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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
INVOLVEMENT OF TWO GENETIC LINEAGES OF SARCOPTES SCABIEI MITES IN A LOCAL MANGE EPIZOOTIC OF WILD MAMMALS IN JAPAN.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Abstract Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.
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Reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in homozygous carriers of the chromosome 9p21 rs1333049 C risk allele in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a susceptibility variant for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the primary prevention setting. However, it is controversial whether this SNP is also associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (ReMI) in the secondary prevention setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of chromosome 9p21 SNP on ReMI in patients receiving secondary prevention programmes after AMI.
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[Intraoperative evaluation for residual mitral valve regurgitation;usefulness of the retrograde cardioprotective beating test].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Intraoperative evaluation is important for successful mitral valve plasty (MVP). We performed a saline injection test and a retrograde cardioprotective beating test (RC-beating test) for intraoperative evaluation. The concept of the RC- beating test is evaluation of residual mitral valve regurgitation( MR) under cardiac beating. A 66-year-old man with severe MR underwent MVP. The P3 chorda was ruptured and we performed quadrangular resection. The saline injection test showed trivial regurgitation. We then performed the RC-beating test and it revealed severe leakage from the posterior commissure(PC). Since the PC had a sclerotic change, another quadrangular resection was performed. Moreover,as the anterior leaflet( A3) was slightly elongated, the region was resected in an obtuse-angled triangle shape and repaired by suturing the edges. The final RC-beating test showed no residual leakage. The RC-beating test is useful for detecting residual mitral valve leakage.
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The use of short segment free jejunal transfer as salvage surgery for cervical esophageal and hypopharyngeal cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Salvage surgery after definitive chemoradiotherapy for cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer remains a challenge because of the high rate of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of free jejunal transfer as salvage surgery for cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer after definitive chemoradiotherapy.
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Distribution of Lymph Node Metastasis and Clinical Validity of Gastric Tube Reconstruction in Lower Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Gastric Invasion.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The distribution of lymph node (LN) metastases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with gastric invasion remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between gastric invasion and abdominal LN metastasis in patients with esophageal SCC. Furthermore, the clinical validity of gastric tube reconstruction for those with gastric invasion was investigated.
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The densely fluorinated nanospace of a porous coordination polymer composed of perfluorobutyl-functionalized ligands.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A perfluorobutyl-functionalized two-dimensional porous coordination polymer (PCP), {[Cu(bpbtp)(L)(DMF)]·(DMF)}n (H2bpbtp = 2,5-bis(perfluorobutyl)terephthalic acid, L = 2,5-bis(perfluorobutyl)-1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The pore surface of the PCP is decorated with pendant perfluorobutyl groups which fabricate a densely fluorinated nanospace resulting in unique gas sorption properties.
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cAMP ameliorates inflammation by modulation of macrophage receptor for advanced glycation end-products.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Clarification of the roles of PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (damage-associated molecular patterns) is indispensable for therapeutic strategies against various inflammatory diseases. RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) is one of the PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) and has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Effective remedies targeting RAGE are required for the diseases. In the present study, we show that cAMP-induced modulation of the RAGE isoform in macrophages can control the inflammatory state in both in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The RAGE ligand S100B stimulated MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) secretion from peritoneal macrophages, but cAMP elevation suppressed it by converting the RAGE isoform from a membrane-bound into a soluble form. This shedding is the result of ectodomain cleavage of mRAGE (membrane-bound RAGE) by MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9). Furthermore, forskolin significantly inhibited peritoneal macrophage accumulation in a mouse S100B-induced peritonitis model. These results suggest that cAMP serves as a negative regulator of ligand-RAGE signalling and macrophage recruitment by mRAGE down-regulation and formation of decoys as soluble receptors. The present study should deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of RAGE-mediated tissue derangement and provide new clues for overcoming RAGE-related inflammatory diseases.
