assessed the efficacy and safety of dasatinib, as compared with imatinib, for the first-line treatment of chronic-phase CML.
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Serum cytokine profiles at the onset of severe, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage complicating allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, treated successfully with pulse intravenous cyclophosphamide.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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A 59-year-old man with lymphoma-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma was admitted to hospital for treatment of a skin relapse on day 398 after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). To induce a graft-versus-adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma effect, we discontinued methylprednisolone and tacrolimus. About a month after the discontinuation, he developed grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with a high fever. Soon after the development of GVHD, all the skin lesions regressed in size and finally vanished. However, he developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), which was resistant to high-dose corticosteroid therapy. He was intubated for respiratory insufficiency on day 451. Cyclophosphamide pulse therapy was administered at a dose of 1 g per day for 2 days and his oxygen saturation then improved, and ventilatory support was released on day 465. On analysis of cytokine profiles at the onset of DAH, we found elevated serum levels of T-helper 2 cytokines as well as T-helper 1 cytokines, suggesting that both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 cytokines might play a role in the occurrence of DAH following allo-HSCT. Pulse cyclophosphamide treatment might be very effective in suppressing the exaggerated allogeneic immune response in DAH.
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Pilot study of a (213)bismuth-labeled anti-CD45 mAb as a novel nonmyeloablative conditioning for DLA-haploidentical littermate hematopoietic transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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A pilot study was conducted to determine whether conditioning using selective targeting of hematopoietic cells with an alpha-particle emitter, bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is sufficient to overcome the major histocompatibility barrier in a canine model of dog leukocyte antigen-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
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Heart rate variability during and after peripheral blood stem cell leukapheresis in autologous transplant patients and allogeneic transplant donors.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
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Side effects of varying severity are frequent in peripheral blood stem cell harvest (PBSCH). Life-threatening complications associated with PBSCH have also been reported. Heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects sympathovagal balance and autonomic cardiovascular control, has been a subject of intense interest in various diseases precipitating sudden death. Here, we prospectively assessed the impact of leukapheresis on HRV among autologous hematopoietic cell transplant patients and healthy donors. We found that HRV indicators, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) value, the square root of the mean of the sum of squared differences between the adjacent normal-to-normal interval (r-MSSD) value, total frequency (TF), high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) powers decreased significantly to morbid levels during leukapheresis (all P < 0.01). Morbid changes in SDNN value, TF and LF powers were significantly sustained for 6-9 h after leukapheresis (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, TF and LF powers prior to leukapheresis were significantly lower in subjects with symptomatic hypotension than in the other subjects [3282 (3121-4427) vs. 6018 (4983-9816) ms(2), P = 0.03; 93 (42-144) vs. 237 (142-360) ms(2), P = 0.03, respectively]. Our results suggest that HRV analysis might be of use in evaluating and predicting the adverse effects of cardiovascular complications in PBSCH.
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[Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder diagnosed by the episode of intestinal perforation following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia. We performed sequential treatment with chemotherapy and reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor while the patient was in partial remission. After engraftment, he developed acute graft-versus-host disease of the gut on day 42 and steroid therapy was started. Despite transient aggravation of diarrhea, his symptoms slowly improved and the dose of steroid was tapered. On day 159, he complained of acute left lower abdominal pain. A CT scan showed perforation of the digestive tract and ileectomy was performed. At surgery, multiple ulcers of the intestine were found and one of the ulcers was perforated. Pathologically, transmural and diffuse proliferation of atypical cells in the ulcer were confirmed. Since these cells were positive for CD20 and Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) encoded RNA, we made a diagnosis of EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Reduction in the dose of immunosuppressive agents and rituximab led to complete remission of PTLD. PTLD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is relatively rare, and the development of gastrointestinal perforation after allo-HSCT is very rare.
