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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phosphatidic acid (PA)-preferring phospholipase A1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Recent studies have suggested that phosphatidic acid (PA), a cone-shaped phospholipid that can generate negative curvature of lipid membranes, participates in mitochondrial fusion. However, precise mechanisms underling the production and consumption of PA on the mitochondrial surface are not fully understood. Phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1 (PA-PLA1)/DDHD1 is the first identified intracellular phospholipase A1 and preferentially hydrolyzes PA in vitro. Its cellular and physiological functions have not been elucidated. In this study, we show that PA-PLA1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics. PA-PLA1, when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, induced mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas its depletion caused mitochondrial elongation. The effects of PA-PLA1 on mitochondrial morphology appear to counteract those of MitoPLD, a mitochondrion-localized phospholipase D that produces PA from cardiolipin. Consistent with high levels of expression of PA-PLA1 in testis, PA-PLA1 knock-out mice have a defect in sperm formation. In PA-PLA1-deficient sperm, the mitochondrial structure is disorganized, and an abnormal gap structure exists between the middle and principal pieces. A flagellum is bent at that position, leading to a loss of motility. Our results suggest a possible mechanism of PA regulation of the mitochondrial membrane and demonstrate an in vivo function of PA-PLA1 in the organization of mitochondria during spermiogenesis.
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Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids accumulate in phosphatidylcholine of fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome and acyl-CoA oxidase1 deficiency.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that function in multiple anabolic and catabolic processes, including ?-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and biosynthesis of ether phospholipids. Peroxisomal disorders caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or peroxisomal ?-oxidation manifest as severe neural disorders of the central nervous system. Abnormal peroxisomal metabolism is thought to be responsible for the clinical symptoms of these diseases, but their molecular pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. We performed lipidomic analysis to identify aberrant metabolites in fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS), acyl-CoA oxidase1 (AOx) deficiency, D-bifunctional protein (D-BP) and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), as well as in peroxisome-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants. In cells deficient in peroxisomal biogenesis, plasmenylethanolamine was remarkably reduced and phosphatidylethanolamine was increased. Marked accumulation of very-long-chain saturated fatty acid and monounsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine was observed in all mutant cells. Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) levels were significantly elevated, whilst phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were reduced in fibroblasts from patients with ZS, AOx deficiency, and D-BP deficiency, but not in fibroblasts from an X-ALD patient. Because patients with AOx deficiency suffer from more severe symptoms than those with X-ALD, accumulation of VLC-PUFA and/or reduction of DHA may be associated with the severity of peroxisomal diseases.
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Molecular Species of Phospholipids with Very Long Chain Fatty Acids in Skin Fibroblasts of Zellweger Syndrome.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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The ratio of C26:0/C22:0 fatty acids in patient lipids is widely accepted as a critical clinical criterion of peroxisomal diseases, such as Zellweger syndrome and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). However, phospholipid molecular species with very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) have not been precisely characterized. In the present study, the structures of such molecules in fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome and X-ALD were examined using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. In fibroblasts from Zellweger patients, a large number of VLCFA-containing molecular species were detected in several phospholipid classes as well as neutral lipids, including triacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters. Among these lipids, phosphatidylcholine showed the most diversity in the structures of VLCFA-containing molecular species. Some VLCFA possessed longer carbon chains and/or larger number of double bonds than C26:0-fatty acid (FA). Similar VLCFA were also found in other phospholipid classes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. In addition, VLCFA-containing phospholipid species showed some differences among fibroblasts from Zellweger patients. It appears that phospholipids with VLCFA, with or without double bonds, as well as C26:0-FA might affect cellular functions, thus leading to the pathogenesis of peroxisomal diseases, such as Zellweger syndrome and X-ALD.