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Three Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Asian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula setoensis n. sp. in the yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus) from the Inland Sea of Japan.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The myxosporean genus Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) is defined as having a spore with three unequal shell valves and polar capsules, of which one is prominent and the two other polar capsules are rudimentary. Genetic characterization of members of the genus, currently 11 nominal species, is, at present, unsatisfactory yet when comparing to the closely related genus Kudoa (Multivalvulida: Kudoidae). In the present study, we characterized long ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences of three Unicapsula spp., namely Unicapsula pyramidata, Unicapsula seriolae, and a novel myxosporean species, Unicapsula setoensis n. sp., from Asian fishes. Elongated plasmodia of U. pyramidata were found in the trunk muscle of Japanese threadfin breams, Nemipterus japonicus, fished off northern Vietnam in the South China Sea. Semitriangular spores, 5.5-6.4 ?m in length and 5.6-9.6 ?m in width, consisted of three shell valves with two caudal appendages, 7.2-7.4 ?m in length. One prominent polar capsule, 2.0-2.4 ?m in diameter, was located in the apical shell valve and two rudimentary polar capsules, 0.4-0.5 ?m in diameter, in each caudal shell valve. Elongated plasmodia of U. seriolae were found in the trunk muscle of a greater yellowtail, Seriola dumerili, aquacultured in Japan. Semispherical spores, 5.9-7.4 ?m in length and 6.3-7.4 ?m in width, also consisted of three shell valves and one prominent polar capsule, 3.4-3.8 ?m in diameter, with two rudimentary polar capsules, 0.7-1.0 ?m in diameter. Plasmodia of U. setoensis n. sp. were found in the trunk muscle of yellowfin gobies, Acanthogobius flavimanus, fished off Hofu, Yamaguchi Prefecture, in the Inland Sea of Japan. Semispherical spores, 5.6-6.9 ?m in diameter, displayed three shell valves and one prominent and two rudimentary polar capsules. The former functional polar capsule was 1.9-2.5 ?m in diameter and extruded a 9.4-13.8-?m-long polar filament. Nearly the whole length of the 18S rDNA and more than 2,200 bp of the 28S rDNA of the three Unicapsula spp. were sequenced along with nucleotide sequences of the 5.8S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer-1 and spacer-2 of U. pyramidata and U. setoensis n. sp. Molecular genetic analyses supported the morphological species differentiation of U. pyramidata and U. seriolae, and the distinctness of U. setoensis n. sp. from hitherto known species.
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[A case of probable catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome with multi-organ failure presenting as a transient increase of antiphospholipid antibody levels].
Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with shock, massive pneumonia and respiratory failure, liver and renal dysfunction, and cerebral infarction. Based on these symptoms, we suspected the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ dysfunctions due to massive pneumonia or catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). Therefore, the patient was placed on a respirator and was administered ciprofloxacin, doripenem hydrate, thrombomodulin, antithrombin III, and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Because the patient's antiphospholipid antibody titer was low on the day of admission (day 1), we did not include CAPS in the differential diagnosis and discontinued prednisolone treatment on day 6. However, the anticardiolipin immunoglobulin M antibody titer was found to be elevated on day 7; in addition, a transient increase in the anticardiolipin anti-?2 glycoprotein antibody titer was noted on re-examination. Moreover, on day 8, the thrombopenia and alveolar hemorrhage suddenly exacerbated. We finally diagnosed the patient with CAPS, and therefore resumed methylprednisolone therapy. Subsequently, the inflammation, respiratory failure, and thrombopenia rapidly improved, and the patient was extubated on day 12.
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Association of lifestyle-related factors with circadian onset patterns of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective observational study in Japan.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) shows characteristic circadian variations involving a definite morning peak and a less-defined night-time peak. However, the factors influencing the circadian patterns of AMI onset and their influence on morning and night-time peaks have not been fully elucidated.
