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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Novel aspects on the pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and therapeutic implications.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a leading cause of community acquired pneumonia. Knowledge regarding Mp pneumonia obtained from animal models or human subjects has been discussed in many different reports. Accumulated expertise concerning this critical issue has been hard to apply clinically, and potential problems may remain undiscovered. Therefore, our multidisciplinary team extensively reviewed the literature regarding Mp pneumonia, and compared findings from animal models with those from human subjects. In human beings, the characteristic pathological features of Mp pneumonia have been reported as alveolar infiltration with neutrophils and lymphocytes and lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrates in the peri-bronchovascular area. Herein, we demonstrated the novel aspects of Mp pneumonia that the severity of the Mp pneumonia seemed to depend on the host innate immunity to the Mp, which might be accelerated by antecedent Mp exposure (re-exposure or latent respiratory infection) through up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 expression on bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. The macrolides therapy might be beneficial for the patients with macrolide-resistant Mp pneumonia via not bacteriological but immunomodulative effects. This exhaustive review focuses on pathogenesis and extends to some therapeutic implications such as clarithromycin, and discusses the various diverse aspects of Mp pneumonia. It is our hope that this might lead to new insights into this common respiratory disease.
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Serial quantification of procalcitonin (PCT) predicts clinical outcome and prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Procalcitonin (PCT), a calcitonin precursor, is commonly measured in the setting of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the clinical significance of serial PCT changes has not been established. We conducted a prospective observational study of 122 patients with CAP. Thirty-day mortality was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included: (1) initial treatment failure, (2) 30-day mortality and/or initial treatment failure, and (3) intensive care unit (ICU) admission. In subgroup analysis, we classified patients into pneumococcal pneumonia and non-pneumococcal pneumonia groups. The baseline frequency of 30-day mortality was 10.7%. Increases in serum PCT levels from admission to Day 3 were observed with statistically higher frequency in patients with 30-day mortality (P = 0.002). For secondary endpoints, only the 30-day mortality and/or initial treatment failure group was statistically significant (P = 0.007). Subgroup analysis revealed statistically significant changes in the non-pneumococcal pneumonia group (N = 85) across several endpoints, including 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), initial treatment failure (P = 0.013), and 30-day mortality and/or initial treatment failure (P < 0.001). No significant changes in endpoint measurements were found in the pneumococcal pneumonia group (N = 28). Interestingly, serum PCT levels at the time of diagnosis were higher in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia than those with non-pneumococcal pneumonia (P = 0.006), and this positively correlated with disease severity scores for all patients (PCT vs. PSI: R = 0.380, P < 0.001; PCT vs.
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae extract induces an IL-17-associated inflammatory reaction in murine lung: implication for mycoplasmal pneumonia.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) may cause immune cell reactions as pivotal aspects of this clinically common respiratory pathogen. Our aim is to determine if Mp extract induces a cellular immune response associated with interleukin (IL)-17, leading to lung inflammation and lung injury. BALB/c mice were immunized with Mp extract intraperitoneally followed by its intratracheal administration, to mimic repeated Mp infection found in humans (repeated inoculation, RI group). Those with a single inoculation were compared as single inoculation group (SI group). Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) demonstrated that keratinocyte-derived cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-6 were produced and peaked on days 0.5 or 1, followed by IL-17 on day 2. Levels of these mediators in BALF were higher in RI group than SI group (P?
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Future treatment for COPD: targeting oxidative stress and its related signal.
Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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COPD is pathogenically associated with oxidative stress, which originates not only from cigarette smoke, but also from hypoxia, infection, inflammation, and ageing. It is the reason that therapeutic strategies aim at attenuation of oxidative stress, its sources, or intracellular signals and pro-inflammatory network of its downstream. This review discusses the pathogenesis of COPD and its current therapy in viewpoint of oxidative stress and further provides the perspectives for new treatment strategies in COPD and recent patents that could develop into novel therapeutics.
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A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-?B inhibition.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF? (tumor necrosis factor ?) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-?B (nuclear factor-?B) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNF?/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNF? release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-?B by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.
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[Severe primary liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism due to Klebsiella pneumoniae with hypermucoviscosity phenotype].
Kansenshogaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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A 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus seen for fever, right chest pain, and right-lung field consolidation on chest X-ray was found in thoracoabdominal computed tomography (CT) to have variable-sized nodules in both lung fields and multiple low-density hepatic areas. On physical examination, his pulse was 145 beats per minute and blood pressure 92/68mmHg, indicating a preshock state. Laboratory tests showed elevated WBC of 15,200/microL, serum-C-reactive protein (CRP) of 34.4 mg/dL, and a decreased platelet count of 16,000/microL. Suspecting liver abscesses complicated by a septic pulmonary embolism, we immediately conducted percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD). Liver abscess blood culture and drainage fluid grew the Klebsiella pneumoniae hypermucoviscosity phenotype, carrying the rmpA gene. Although the man had been in critical condition on admission, broad-spectrum antibiotics and PTAD treatment improved his clinical condition to where he could be discharged without problem.
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Kinetics of c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as presented with biologic half-life times.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Context: In management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), excellent biomarkers for inflammation would be helpful in our practice. Objectives: Kinetics of c-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) was characterized, using their biologic half-life times. Materials and methods: Time course of CRP and SAA levels in the successfully treated 36 CAP patients were investigated and their half-life times were determined and compared. Results & Discussions: SAA and CRP declined in an exponential mean and the biologic half-life times of SAA levels was 34.9?±?28.7?h, significantly shorter than that of CRP, 46.4?±?21.7?h (p?=?0.0014). Conclusion: The kinetic evidence, presented as biologic half-life times of CRP and SAA, helps us make a clinical assessment of CAP patients.
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Usefulness of linezolid in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by MRSA: a prospective observational study.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Clinical results for linezolid (LZD) treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly microbiologically evaluable or severe cases, are limited in Japan. A prospective observational study was conducted in order to assess the usefulness of LZD in Japanese patients with MRSA pneumonia. The study tracked fifteen participants treated with LZD for pneumonia who met the criteria of the HAP guidelines and were confirmed to have pneumonia caused by MRSA. Of these, six were severe and 13 had received antibiotic treatment before treatment with LZD. Of the 13 participants assessed for their clinical responses, seven were rated as cures, three were rated as failures, and three were indeterminate. The overall cure rate (cure/cure + failure) was 70.0% (7/10), and the cure rate by severity was 33.3% (1/3) for severe cases and 85.5% (6/7) for moderate cases. The one severe case with a clinical response rating of cure had failed to respond to vancomycin. Among the seven participants with a clinical response rating of cure, the microbiological response was eradication in three, presumed eradication in three, and indeterminate in one. Three serious adverse events occurred in two of the 15 participants, but none were considered to be causally related to LZD. The results suggest that LZD has high potential for severe and multidrug-resistant cases. A higher cure rate was achieved in moderate cases. In cases of pneumonia that are most likely MRSA infections with poor prognosis, it was suggested to be important for patient outcome to implement the most effective therapy before the patients condition becomes serious.
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Identification of a mechanism for lung inflammation caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae using a novel mouse model.
Results Immunol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Human Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is characterized by alveolar infiltration with neutrophils and lymphocytes and lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrates in the peri-bronchovascular area (PBVA). No mouse model has been able to mimic the pathological features seen in human MP pneumonia, such as plasma cell-rich lymphocytic infiltration in PBVA. To figure out the mechanism for inflammation by MP infection using a novel mouse model that mimics human MP pneumonia, mice were pre-immunized intraperitoneally with Th2 stimulating adjuvant, alum, alone or MP extracts with an alum, followed by intratracheal challenge with MP extracts. The toll-like receptor-2, which is the major receptor for mycoplasma cell wall lipoproteins, was strongly up-regulated in alveolar macrophages in a latter group after the pre-immunization but prior to the intratracheal challenge. Those findings demonstrated that acceleration of innate immunity by antecedent antigenic stimulation can be an important positive-feedback mechanism in lung inflammation during MP pneumonia.
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Inflammation provoked by Mycoplasma pneumoniae extract: implications for combination treatment with clarithromycin and dexamethasone.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Recently, combination treatment with a macrolide and a steroid for Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) pneumonia has been reported to be effective. Thus, the effect of this combination on a mouse model of lung inflammation associated with Mp extract (the LIMEX mouse) was studied. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were induced in Mp extract-treated RAW264.7 cells, and this induction was inhibited by dexamethasone, parthenolide, SB203580 or LY294002. This suggested that Mp extract activates nuclear factor ?B-, p38- and PI-3K-linked pro-inflammatory signals. The LIMEX mice were then either treated with or without clarithromycin and/or dexamethasone. Clarithromycin administration enhanced the production of IL-6, TNF-?, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and RANTES, while their production was perfectly suppressed by the combination of clarithromycin and dexamethasone. IL-17, IL-23, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interferon-? levels were not affected by clarithromycin treatment, but they were significantly suppressed by the combination of dexamethasone and clarithromycin. Collectively, some components of Mp extract provoked an inflammatory reaction in the RAW 264.7 cell line and LIMEX mice. Whereas the lung reaction in LIMEX mice was further exacerbated by clarithromycin treatment, it was resolved by the combinational treatment with clarithromycin and dexamethasone.