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Lymphoid tissue phospholipase A2 group IID resolves contact hypersensitivity by driving antiinflammatory lipid mediators.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Resolution of inflammation is an active process that is mediated in part by antiinflammatory lipid mediators. Although phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. Herein, we show that secreted PLA2 group IID (PLA2G2D) is preferentially expressed in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and displays a pro-resolving function. In hapten-induced contact dermatitis, resolution, not propagation, of inflammation was compromised in skin and LNs of PLA2G2D-deficient mice (Pla2g2d(-/-)), in which the immune balance was shifted toward a proinflammatory state over an antiinflammatory state. Bone marrow-derived DCs from Pla2g2d(-/-) mice were hyperactivated and elicited skin inflammation after intravenous transfer into mice. Lipidomics analysis revealed that PLA2G2D in the LNs contributed to mobilization of a pool of polyunsaturated fatty acids that could serve as precursors for antiinflammatory/pro-resolving lipid mediators such as resolvin D1 and 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2, which reduced Th1 cytokine production and surface MHC class II expression in LN cells or DCs. Altogether, our results highlight PLA2G2D as a "resolving sPLA2" that ameliorates inflammation through mobilizing pro-resolving lipid mediators and points to a potential use of this enzyme for treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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Lipidomic analysis of brain tissues and plasma in a mouse model expressing mutated human amyloid precursor protein/tau for Alzheimers disease.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Alzheimers disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among neurodegenerative diseases, afflicts millions of elderly people worldwide. In addition to amyloid-beta (A?) peptide and phosphorylated tau, lipid dysregulation is suggested to participate in AD pathogenesis. However, alterations in individual lipid species and their role in AD disease progression remain unclear.
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The lipid mediator protectin D1 inhibits influenza virus replication and improves severe influenza.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Influenza A viruses are a major cause of mortality. Given the potential for future lethal pandemics, effective drugs are needed for the treatment of severe influenza such as that caused by H5N1 viruses. Using mediator lipidomics and bioactive lipid screen, we report that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediator protectin D1 (PD1) markedly attenuated influenza virus replication via RNA export machinery. Production of PD1 was suppressed during severe influenza and PD1 levels inversely correlated with the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses. Suppression of PD1 was genetically mapped to 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. Importantly, PD1 treatment improved the survival and pathology of severe influenza in mice, even under conditions where known antiviral drugs fail to protect from death. These results identify the endogenous lipid mediator PD1 as an innate suppressor of influenza virus replication that protects against lethal influenza virus infection.
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Global metabolomic analysis of heart tissue in a hamster model for dilated cardiomyopathy.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a common cause of heart failure, is characterized by cardiac dilation and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the mechanistic basis, we performed global metabolomic analysis of myocardial tissues from the left ventricles of J2N-k cardiomyopathic hamsters. This model exhibits symptoms similar to those of human DCM, owing to the deletion of the ?-sarcoglycan gene. Charged and lipid metabolites were measured by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography MS(/MS), respectively, and J2N-k hamsters were compared with J2N-n healthy controls at 4 (presymptomatic phase) and 16weeks (symptomatic) of age. Disturbances in membrane phospholipid homeostasis were initiated during the presymptomatic phase. Significantly different levels of charged metabolites, occurring mainly in the symptomatic phase, were mapped to primary metabolic pathways. Reduced levels of metabolites in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, together with large decreases in major triacylglycerol levels, suggested that decreased energy production leads to cardiac contractile dysfunction in the symptomatic phase. A mild reduction in glutathione and a compensatory increase in ophthalmate levels suggest increased oxidative stress in diseased tissues, which was confirmed by histochemical staining. Increased levels of 4 eicosanoids, including prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1?, in the symptomatic phase suggested activation of the protective response pathways. These results provide mechanistic insights into DCM pathogenesis and may help identify new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnosis.