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Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase regulates fibronectin assembly and N-cadherin adhesion.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Fibronectin matrix formation requires the increased cytoskeletal tension generated by cadherin adhesions, and is suppressed by membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). In a co-culture of Rat1 fibroblasts and MT1-MMP-silenced HT1080 cells, fibronectin fibrils extended from Rat1 to cell-matrix adhesions in HT1080 cells, and N-cadherin adhesions were formed between Rat1 and HT1080 cells. In control HT1080 cells contacting with Rat1 fibroblasts, cell-matrix adhesions were formed in the side away from Rat1 fibroblasts, and fibronectin assembly and N-cadherin adhesions were not formed. The role of N-cadherin adhesions in fibronectin matrix formation was studied using MT1-MMP-silenced HT1080 cells. MT1-MMP knockdown promoted fibronectin matrix assembly and N-cadherin adhesions in HT1080 cells, which was abrogated by double knockdown with either integrin ?1 or fibronectin. Conversely, inhibition of N-cadherin adhesions by its knockdown or treatment with its neutralizing antibody suppressed fibronectin matrix formation in MT1-MMP-silenced cells. These results demonstrate that fibronectin assembly initiated by MT1-MMP knockdown results in increase of N-cadherin adhesions, which are prerequisite for further fibronectin matrix formation.
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Immediate therapeutic efficacy of low-density lipoprotein apheresis for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome: evidence from the short-term results from the POLARIS Study.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Hyperlipidemia is not merely a complication but a major exacerbating factor in longstanding nephrotic syndrome (NS). Low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A) has been reported to ameliorate dyslipidemia and induce rapid remission of NS. Several clinical studies have suggested the therapeutic efficacy of LDL-A, but the level of clinical evidence is insufficient. Therefore, a multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome), was initiated in Japan.
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A crystalline porous coordination polymer decorated with nitroxyl radicals catalyzes aerobic oxidation of alcohols.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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A porous coordination polymer (PCP) has been synthesized employing an organic ligand in which a stable free radical, isoindoline nitroxide, is incorporated. The crystalline PCP possesses one-dimensional channels decorated with the nitroxyl catalytic sites. When O2 gas or air was used as the oxidant, this PCP was verified to be an efficient, recyclable, and widely applicable catalyst for selective oxidation of various alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones.
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Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system polymorphisms and 5-year mortality in survivors of acute myocardial infarction: a report from the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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This study sought to evaluate whether genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have an impact on long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. We investigated the impacts of individual and combinations of 4 major RAAS genetic variants, angiotensinogen (AGT) T1311C, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor A1166C, and aldosterone synthase T4660C on 5-year mortality in 3149 post-AMI patients using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The predictive accuracy of all possible RAAS genetic combinations was evaluated using Cox regression analysis, and the best combination that affected prognosis was determined based on the minimal Akaike Information Criterion. There were 220 deaths during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Independent analyses of any single RAAS variant did not show significant impacts on 5-year mortality. However, analyses in combination revealed that absence of both AGT CC genotype and ACE D allele was associated with lower 5-year mortality (log-rank P = 0.005). Patients with at least either of the AGT CC or ACE D allele had increased mortality with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.18-3.65, P = 0.012), compared with those with neither the AGT CC nor ACE D allele. Among the 4 RAAS genetic variants examined, a combination of AGT and ACE polymorphisms was associated with 5-year mortality after AMI.
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald4p, is a major component of mitochondrial fluorescent inclusion bodies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Biol Open
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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When Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 3626 was cultured to the stationary phase in a medium that contained glucose, needle-like structures that emitted autofluorescence were observed in almost all cells by fluorescence microscopy under UV excitation. The needle-like structures completely overlapped with the profile of straight elongated mitochondria. Therefore, these structures were designated as mitochondrial fluorescent inclusion bodies (MFIBs). The MFIB-enriched mitochondrial fractions were successfully isolated and 2D-gel electrophoresis revealed that a protein of 54?kDa was only highly concentrated in the fractions. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 54-kDa protein identified it as a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald4p. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that anti-Ald4p antibody specifically stained MFIBs. Freeze-substitution electron microscopy demonstrated that cells that retained MFIBs had electron-dense filamentous structures with a diameter of 10?nm in straight elongated mitochondria. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that Ald4p was localized to the electron-dense filamentous structures in mitochondria. These results together showed that a major component of MFIBs is Ald4p. In addition, we demonstrate that MFIBs are common features that appear in mitochondria of many species of yeast.