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Low-dose total body irradiation and fludarabine conditioning for HLA class I-mismatched donor stem cell transplantation and immunologic recovery in patients with hematologic malignancies: a multicenter trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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HLA-mismatched grafts are a viable alternative source for patients without HLA-matched donors receiving ablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), although their use in reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning HCT has been not well established. Here, we extended HCT to recipients of HLA class I-mismatched grafts to investigate whether NMA conditioning can establish stable donor engraftment. Fifty-nine patients were conditioned with fludarabine (Flu) 90 mg/m(2) and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), followed by immunosuppression with cyclosporine (CsA) 5.0 mg/kg twice a day and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 15 mg/kg 3 times a day for transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from related (n = 5) or unrelated donors (n = 54) with 1 antigen +/- 1 allele HLA class I mismatch or 2 HLA class I allele mismatches. Sustained donor engraftment was observed in 95% of the evaluable patients. The incidence of grade II-IV acute and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) was 69% and 41%, respectively. The cumulative probability of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 47% at 2 years. Two-year overall and progression-free survival (OS, PFS) was 29% and 28%, respectively. NMA conditioning with Flu and low-dose TBI, followed by HCT using HLA class I-mismatched donors leads to successful engraftment and long-term survival; however, the high incidence of aGVHD and NRM needs to be addressed by alternate GVHD prophylaxis regimens.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 4. Comparison of maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) and meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate conjugates for labeling anti-CD45 antibodies with [(211)At]astatine.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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An investigation was conducted to compare the in vivo tissue distribution of a rat antimurine CD45 monoclonal antibody (30F11) and an irrelevant mAbs (CA12.10C12) labeled with (211)At using two different labeling methods. In the investigation, the mAbs were also labeled with (125)I to assess the in vivo stability of the labeling methods toward deastatination. One labeling method employed N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate, [(211)At]1c, and N-hydroxysuccinimidyl meta-[(125)I]iodobenzoate, [(125)I]1b, in conjugation reactions to obtain the radiolabeled mAbs. The other labeling method involved conjugation of a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 2, with sulfhydryl groups on the mAbs, followed by labeling of the mAb-2 conjugates using Na[(211)At]At or Na[(125)I]I and chloramine-T. Concentrations of the (211)At/(125)I pair of radiolabeled mAbs in selected tissues were examined in BALB/c mice at 1, 4, and 24 h post injection (pi). The co-injected anti-CD45 mAb, 30F11, labeled with [(125)I]1b and [(211)At]1c targeted the CD45-bearing cells in the spleen with the percent injected dose (%ID) of (125)I in that tissue being 13.31 ± 0.78; 17.43 ± 2.56; 5.23 ± 0.50; and (211)At being 6.56 ± 0.40; 10.14 ± 1.49; 7.52 ± 0.79 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). However, better targeting (or retention) of the (125)I and (211)At was obtained for 30F11 conjugated with the closo-decaborate(2-), 2. The %ID in the spleen of (125)I (i.e., [(125)I]30F11-2) being 21.15 ± 1.33; 22.22 ± 1.95; 12.41 ± 0.75; and (211)At (i.e., [(211)At]30F11-2) being 22.78 ± 1.29; 25.05 ± 2.35; 17.30 ± 1.20 at 1, 4, and 24 h pi (respectively). In contrast, the irrelevant mAb, CA12.10C12, labeled with (125)I or (211)At by either method had less than 0.8% ID in the spleen at any time point, except for [(211)At]CA12.10C12-1c, which had 1.62 ± 0.14%ID and 1.21 ± 0.08%ID at 1 and 4 h pi. The higher spleen concentrations in that conjugate appear to be due to in vivo deastatination. Differences in (125)I and (211)At concentrations in lung, neck, and stomach indicate that the meta-[(211)At]benzoyl conjugates underwent deastatination, whereas the (211)At-labeled closo-decaborate(2-) conjugates were very stable to in vivo deastatination. In summary, using the closo-decaborate(2-) (211)At labeling approach resulted in higher concentrations of (211)At in target tissue (spleen) and higher stability to in vivo deastatination in this model. These findings, along with the simpler and higher-yielding (211)At-labeling method, provide the basis for using the closo-decaborate(2-) labeling reagent, 2, in our continued studies of the application of (211)At-labeled mAbs for conditioning in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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Impact of relative dose intensity (RDI) in CHOP combined with rituximab (R-CHOP) on survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Recently, maintaining higher relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapeutic drugs has become a widespread practice in an attempt to achieve better outcomes in the treatment of aggressive lymphoma. The addition of rituximab to chemotherapy regimens has significantly improved outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). However, it is unknown if higher RDI in chemotherapy when combined with rituximab leads to a better outcome in aggressive B-cell lymphoma.
