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Gustav Senn (1875-1945): The pioneer of chloroplast movement research.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Gustav Senn analyzed for the first time light-induced movement and arrangement of chloroplasts. Using many plant species he performed physiological analyses of chloroplast migration in response to external stimuli, with emphasis on light. He determined light paths within a cell by measuring refractive indices and optical thickness of cellular compartments and confirmed that chloroplasts migrate towards the region where the light intensity is optimum. After 6 to 7 years' concentrated study Senn published the famous monograph "Die Gastalt- und Lageveränderung der Pflanzen- Chromatophoren" (The Changes in Shape and Position of Plant Chloroplasts) in 1908. This book has stimulated many plant physiologists and photobiologists, because Senn not only thoroughly classified and defined various types of light-induced chloroplast migration but also already described possible interaction of different photoreceptor systems in Mougeotia more than 50 years before the discovery of phytochrome. This book also contains still useful experimental hints and overlooked findings on the interaction between light and other factors, such as temperature, water content, and nourishment. After publishing this book, Senn retreated from the study of chloroplasts and became a researcher of the Greek philosopher, Theophrastus. In this review, I introduce biographical background first and then summarize some of his key research accomplishment.
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Blue light-induced dimerization of monomeric aureochrome-1 enhances its affinity for the target sequence.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Aureochrome-1 (AUREO1) is a blue light (BL) receptor that mediates the branching response in stramenopile alga, Vaucheria frigida. AUREO1 contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain in the central region and a light-oxygen-voltage sensing (LOV) domain at the C terminus, and has been suggested to function as a light-regulated transcription factor. We have previously reported that preparations of recombinant AUREO1 contained the complete coding sequence (full-length, FL) and N-terminal truncated protein (ZL) containing bZIP and LOV domains, and suggested that wild-type ZL (ZLwt2) was in a dimer form with intermolecular disulfide linkages at Cys(162) and Cys(182) (Hisatomi, O., Takeuchi, K., Zikihara, K., Ookubo, Y., Nakatani, Y., Takahashi, F., Tokutomi, S., and Kataoka, H. (2013) Plant Cell Physiol. 54, 93-106). In the present study, we report the photoreactions, oligomeric structures, and DNA binding of monomeric cysteine to serine-mutated ZL (ZLC2S), DTT-treated ZL (DTT-ZL), and FL (DTT-FL). Recombinant AUREO1 showed similar spectral properties and dark regeneration kinetics to those of dimeric ZLwt2. Dynamic light scattering and size exclusion chromatography revealed that ZLC2S and DTT-ZL were monomeric in the dark state. Dissociation of intermolecular disulfide bonds of ZLwt2 was in equilibrium with a midpoint oxidation-redox potential of approximately -245 ± 15 mV. BL induced the dimerization of monomeric ZL, which subsequently increased its affinity for the target sequence. Also, DTT-FL was monomeric in the dark state and underwent BL-induced dimerization, which led to formation of the FL2·DNA complex. Taken together, our results suggest that monomeric AUREO1 is present in vivo, with dimerization playing a key role in its role as a BL-regulated transcription factor.
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Photoreactions of aureochrome-1.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Aureochrome is a recently discovered blue light photosensor that controls a light-dependent morphology change. As a photosensor, it has a unique DNA binding domain (bZIP). Although the biological functions of aureochrome have been revealed, the fundamental photochemistry of this protein has not been elucidated. The photochemical reaction dynamics of the LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) domain of aureochrome-1 (AUREO1-LOV) and the LOV domain with the bZIP domain (AUREO1-ZL) were studied by employing the transient-grating (TG) technique, using size-exclusion chromatography to verify results. For both samples, adduct formation takes place with a time constant of 2.8 ?s. Although significant diffusion changes were observed for both AUREO1-LOV and AUREO1-ZL after adduct formation, the origins of these changes were significantly different. The TG signal of AUREO1-LOV was strongly concentration-dependent. From analysis of the signal, it was concluded that AUREO1-LOV exists in equilibrium between the monomer and dimer, and dimerization of the monomer is the main reaction, i.e., irradiation with blue light enhances the strength of the interdomain interaction. On the other hand, the reaction of AUREO1-ZL is independent of concentration, suggesting that an intraprotein conformational change occurs in the bZIP domain with a time constant of 160 ms. These results revealed the different reactions and roles of the two domains; the LOV domain acts as a photosensor, leading to a subsequent conformational change in the bZIP domain, which should change its ability to bind to DNA. A model is proposed that demonstrates how aureochrome uses blue light to control its affinity for DNA.
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Distribution and phylogeny of the blue light receptors aureochromes in eukaryotes.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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The new type blue light (BL) receptor aureochrome (AUREO) was recently discovered in a stramenopile alga, Vaucheria (Takahashi et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(49):19625-19630, 2007). AUREO has a bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) and BL-sensing light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and functions as a BL-activated transcription factor. It mediates BL-induced branching and regulates the development of the sex organ in V. frigida. Although AUREO sequences have previously been found in Fucus and some diatoms, here we report that AUREO orthologs are commonly conserved in photosynthetic stramenopiles. Five AUREO orthologs were isolated from three stramenopile genera (Fucus, Ochromonas, and Chattonella). By BLAST search, several AUREO sequences were also detected in genomes in Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae). However, AUREO was not found in heterotrophic stramenopiles or in closely related phyla, such as haptophytes and cryptophytes, or in green plants. Stramenopiles do not possess phototropin, the well-known BL receptor for phototropism of green plants. From comparative analysis of LOV domains, together with kinship analysis of AUREO bZIP domains, AUREO can be regarded as the BL receptor specific to phototrophic stramenopiles. The evolution of AUREO and the phylogeny of LOV domains in stramenopiles and green plants are discussed.
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Blue light-induced conformational changes in a light-regulated transcription factor, aureochrome-1.
Plant Cell Physiol.
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Aureochrome-1 (AUREO1) is a blue light (BL) receptor that mediates the branching response in the stramenopile alga, Vaucheria frigida. AUREO1 harbors a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain at the N-terminus and a light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) domain within the C-terminal region, and has been suggested to function as a light-regulated transcription factor. To understand the molecular mechanism of AUREO1, we have prepared three recombinant proteins: a full-length AUREO1 (FL), an N-terminal truncated construct containing bZIP and LOV (ZL) and a LOV-only (LOV) construct. The constructs showed the same absorption and fluorescent spectra in the dark state and underwent the characteristic cyclic reaction as previously observed in LOV domains upon BL excitation. FL and ZL bound to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. BL appeared to induce a shift of the ?-helical structure of the LOV domain to a ?-sheet structure, but did not alter the hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) of this domain. ZL formed a dimer possibly through disulfide linkages in the bZIP and the linker region between bZIP and LOV. BL induced an approximately 5% increase in the R(H) of ZL, although its secondary structure was unchanged. These results support a schema where BL-induced changes in the LOV domain may cause conformational changes in the bZIP and/or the linker of a dimeric ZL molecule. Since a 5% increase of the R(H) was also observed with the FL construct, BL may induce global conformational changes similar to those observed for ZL, and formation of the FL dimer may facilitate DNA binding.
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