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[Awareness about and educational intervention for chronic kidney disease in the general population: from a survey of participants at the CKD educational lecture in Miyagi prefecture].
Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its complications, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebral vascular disease and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), has been increasingly recognized as a global health problem in Japan.
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Bridging analysis of the efficacy and safety of bazedoxifene in Japanese and global populations of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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This study examined whether the global clinical data for bazedoxifene could be extrapolated to a Japanese population by evaluating the results of a phase 2 study in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis as compared to those of a pivotal, phase 3 study. The efficacy of bazedoxifene 20 and 40 mg versus placebo on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, lipid profile, incidence of fractures, and safety parameters was compared between the Japanese phase 2 study (N = 429) and the global phase 3 study (N = 7,492) during a 2-year period. In the primary population for assessment of bridging, differences in the mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at 2 years relative to placebo were greater for women treated with bazedoxifene 20 and 40 mg in the phase 2 study than in the phase 3 study. BMD changes in the bazedoxifene groups were confirmed to be similar between the phase 2 study population and a subset of the phase 3 study population with similar baseline characteristics. The effects of bazedoxifene on incidence of fractures, bone turnover markers, and lipid metabolism were similar between studies. There were no major differences in safety parameters between studies. The greater improvement in lumbar spine BMD and similar results in bone turnover markers, fracture incidence, and safety profile observed with bazedoxifene in the phase 2 study compared with the phase 3 study confirmed the feasibility of extrapolating the global clinical data to a Japanese population.
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Outcomes of primary nephrotic syndrome in elderly Japanese: retrospective analysis of the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR).
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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There are very little data available regarding nephrotic syndrome (NS) in elderly (aged ?65 years) Japanese. The aim of this study was to examine the causes and outcomes of NS in elderly patients who underwent renal biopsies between 2007 and 2010.
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Day-to-day variability in home blood pressure is associated with cognitive decline: the Ohasama study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Although an association between high blood pressure and cognitive decline has been reported, no studies have investigated the association between home blood pressure and cognitive decline. Home blood pressure measurements can also provide day-to-day blood pressure variability calculated as the within-participant SD. The objectives of this prospective study were to clarify whether home blood pressure has a stronger predictive power for cognitive decline than conventional blood pressure and to compare the predictive power of the averaged home blood pressure with day-to-day home blood pressure variability for cognitive decline. Of 485 participants (mean age, 63 years) who did not have cognitive decline (defined as Mini-Mental State Examination score, <24) initially, 46 developed cognitive decline after a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Each 1-SD increase in the home systolic blood pressure value showed a significant association with cognitive decline (odds ratio, 1.48; P=0.03). However, conventional systolic blood pressure was not significantly associated with cognitive decline (odds ratio, 1.24; P=0.2). The day-to-day variability in systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cognitive decline after including home systolic blood pressure in the same model (odds ratio, 1.51; P=0.02), whereas the odds ratio of home systolic blood pressure remained positive, but it was not significant. Home blood pressure measurements can be useful for predicting future cognitive decline because they can provide information not only on blood pressure values but also on day-to-day blood pressure variability.
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Effect of Prolactin-Induced Protein on Human Skin: New Insight into the Digestive Action of This Aspartic Peptidase on the Stratum Corneum and Its Induction of Keratinocyte Proliferation.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Human prolactin-induced protein (PIP) is a major protein found in exocrine fluids such as saliva and sweat. Intriguingly, PIP possesses residues (human PIP (hPIP): PIP (29-63)) that display similarity to the aspartic peptidase candidapepsin. Here, we aimed to determine the effect of PIP as a protease on normal skin structure. Using an adhesive tape-stripping technique, we applied hPIP peptide on the corneocytes of normal-appearing facial skin from infants with eczema and healthy infants and then analyzed the morphological structure of corneocytes with Nile Red fluorescence. We also repeatedly applied the hPIP peptide onto the surface of a three-dimensional (3-D) human skin model and then analyzed any changes to the stratum corneum and epidermis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In both infant groups, a decrease in hydrophobic lipids from the cornified envelope was observed after treatment with hPIP. The peptide hPIP appeared to digest the fine structure of the stratum corneum and induce a proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes within the 3-D human skin model. Our results suggest that aspartic peptidase of PIP found in sweat or saliva deteriorates the skin barrier in a de novo manner, which potentially leads directly to the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes without any external antigenic factors.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.448.