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Novel regulation of cardiac metabolism and homeostasis by the adrenomedullin-receptor activity-modifying protein 2 system.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Adrenomedullin (AM) was identified as a vasodilating and hypotensive peptide mainly produced by the cardiovascular system. The AM receptor calcitonin receptor-like receptor associates with receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP), one of the subtypes of regulatory proteins. Among knockout mice ((-/-)) of RAMPs, only RAMP2(-/-) is embryonically lethal with cardiovascular abnormalities that are the same as AM(-/-). This suggests that the AM-RAMP2 system is particularly important for the cardiovascular system. Although AM and RAMP2 are highly expressed in the heart from embryo to adulthood, their analysis has been limited by the embryonic lethality of AM(-/-) and RAMP2(-/-). For this study, we generated inducible cardiac myocyte-specific RAMP2(-/-) (C-RAMP2(-/-)). C-RAMP2(-/-) exhibited dilated cardiomyopathy-like heart failure with cardiac dilatation and myofibril disruption. C-RAMP2(-/-) hearts also showed changes in mitochondrial structure and downregulation of mitochondria-related genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, ?-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species regulation. Furthermore, the heart failure was preceded by changes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Metabolome and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) imaging analyses revealed early downregulation of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial membrane-specific lipid. Furthermore, primary-cultured cardiac myocytes from C-RAMP2(-/-) showed reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced reactive oxygen species production in a RAMP2 deletion-dependent manner. C-RAMP2(-/-) showed downregulated activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), one of the main regulators of mitochondria-related genes. These data demonstrate that the AM-RAMP2 system is essential for cardiac metabolism and homeostasis. The AM-RAMP2 system is a promising therapeutic target of heart failure.
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LYCAT, a homologue of C. elegans acl-8, acl-9, and acl-10, determines the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylinositol in mice.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Mammalian phosphatidylinositol (PI) has a unique fatty acid composition in that 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species is predominant. This fatty acid composition is formed through fatty acid remodeling by sequential deacylation and reacylation. We recently identified three Caenorhabditis elegans acyltransferases (ACL-8, ACL-9, and ACL-10) that incorporate stearic acid into the sn-1 position of PI. Mammalian LYCAT, which is the closest homolog of ACL-8, ACL-9, and ACL-10, was originally identified as a lysocardiolipin acyltransferase by an in vitro assay and was subsequently reported to possess acyltransferase activity toward various anionic lysophospholipids. However, the in vivo role of mammalian LYCAT in phospholipid fatty acid metabolism has not been well elucidated. In this study, we generated LYCAT-deficient mice and demonstrated that LYCAT determined the fatty acid composition of PI in vivo. LYCAT-deficient mice were outwardly healthy and fertile. In the mice, stearoyl-CoA acyltransferase activity toward the sn-1 position of PI was reduced, and the fatty acid composition of PI, but not those of other major phospholipids, was altered. Furthermore, expression of mouse LYCAT rescued the phenotype of C. elegans acl-8 acl-9 acl-10 triple mutants. Our data indicate that LYCAT is a determinant of PI molecular species and its function is conserved in C. elegans and mammals.
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p125/Sec23-interacting protein (Sec23ip) is required for spermiogenesis.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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p125/Sec23ip is a phospholipase A(1)-like protein that interacts with Sec23, a coat component of COPII vesicles that bud from endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. To understand its physiological function, we produced p125 knockout mice. The p125 knockout mice grew normally, but males were subfertile. Sperm from p125-deficient mice had round heads and lacked the acrosome, an organelle containing the enzymes responsible for fertilization. p125 was found to be expressed at stages I-XII of spermatogenesis, similar to the expression pattern of proteins involved in acrosome biogenesis. These results suggest that p125 plays an important role in spermiogenesis.
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Hair follicular expression and function of group X secreted phospholipase A2 in mouse skin.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA(2)-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA(2)-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA(2)-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA(2)-X activation, a functional link of sPLA(2)-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis.
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Analysis of ammonia toxicity in landfill leachates.
ISRN Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity (LC50,NH3(aq)) was calculated as 3.3?ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions (LC50,NH4 (+) ) was calculated as 222?ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7?vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonias toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3?vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate.