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Erythromycin prevents the pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to cigarette smoke.
Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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The effect of erythromycin on the inflammation caused by exposure to cigarette smoke was investigated in this study. Mice were exposed either to cigarette smoke or to environmental air (control), and some mice exposed to cigarette smoke were treated with oral erythromycin (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining the cellular content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various mediators, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, surfactant protein (SP)-D, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The exposure to cigarette smoke increased significantly the numbers of neutrophils (P = 0.029), macrophages (P = 0.029), and lymphocytes (P = 0.029) recovered in BAL fluid. Moreover, mRNA levels of KC (P = 0.029), MIP-2 (P = 0.029), SP-D (P = 0.029), and GM-CSF (P = 0.057) in the lung tissue were higher in mice exposed to cigarette smoke than in mice exposed to environmental air. In the erythromycin-treated mice that were exposed also to cigarette smoke, both neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in the BAL fluid than those in the vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.029). Erythromycin-treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed a trend of lower mRNA levels of KC and TNF-? in the lung tissue than those in the vehicle-treated mice, although the statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.057). Our data demonstrated that erythromycin prevented lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke, in parallel to the reduced mRNA levels of KC and TNF-?.
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[Assessment of airway lesions using "virtual bronchoscopy" in a patient with relapsing polychondritis].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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A 44-year-old woman was referred to our department complaining of a persistent cough and dyspnea which were resistant to inhaled corticosteroids or a bronchodilator. In addition, she suffered tenderness on the sternum, costicartilage, and bilateral fingers of both hands as well as sensorineural deafness. Virtual bronchoscopy images, re-constituted from three dimensional computed tomography, revealed the thickness of the pan-tracheal wall ranging from the vocal cord towards the bilateral bronchi. These lesions showed an increased uptake in gallium-67 scintigraphy. Enhanced levels of an anti-type II collagen antibody were detected. These findings and symptoms satisfied Damianis criteria of diagnosis and thus relapsing polychondritis was diagnosed. Treatment with oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) was started. Her cough improved immediately, and two months later virtual bronchoscopy showed improvement in the tracheal wall thickness. The level of the anti-type II collagen antibody was also attenuated, along with a decreased uptake of gallium-67 scintigraphy. However, the virtual bronchoscopy demonstrated that the cartilage ring surrounding the trachea and bronchi remained absent, suggesting the cartilage was already destroyed. Our case demonstrated that virtual bronchoscopy plays a key role in the assessment of airway lesions in relapsing polychondritis.
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[Effectiveness of S-1 plus CPT-11 therapy for an elderly patient with recurrent colon cancer].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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In May 2006, a 79-year-old man underwent left colectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy for descending colon cancer (fStage II , Cur A). No adjuvant chemotherapy was done. Eighteen months after surgery, the serum tumor marker level was increased (CA19-9 526 U/mL), and multiple liver metastases (H2) and peritoneal dissemination were detected using abdominal CT. He was treated with S-1 plus CPT-11 therapy, because mFOLFOX6 as a standard chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer was rejected. After 4 courses, tumor markers normalized and abdominal CT revealed a partial response. At present, progression-free survival (PFS) is 240 days. In our case, this regimen was found to be convenient and safe in an outpatient compared with FOLFIRI and FOLFOX. This case suggested that S-1 plus CPT-11 therapy could well be a promising systemic chemotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
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Mycobacterium kyorinense sp. nov., a novel, slow-growing species, related to Mycobacterium celatum, isolated from human clinical specimens.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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A novel, non-pigmented, slow-growing mycobacterium was identified on the basis of biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Three isolates were cultured from clinical samples (two from sputum and one from pus in lymph nodes) obtained from three immunocompetent patients with infections. Bacterial growth occurred at 28-42 degrees C on Middlebrook 7H11-OADC agar. The isolates showed negative results for Tween hydrolysis, nitrate reductase, semiquantitative catalase, urease activity, 3 day arylsulfatase activity, pyrazinamidase, tellurite reduction and niacin accumulation tests, but positive results for 14 day arylsulfatase activity and heat-stable catalase tests. The isolates contained alpha-, keto-, and dicarboxymycolates in their cell walls. Sequence analysis revealed that all isolates had identical, unique 16S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65 and sodA gene sequences confirmed that these isolates are unique but closely related to Mycobacterium celatum. DNA-DNA hybridization of the isolates demonstrated less than 50 % reassociation with M. celatum and Mycobacterium branderi. On the basis of these findings, a novel species designated Mycobacterium kyorinense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KUM 060204(T) (=JCM 15038(T)=DSM 45166(T)).