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Effect of conditioning regimen intensity on CMV infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Nonmyeloablative conditioning is less toxic and results in initial establishment of mixed hematopoietic T cell chimerism for up to half a year with prolonged presence of host T cell immunity. In this study, we examined whether this translates into differences in the risks and/or severity of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease. We analyzed data from 537 nonmyeloablative (NM-HCT) and contemporaneous 2489 myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplant (M-HCT) recipients. In CMV seropositive recipients, no difference in the overall hazards of CMV infection at any level (adjusted hazard ratio [adj. HR] 0.9, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.7-1.0, P = .14) was noted; however, NM-HCT was associated with a lower risk of high-grade CMV infection (adj. HR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9, P = .02). CMV disease rates were similar between the groups during the first 100 days after HCT, but NM-HCT recipients had an increased risk of late CMV disease (adj. HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). The increased risk of late CMV disease after NM-HCT was pronounced during the earlier years of the study period, but not detectable in more recent years. Contrary to earlier reports, survival following CMV disease was not reduced after NM-HCT when compared to M-HCT recipients. These results suggest that residual host cells after NM-HCT reduce progression to higher CMV viral load in NM-HCT recipients; however, this effect does not appear to protect against serious complications of CMV. Therefore, CMV prevention strategies in NM-HCT recipients should be similar to those used in M-HCT recipients.
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Biodistributions, myelosuppression, and toxicities in mice treated with an anti-CD45 antibody labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclides bismuth-213 or astatine-211.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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We previously investigated the potential of targeted radiotherapy using a bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled anti-CD45 antibody to replace total body irradiation as conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation in a canine model. Although this approach allowed sustained marrow engraftment, limited availability, high cost, and short half-life of (213)Bi induced us to investigate an alternative alpha-emitting radionuclide, astatine-211 ((211)At), for the same application. Biodistribution and toxicity studies were conducted with conjugates of the anti-murine CD45 antibody 30F11 with either (213)Bi or (211)At. Mice were injected with 2 to 50 muCi on 10 microg or 20 muCi on 2 or 40 microg of 30F11 conjugate. Biodistribution studies showed that the spleen contained the highest concentration of radioactivity, ranging from 167 +/- 23% to 417 +/- 109% injected dose/gram (% ID/g) after injection of the (211)At conjugate and 45 +/- 9% to 166 +/- 11% ID/g after injection of the (213)Bi conjugate. The higher concentrations observed for (211)At-labeled 30F11 were due to its longer half-life, which permitted better localization of isotope to the spleen before decay. (211)At was more effective at producing myelosuppression for the same quantity of injected radioactivity. All mice injected with 20 or 50 muCi (211)At, but none with the same quantities of (213)Bi, had lethal myeloablation. Severe reversible acute hepatic toxicity occurred with 50 muCi (213)Bi, but not with lower doses of (213)Bi or with any dose of (211)At. No renal toxicity occurred with either radionuclide. The data suggest that smaller quantities of (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 antibody are sufficient to achieve myelosuppression and myeloablation with less nonhematologic toxicity compared with (213)Bi-labeled antibody.
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Cardiac and autonomic nerve function after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancy in patients with pre-transplant cardiac dysfunction.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Recent reports have shown that cardiomyopathy caused by hemochromatosis in severe aplastic anemia is reversible after reduced-intensity allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (RIST). We comprehensively evaluated cardiac and autonomic nerve function to determine whether cardiac dysfunction due to causes other than hemochromatosis is attenuated after RIST. In five patients with cardiac dysfunction before transplant, we analyzed the changes in cardiac and autonomic nerve function after transplant, using electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, radionuclide angiography (RNA), serum markers, and heart rate variability (HRV), before and up to 100 days after transplant. There was no significant improvement in cardiac function in any patient and no significant alteration in ECG, echocardiogram, RNA, or serum markers. However, on time-domain analysis of HRV, the SD of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the coefficient of variation of the RR interval (CVRR) decreased significantly 30 and 60 days after transplant (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Similarly, on frequency-domain analysis of HRV, low and high frequency power (LF and HF) significantly and temporarily decreased (P = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively). Notably, in one patient who had acute heart failure after transplantation, the values of SDNN, CVRR, r-MSSD, LF, and HF at 30 and 60 days after transplantation were the lowest of all the patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that (a) RIST is well-tolerated in patients with cardiac dysfunction, but we cannot expect improvement in cardiac dysfunction due to causes other than hemochromatosis; and (b) monitoring HRV may be useful in predicting cardiac events after RIST.