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Salamander retina phospholipids and their localization by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry at cellular size resolution.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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Salamander large cells facilitated identification and localization of lipids by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. Salamander retina lipid extract showed similarity with rodent retina lipid extract in phospholipid content and composition. Like rodent retina section, distinct layer distributions of phospholipids were observed in the salamander retina section. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) composing saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PC 32:0, PC 32:1, and PC 34:1) were detected mainly in the outer and inner plexiform layers (OPL and IPL), whereas PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PC 36:4, PC 38:6, and PC 40:6) composed the inner segment (IS) and outer segment (OS). The presence of PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in the OS layer implied that these phospholipids form flexible lipid bilayers, which facilitate phototransduction process occurring in the rhodopsin rich OS layer. Distinct distributions and relative signal intensities of phospholipids also indicated their relative abundance in a particular cell or a cell part. Using salamander large cells, a single cell level localization and identification of biomolecules could be achieved by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.
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Eosinophils promote resolution of acute peritonitis by producing proresolving mediators in mice.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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Acute inflammation in healthy individuals is self-limiting and has an active termination program. The mechanisms by which acute inflammation is resolved are of interest. In murine zymosan-induced peritonitis, we found that eosinophils are recruited to the inflamed loci during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. In vivo depletion of eosinophils caused a resolution deficit, namely impaired lymphatic drainage with reduced appearance of phagocytes carrying engulfed zymosan in the draining lymph node, and sustained numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in inflamed tissues. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based lipidomics of the resolving exudates revealed that locally activated eosinophils in the resolution phase produced proresolving mediators, including protectin D1 (PD1) from docosahexaenoic acid. The resolution deficit caused by eosinophil depletion was rescued by eosinophil restoration or the administration of PD1. Eosinophils deficient in 12/15-lipoxygenase could not rescue the resolution phenotype. The present results indicate that mouse eosinophils and eosinophil-derived lipid mediators, including PD1, have a role in promoting the resolution of acute inflammation, expanding the roles of eosinophils in host defense and resolution.
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Increase of oxidant-related triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines in serum and small intestinal mucosa during development of intestinal polyp formation in Min mice.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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Recent epidemiological studies have shown a positive association of a high-fat diet with the risk of colon cancer. Indeed, increments in the serum levels of triglycerides (TG) and cholesterols are positively related with colon carcinogenesis. We previously reported that an age-dependent hyperlipidemic state is characteristic of Min mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid metabolism are poorly understood in this state. Here, we provide detailed analysis of serum lipids in Min mice using reverse-phased liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPLC/ESI-MS). We also demonstrate local analysis of lipid droplets in the villi of the small intestine using laser capture microdissection and a sensitive chip-based nanoESI-MS system. As a result, oxidized phosphatidylcholines (PC) such as aldehyde and carboxylic acid types were increased, even at an early stage of intestinal polyp formation in serum. In addition, hydroperoxidizable TG precursors containing linoleic acid (18:2n-6) were deposited at the tip of the villi with aging, and these hydroperoxidized TG were also increased in serum. Meanwhile, increments of the oxidizable TG precursors in serum and small intestinal mucosa were suppressed by treatment with pitavastatin, a novel third generation lipophilic statin. These results suggest that quantitative and qualitative lipid changes such as hydroperoxidizable TG precursors are important in the course of intestinal polyp formation and oxidative stress might lead to the development of intestinal polyp formation in Min mice.
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MassBank: a public repository for sharing mass spectral data for life sciences.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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MassBank is the first public repository of mass spectra of small chemical compounds for life sciences (<3000 Da). The database contains 605 electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), 137 fast atom bombardment MS and 9276 electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS(n) data of 2337 authentic compounds of metabolites, 11 545 EI-MS and 834 other-MS data of 10,286 volatile natural and synthetic compounds, and 3045 ESI-MS(2) data of 679 synthetic drugs contributed by 16 research groups (January 2010). ESI-MS(2) data were analyzed under nonstandardized, independent experimental conditions. MassBank is a distributed database. Each research group provides data from its own MassBank data servers distributed on the Internet. MassBank users can access either all of the MassBank data or a subset of the data by specifying one or more experimental conditions. In a spectral search to retrieve mass spectra similar to a query mass spectrum, the similarity score is calculated by a weighted cosine correlation in which weighting exponents on peak intensity and the mass-to-charge ratio are optimized to the ESI-MS(2) data. MassBank also provides a merged spectrum for each compound prepared by merging the analyzed ESI-MS(2) data on an identical compound under different collision-induced dissociation conditions. Data merging has significantly improved the precision of the identification of a chemical compound by 21-23% at a similarity score of 0.6. Thus, MassBank is useful for the identification of chemical compounds and the publication of experimental data.