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Catalytic glucose isomerization by porous coordination polymers with open metal sites.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Highly efficient catalytic isomerization reactions from glucose to fructose in aqueous media using porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is reported for the first time. The catalytic activity of PCPs functionalized with -NH2, -(CH3)2, -NO2, and -SO3H groups on the pore surface is systematically tested. The catalytic activity can be tuned by the acidity of open metal sites (OMSs) by modifying the organic linkers with the functional groups. As a result, it is demonstrated that MIL-101 functionalized with -SO3H not only shows high conversion of glucose but also selectively produces fructose. Further, catalytic one-pot conversion of amylose to fructose is achieved, thanks to the high stability of the framework in an acidic solution. These results show that MOF/PCP compounds having OMSs are promising materials for various useful heterogeneous catalytic reactions, in particular in the biomass field.
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Comparison of 5-year survival after acute myocardial infarction using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin II receptor blocker.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Few studies have investigated whether angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) is a practical alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) for long-term use after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in real-world practice in the percutaneous coronary intervention era. We compared 5-year survival benefits of ACEI and ARB in patients with AMI registered in the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups: ACEI (n = 4,425), ARB (n = 2,158), or patients without either drug (n = 2,442). A total of 661 deaths were recorded. Cox regression analysis revealed that treatment with either ACEI or ARB was associated with reduced 5-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58 to 0.83, p <0.001 and HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98, p = 0.03, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses based on propensity score revealed that ACEI was associated with better survival than ARB from 2 to 5 years after survival discharge (adjusted HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.74, p <0.001). These findings were confirmed in a propensity score-matched population. In conclusion, treatment with ACEI was associated with better 5-year survival after AMI.
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Autoimmune disorders associated with gain of function of the intracellular sensor MDA5.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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MDA5 is an essential intracellular sensor for several viruses, including picornaviruses, and elicits antiviral interferon (IFN) responses by recognizing viral dsRNAs. MDA5 has been implicated in autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms of how MDA5 contributes to autoimmunity remain unclear. Here we provide direct evidence that dysregulation of MDA5 caused autoimmune disorders. We established a mutant mouse line bearing MDA5 mutation by ENU mutagenesis, which spontaneously developed lupus-like autoimmune symptoms without viral infection. Inflammation was dependent on an adaptor molecule, MAVS indicating the importance of MDA5-signaling. In addition, intercrossing the mutant mice with type I IFN receptor-deficient mice ameliorated clinical manifestations. This MDA5 mutant could activate signaling in the absence of its ligand but was paradoxically defective for ligand- and virus-induced signaling, suggesting that the mutation induces a conformational change in MDA5. These findings provide insight into the association between disorders of the innate immune system and autoimmunity.
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Does functionalisation enhance CO2 uptake in interpenetrated MOFs? An examination of the IRMOF-9 series.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The effect of pore functionalisation (-I, -OH, -OCH3) on a series of topologically equivalent, interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was assessed by both simulation and experiment. Counter-intuitively, a decreased affinity for CO2 was observed in the functionalised materials, compared to the non-functionalised material. This result highlights the importance of considering the combined effects of network topology and chemical functionality in the design of MOFs for enhanced CO2 adsorption.
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Dermatitis associated with infestation of a trombiculid mite, Leptotrombidium miyajimai, in an Amami rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi).
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Severe dermatitis caused by trombiculid mite infestation was observed in an Amami rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi). The mite was identified as Leptotrombidium miyajimai. This is the first report of trombiculid mite-associated cutaneous lesions in Amami rabbits and also the first direct evidence of L. miyajimai parasitism of this host species.
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Bilirubin uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase variation is a genetic basis of breast milk jaundice.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To evaluate the role of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase family 1, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) gene variations on prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia associated with breast milk feeding (breast milk jaundice [BMJ]).