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A protein deacetylase SIRT1 is a negative regulator of metalloproteinase-9.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Inappropriate elevation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The object of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism underlying this increase of MMP9 expression, and here we show that oxidative stress-dependent reduction of a protein deacetylase, SIRT1, known as a putative antiaging enzyme, causes elevation of MMP9 expression. A sirtuin inhibitor, splitomycin, and SIRT1 knockdown by RNA interference led an increase in MMP9 expression in human monocytic U937 cells and in primary sputum macrophages, which was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot, activity assay, and zymography. In fact, the SIRT1 level was significantly decreased in peripheral lungs of patients with COPD, and this increase was inversely correlated with MMP9 expression and MMP9 promoter activation detected by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. H(2)O(2) reduced SIRT1 expression and activity in U937 cells; furthermore, cigarette smoke exposure also caused reduction of SIRT1 expression in lung tissue of A/J mice, with concomitant elevation of MMP9. Intranasal treatment of a selective and novel SIRT1 small molecule activator, SRT2172, blocked the increase of MMP9 expression in the lung as well as pulmonary neutrophilia and the reduction in exercise tolerance. Thus, SIRT1 is a negative regulator of MMP9 expression, and SIRT1 activation is implicated as a novel therapeutic approach to treating chronic inflammatory diseases, in which MMP9 is abundant.
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[Postoperative anastomotic hemorrhage after gastrectomy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
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Postoperative anastomotic hemorrhage is a relatively rare complication. However, when it does occur, immediate treatment is needed.
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[Case of stage IIB gastric cancer with positive margin treated with sequential therapy consisting of S-1, chemoradiation therapy with paclitaxel and CDDP, and S-1 after surgery].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
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The patient was a 31-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer, clinically diagnosed as ML, Less, Type 3, sig, cT3, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0, cCY0, cStage IIA. He underwent D2 distal gastrectomy. On microscopic examination, tumor cells were detected in the distal margin of the resected stomach. After surgery, he received 1 course of S-1 followed by chemoradiation therapy(1.8 Gy×25, a total of 45 Gy) with 90 mg/m2 of paclitaxel and 40 mg/m2 of CDDP on days 1, 15, and 29 over 5 weeks. Subsequently, he received 5 cycles of S-1 chemotherapy. To date, no recurrence has been observed 5 years after surgery. This sequential therapy is an option to consider for enabling local and systemic control after gastric cancer surgery.
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[A case of gastric small cell carcinoma with metastatic liver tumors responding to surgery and chemotherapy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
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We report a case of gastric small cell carcinoma with metastatic liver tumors responding to surgery and chemotherapy. The patient was a 67-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer, clinically diagnosed as P0H1M0CY0T3N1. He was registered in a phase III trial, and was scheduled to undergo gastrectomy and S-1 plus CDDP chemotherapy after surgery. He underwent D1 total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Small cell carcinoma of the stomach was diagnosed from the histopathological findings. After surgery, he received the following chemotherapy: 13 courses of CPT-11 plus CDDP chemotherapy, 2 courses of S-1, 5 courses of paclitaxel, and 6 courses of CPT-11. The patient is alive 22 months after his operation. We conclude that the combination of surgery and chemotherapy was effective for small cell carcinoma of the stomach, which was considered to have a poor prognosis.
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[Comparison of body weight loss in gastrectomy patients who underwent only surgery and those who underwent surgery followed up with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
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Body weight loss is a common outcome in patients with gastric cancer who have undergone gastrectomy. However, the rate of body weight loss after surgery is unknown.
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Lymphatic invasion identified with D2-40 immunostaining as a risk factor of nodal metastasis in T1 colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
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The management of T1 colorectal cancer after local resection is controversial. Regional lymph node metastasis often occurs, requiring subsequent colonic resection. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the risk factors of nodal metastasis of T1 colorectal cancer, especially to examine lymphatic vessel invasion in serially prepared hematoxylin and eosin sections and D2-40 immunostained sections to determine which is a better indicator of lymph node metastasis of T1 colorectal cancer.
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Up-regulation of blood arachidonate (20:4) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Biomarkers
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Plasma arachidonate (20:4) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.