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Group III secreted phospholipase A2 regulates epididymal sperm maturation and fertility in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Although lipid metabolism is thought to be important for the proper maturation and function of spermatozoa, the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dynamic process in the gonads remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that group III phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-III), a member of the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family, is expressed in the mouse proximal epididymal epithelium and that targeted disruption of the gene encoding this protein (Pla2g3) leads to defects in sperm maturation and fertility. Although testicular spermatogenesis in Pla2g3-/- mice was grossly normal, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymidis displayed hypomotility, and their ability to fertilize intact eggs was markedly impaired. Transmission EM further revealed that epididymal spermatozoa in Pla2g3-/- mice had both flagella with abnormal axonemes and aberrant acrosomal structures. During epididymal transit, phosphatidylcholine in the membrane of Pla2g3+/+ sperm underwent a dramatic shift in its acyl groups from oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids to docosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, whereas this membrane lipid remodeling event was compromised in sperm from Pla2g3-/- mice. Moreover, the gonads of Pla2g3-/- mice contained less 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites than did those of Pla2g3+/+ mice. Together, our results reveal a role for the atypical sPLA2 family member sPLA2-III in epididymal lipid homeostasis and indicate that its perturbation may lead to sperm dysfunction.
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The anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator resolvin E1 protects mice from bacterial pneumonia and acute lung injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Whereas pneumonia is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide, most cases of pneumonia spontaneously resolve. Mechanisms that promote pneumonia resolution remain to be determined. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous mediator that displays proresolving actions in sterile inflammation. In this study, we developed a new model of aspiration pneumonia to evaluate the effect of RvE1 on acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration and subsequent bacterial challenge. Mice received hydrochloric acid into the left lung followed by the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli. I.v. administration of RvE1 (approximately 0.005 mg/kg) prior to acid injury selectively decreased lung neutrophil accumulation by 55% and enhanced clearance of E. coli. RvE1 significantly decreased lung tissue levels of several proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-6, HMGB-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and MCP-1, in a manner independent of the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10 and lipoxin A4. In addition, animals treated with RvE1 had a marked improvement in survival. These findings in experimental aspiration pneumonia have uncovered protective roles for RvE1 in pathogen-mediated inflammation that are both anti-inflammatory for neutrophils and protective for host defense, suggesting that RvE1 represents the first candidate for a novel therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury and pneumonia that harnesses natural resolution mechanisms.
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Separation and quantification of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acid positional isomers in phosphatidylcholine by RPLC-ESIMS/MS.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Endogenous phosphatidylcholine in biological membranes exists as isomers with acyl moieties at the sn-1 or sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbone. However, detailed biochemical information on these positional isomers is not generally available. This study is the first report on the separation and identification of positional isomers of endogenous phosphatidylcholine using reversed-phase LC-ESIMS/MS. The separation of positional isomers in PC was achieved by using ultra performance LC, which uses a high-resolution HPLC system. To identify positional isomers in individual PC species, their lyso-PC-related fragments and fatty acids, which were obtained by MS/MS analysis in the negative ion mode, were used. From the application results of biological samples, the lipid extracts of mouse brain were found to be abundant in PC containing 22:6 at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. However, the lipid extracts from mouse heart and liver were not abundant in positional isomers. This achievement demonstrates that the relative amounts of positional isomers in various tissues or molecular species differ. These results will be useful for the clarification of the biological mechanisms of remodelling enzymes such as phospholipase and acyltransferase. Thus, our report provides a novel and critical milestone in understanding how molecular composition of phospholipids is established and their biological roles.