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Validity of salt intake assessment system based on a 24-h dietary recall method using a touch panel computer.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Abstract Background: An electronic system for salt intake assessment using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. We evaluated the validity of this salt intake system for assessing salt intake.
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Two novel myxosporean species (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), Myxobolus marumotoi n. sp. and Cardimyxobolus japonensis n. sp., from the dark sleeper, Odontobutis obscura, in Japan.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Two new myxosporean species, Myxobolus marumotoi n. sp. and Cardimyxobolus japonensis n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), are described from the dark sleeper, Odontobutis obscura, in Japan, based on their morphological and molecular characterizations. Plasmodia of M. marumotoi n. sp. (Myxobolidae) grew in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts. The rounded spore was relatively large, measuring 13.3-15.0 ?m (average 13.8) in length, 14.2-15.0 ?m (14.6) in width, and 10.0-11.7 ?m (10.8) in thickness, with two subspherical polar capsules of 7.9-9.6 ?m (8.4) in length by 5.4-6.3 ?m (5.9) in width (n = 15). The polar capsules were directed toward the apex of the spore, packing five to six spirals of the polar filament. Plasmodia of C. japonensis n. sp. (Ortholineidae) were surrounded by thin fibrous tissue, forming cysts in the lamina propria of the alimentary tract. The spore was ovoid, wider than long, in valvular view and spindle-shaped in sutural view. It measured 8.8-10.4 ?m (9.4) in length, 11.3-12.5 ?m (11.9) in width, and 5.2-6.7 ?m (5.8) in thickness, with two ovoid polar capsules of 4.2-5.0 ?m (4.7) in length by 2.9-3.8 ?m (3.3) in width (n = 15). The shell valves of spores often showed a flattened anterior border and semicircular posterior border, and the two polar capsules were directed toward opposite lateral sides. In addition, the sporoplasm contained an iodinophilous vacuole. Almost complete small-subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, except for primer flanking regions, were obtained for both species; 1,996 bp long for the former and 1,588 bp long for the latter. On phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rDNA sequences of representative species of Bivalvulida, M. marumotoi n. sp. and C. japonensis n. sp. formed a distinct branch in the Henneguya/Myxobolus clade or near but outside this clade, respectively. This study is the first report of the genetic characterization for the genus Cardimyxobolus.
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Characterizing invading glioma cells based on IDH1-R132H and Ki-67 immunofluorescence.
Brain Tumor Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Glioma, the most common primary brain tumor, is characterized by proliferative-invasive growth. However, the detailed biological characteristics of invading glioma cells remain to be elucidated. A monoclonal antibody (clone HMab-1) that specifically and sensitively recognizes the isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) protein carrying the R132H mutation can identify invading glioma cells by immunostaining. To investigate the degree of invasion in gliomas of distinct grades and the proliferative capacity of the invading cells, immunofluorescent staining was conducted using antibodies against IDH1-R132H and Ki-67 on 11 surgical and autopsy specimens of the tumor core and the invading area. Higher numbers of IDH1-R132H-positive cells in the invading area correlated with a higher tumor grade. Double staining for IDH1-R132H and Ki-67 demonstrated that most invading cells that expressed IDH1-R132H were not stained by the Ki-67 antibody, and the ratio of Ki-67-positive cells among IDH1-R132H-positive cells was significantly lower in the invasion area than in the tumor core in all grades of glioma. These data suggest that higher grade gliomas have a greater invasive potential and that invading cells possess low proliferative capacity.
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Beneficial role of tolvaptan in the control of body fluids without reductions in residual renal function in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Adv Perit Dial
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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The V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan has been approved for volume control in heart-failure patients in Japan. Tolvaptan increases renal blood flow, and so the present study was designed to ascertain whether tolvaptan could be a useful diuretic for volume control without reducing residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Tolvaptan was administered in 15 PD patients (15 mg daily). Urine volume, body weight, and blood pressure were monitored Urinary excretion of urea nitrogen Na+, the osmolality of plasma and urine, and peritoneal and renal Kt/V were analyzed before and after tolvaptan treatment. In 11 of 15 patients, urine volume increased to more than 400 mL daily. A significant increase in diluted urine was observed, as indicated by a reduction in the specific gravity or osmolality of urine (or both). Urinary excretion of urea nitrogen, and Na+ was significantly increased Increases in renal Kt/V were observed, but peritoneal Kt/V was unchanged. Singnificant increase in creatinine clearance was also observed These data suggest that tolvaptan not only stimulates water diuresis, but also natriuresis, without reducing RRF in PD patients. Hence, tolvaptan could be a beneficial tool for the control of body fluid and maintenance of RRF in PD patients.