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Prolonged sinus tachycardia caused by human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) encephalomyelitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Intern. Med.
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A 19-year-old man with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia received an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant with unrelated bone marrow. On day 20, the patient developed impaired consciousness and disorientation. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid showed 2×10(4) copies/mL of HHV6B. HHV6 encephalitis was diagnosed, as had HHV6 myelitis based on symptoms that included lancinating pain/pruritus in the lower limbs and dysuria/dyschezia. Concurrently, he showed sinus tachycardia. Even after clearance of the HHV6 genome from the plasma and CSF was achieved by treatment with foscarnet, sinus tachycardia persisted for another 100 days. We suspected prolonged sinus tachycardia due to dysautonomia caused by HHV6 encephalomyelitis.
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Eosinophilia, regardless of degree, is related to better outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Intern. Med.
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Several recent studies report that, after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), eosinophilia is a favorable factor for transplant outcomes. However, whether the degree of eosinophilia influences transplant outcomes is yet to be established.
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Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 6. An intact antibody conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via sulfhydryl groups had considerably higher kidney concentrations than the same antibody conjugated with an isothiocyanato-closo-de
Bioconjug. Chem.
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We are investigating the use of an (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a replacement of total body irradiation in conditioning regimens designed to decrease the toxicity of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). As part of that investigation, dose-escalation studies were conducted in dogs using (211)At-labeled anticanine CD45 mAb, CA12.10C12, conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 4. Unacceptable renal toxicity was noted in the dogs receiving doses in the 0.27-0.62 mCi/kg range. This result was not anticipated, as no toxicity had been noted in prior biodistribution and toxicity studies conducted in mice. Studies were conducted to understand the cause of the renal toxicity and to find a way to circumvent it. A dog biodistribution study was conducted with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 that had been conjugated with 4. The biodistribution data showed that 10-fold higher kidney concentrations were obtained with the maleimido-conjugate than had been obtained in a previous biodistribution study with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 conjugated with an amine-reactive phenylisothiocyanato-CHX-A? derivative. The difference in kidney concentrations observed in dogs for the two conjugation approaches led to an investigation of the reagents. SE-HPLC analyses showed that the purity of the CA12.10C12 conjugated via reduced disulfides was lower than that obtained with amine-reactive conjugation reagents, and nonreducing SDS-PAGE analyses indicated protein fragments were present in the disulfide reduced conjugate. Although we had previously prepared closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives with amine-reactive functional groups (e.g., 6 and 8), a new, easily synthesized, amine-reactive (phenylisothiocyanate) derivative, 10, was prepared for use in the current studies. A biodistribution was conducted with coadministered (125)I- and (211)At-labeled CA12.10C10 conjugated with 10. In that study, lower kidney concentrations were obtained for both radionuclides than had been obtained in the earlier study of the same antibody conjugated with 4 after reduction of disulfide bonds.
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Efficacy and safety of dasatinib versus imatinib in the East Asian subpopulation of the DASISION trial of newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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Abstract Asian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) tend to have different characteristics compared with patients from other regions, including younger age and smaller body size. The phase 3, open-label, randomized DASISION trial (NCT00481247), comparing dasatinib 100 mg QD (n=259) with imatinib 400 mg QD (n=260) in newly diagnosed chronic phase CML (CML-CP), included a sizeable East Asian population (n=60: dasatinib; n=48: imatinib). In East Asian patients, dasatinib showed favorable 24-month rates of major molecular response (68% vs. 50% for imatinib) and complete cytogenetic response (92% vs. 88%), and more patients achieved BCR-ABL1 transcript levels ?10% at 3 months with dasatinib (91% vs. 69%), similar to the overall population. Relative to non-East Asian patients, the incidence of rash, fluid-related events, and grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia appeared to be higher in East Asians, regardless of treatment. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed statistically non-significant increased dasatinib exposure among East Asian patients. Results support the use of dasatinib 100 mg QD as first-line CML treatment in both East Asian and non-East Asian patients.
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