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Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phospholipids by LC-MS for lipidomics.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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In this chapter we are going to mention about three different approaches in lipidomics and how to effectively profile or calculate the amounts of phospholipids from major molecular species up to minor ones. 1) Precise identification and profiling of individual molecular species of phospholipids by data-dependent LC-ESIMS/MS combination with "Lipid Search". We have been using this method as a global analysis of phospholipid. We usually applied this method at least once for new biological samples. We constructed an automated search engine, "Lipid Search", for identification and profiling of phospholipids. Once after applying this analysis, a specified retention time can be obtained for each elution peak of individual phospholipid molecular species. Thus, reproducible identification results can be effectively obtained by our search engine from the data obtained by single LC or combination of LC with specified head group survey by using precursor ion scanning or neutral loss scanning. 2) An effective analytical method of LC-ESIMS for the identification of acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine. This is an approach of how to obtain sharp chromatographic peaks for acidic lipids such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine that are normally detected as broad elution peaks. With this improvement very small amount of molecular species in minor acidic phospholipids were effectively obtained. 3) Identification and profiling of molecular species in focused phospholipids. Third one is a combination analysis of focused methods such as precursor ion scanning or neutral loss scanning and high efficient LC separation. As reported previously, different combinations of fatty acids on sn-1 and sn-2 can be mostly detected as separate peaks by reverse phase LC-ESIMS. Detection limit of precursor ion scanning or neutral loss scanning is more than ten times higher than that of the method without LC separation, because of decreased ion suppression. We will mention about application of this methods for focused analysis on phosphatidylethanolamine-plasmalogens.
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Essential role of the TRIC-B channel in Ca2+ handling of alveolar epithelial cells and in perinatal lung maturation.
Development
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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TRIC channels function as monovalent cation-specific channels that mediate counter ion movements coupled with ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in muscle cells. Mammalian tissues differentially contain two TRIC channel subtypes: TRIC-A is abundantly expressed in excitable cells, whereas TRIC-B is ubiquitously expressed throughout tissues. Here, we report the physiological role of TRIC-B channels in mouse perinatal development. TRIC-B-knockout neonates were cyanotic owing to respiratory failure and died shortly after birth. In the mutant neonates, the deflated lungs exhibited severe histological defects, and alveolar type II epithelial cells displayed ultrastructural abnormalities. The metabolic conversion of glycogen into phospholipids was severely interrupted in the mutant type II cells, and surfactant phospholipids secreted into the alveolar space were insufficient in the mutant neonates. Moreover, the mutant type II cells were compromised for Ca(2+) release mediated by inositol-trisphosphate receptors, despite Ca(2+) overloading in intracellular stores. Our results indicate that TRIC-B channels take an active part in Ca(2+) signalling to establish specialised functions in type II cells and are thus essential for perinatal lung maturation.
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Analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines as markers for oxidative stress, using multiple reaction monitoring with theoretically expanded data sets with reversed-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Recently, it was reported that oxidized phosphatidylcholine shows biological activities via scavenger receptor CD36 or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-TRIF. Thus, the analysis of oxidized phospholipids is essential in understanding these biological roles. Here, we report an analytical method for oxidized phosphatidylcholines using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with theoretically expanded data sets. This analytical method was performed by a quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with ultra performance LC (UPLC). To investigate whether this established analytical method was applicable to biological samples, we performed variation analysis of oxidized PCs using a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model. Most oxidized PCs were detected in higher amounts in the ischemic myocardium than in the non-ischemic myocardium. From these application results, this established method is a valuable tool for the global analysis of oxidized PCs. In the future, our study can provide further understanding of how oxidized phospholipids are produced and are correlated to various diseases.
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Visualization of the cell-selective distribution of PUFA-containing phosphatidylcholines in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Previous studies have shown that MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) can be used to visualize the distribution of various biomolecules, especially lipids, in the cells and tissues. In this study, we report the cell-selective distribution of PUFA-containing glycerophospholipids (GPLs) in the mouse brain. We established a practical experimental procedure for the IMS of GPLs. We demonstrated that optimization of the composition of the matrix solution and spectrum normalization to the total ion current (TIC) is critical. Using our procedure, we simultaneously differentiated and visualized the localizations of specific molecular species of GPLs in mouse brain sections. The results showed that PUFA-containing phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were distributed in a cell-selective manner: arachidonic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-containing PCs were seen in the hippocampal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells, respectively. Furthermore, these characteristic localizations of PUFA-PCs were formed during neuronal maturation. The phenomenon of brain cell-selective production of specific PUFA-GPLs will help elucidate the potential physiological functions of PUFAs in specific brain regions.
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Identification and characterization of a novel lysophosphatidic acid receptor, p2y5/LPA6.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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p2y5 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the fourth lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor, LPA4. Here we report that p2y5 is a novel LPA receptor coupling to the G13-Rho signaling pathway. "LPA receptor-null" RH7777 and B103 cells exogenously expressing p2y5 showed [3H]LPA binding, LPA-induced [35S]guanosine 5-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding, Rho-dependent alternation of cellular morphology, and Gs/13 chimeric protein-mediated cAMP accumulation. LPA-induced contraction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was suppressed by small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenously expressed p2y5. We also found that 2-acyl-LPA had higher activity to p2y5 than 1-acyl-LPA. A recent study has suggested that p2y5 is an LPA receptor essential for human hair growth. We confirmed that p2y5 is a functional LPA receptor and propose to designate this receptor LPA6.
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Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 biosynthesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which was originally identified as an enzyme responsible for PGD2 biosynthesis in the brain, is highly expressed in the myocardium, including in cardiomyocytes. However, the factors that control expression of the gene encoding L-PGDS and the pathophysiologic role of L-PGDS in cardiomyocytes are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids, which act as repressors of prostaglandin biosynthesis in most cell types, upregulated the expression of L-PGDS together with cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 and COX2 via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in rat cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, PGD2 was the most prominently induced prostaglandin in vivo in mouse hearts and in vitro in cultured rat cardiomyocytes after exposure to GR-selective agonists. In isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, dexamethasone alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury. This cardioprotective effect was completely abrogated by either pharmacologic inhibition of COX2 or disruption of the gene encoding L-PGDS. In in vivo ischemia/reperfusion experiments, dexamethasone reduced infarct size in wild-type mice. This cardioprotective effect of dexamethasone was markedly reduced in L-PGDS-deficient mice. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, PGD2 protected against cell death induced by anoxia/reoxygenation via the D-type prostanoid receptor and the ERK1/2-mediated pathway. Taken together, these results suggest what we believe to be a novel interaction between glucocorticoid-GR signaling and the cardiomyocyte survival pathway mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade.
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Identification and structure determination of novel anti-inflammatory mediator resolvin E3, 17,18-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Bioactive mediators derived from omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) elicit potent anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we identified novel EPA metabolites, including 8,18-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8,18-diHEPE), 11,18-diHEPE, 12,18-diHEPE, and 17,18-diHEPE from 18-HEPE. Unlike resolvins E1 and E2, both of which are biosynthesized by neutrophils via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, these metabolites are biosynthesized by eosinophils via the 12/15-lipoxygenase pathway. Among them, two stereoisomers of 17,18-diHEPE, collectively termed resolvin E3 (RvE3), displayed a potent anti-inflammatory action by limiting neutrophil infiltration in zymosan-induced peritonitis. The planar structure of RvE3 was unambiguously determined to be 17,18-dihydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,13E,15E-EPE by high resolution NMR, and the two stereoisomers were assigned to have 17,18R- and 17,18S-dihydroxy groups, respectively, using chemically synthesized 18R- and 18S-HEPE as precursors. Both 18R- and 18S-RvE3 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations. These findings suggest that RvE3 contributes to the beneficial actions of EPA in controlling inflammation and related diseases.
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Topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, an amphiphilic ascorbic acid derivative, reduces neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
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Ca(v) 3.2 T-type calcium channels, targeted by H(2) S, are involved in neuropathic hyperalgesia in rats and ascorbic acid inhibits Ca(v) 3.2 channels. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of ascorbic acid or topical application of disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (DI-VCP), a skin-permeable ascorbate derivative on hyperalgesia induced by NaHS, an H(2) S donor, and on neuropathic hyperalgesia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.