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Self-Accelerating CO Sorption in a Soft Nanoporous Crystal.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Carbon monoxide (CO) produced in many large-scale industrial oxidation processes is difficult to separate from nitrogen (N2) and after it just further oxidized to CO2. We report a new soft nanoporous crystalline material that selectively adsorbs CO with adaptable pores, and present crystallographic evidence that CO molecules can coordinate with Cu(2+) ions. The unprecedented high selectivity was achieved by the synergetic effect of the local interaction between CO and accessible metal sites and a global transformation of the framework. This transformable crystalline material realized the separation of CO from mixtures with N2, a gas that is the most competitive to CO. The dynamic and efficient molecular trapping and releasing system is reminiscent of sophisticated biological systems such as heme proteins.
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Selective NO Trapping in the Pores of Chain-Type Complex Assemblies Based on Electronically Activated Paddlewheel-Type [Ru2(II,II)]/[Rh2(II,II)] Dimers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The design of porous materials that undergo selective adsorption of a specific molecule is a critical issue in research on porous coordination polymers or metal-organic frameworks. For the purpose of the selective capture of molecules possessing an electron-acceptor character such as nitric oxide (NO), one-dimensional chain compounds possessing a high donor character have been synthesized using 4-chloroanisate-bridged paddlewheel-type dimetal(II, II) complexes with M = Ru and Rh and phenazine (phz) as the chain linker: [M2(4-Cl-2-OMePhCO2)4(phz)]·n(CH2Cl2) (M = Ru, 1; Rh, 2). These compounds are isostructural and are composed of chains with a [-{M2}-phz-] repeating unit and CH2Cl2 occupying the void space between the chains. Compounds 1 and 2 change to a new phase (1-dry and 2-dry) upon evacuating the crystallization solvent (CH2Cl2) and almost lose their pores in the drying process: no void space in 1-dry and 31.8 Å(3), corresponding to 2.9% of the cell volume, in 2-dry. Nevertheless, the compounds show a unique gas accommodation ability. Accompanied by a structural transformation (i.e., the first gate-opening) at low pressures of <10 kPa, both compounds show a typical physisorption isotherm for O2 (90 K) and CO2 (195 K), with the adsorption amount of ca. 2-4 gas molecules per [M2] unit. In addition, the adsorption isotherm for NO (121 K) involves the first gate-opening followed by a second gate-opening anomaly at NO pressures of ?52 kPa for 1-dry and ?21 kPa for 2-dry. At the first gate-opening, the absorbed amount of NO is ca. 4 molecules per [M2] unit, and then it reaches 8.4 and 6.3 for 1-dry and 2-dry, respectively, at 95 kPa. Only the isotherm for NO exhibits hysteresis in the desorption process, and some of the NO molecules are trapped in pores even after evacuating at 121 K, although it recovers to the original dried sample on heating to room temperature. The adsorbed NO molecules accrue a significant electron donation from the host framework even in the [Rh2] derivative, indicating that such simple porous compounds with electron-donor characteristics are useful for the selective adsorption of NO.
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Switching the centromeres on and off: epigenetic chromatin alterations provide plasticity in centromere activity stabilizing aberrant dicentric chromosomes.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The kinetochore, which forms on a specific chromosomal locus called the centromere, mediates interactions between the chromosome and the spindle during mitosis and meiosis. Abnormal chromosome rearrangements and/or neocentromere formation can cause the presence of multiple centromeres on a single chromosome, which results in chromosome breakage or cell cycle arrest. Analyses of artificial dicentric chromosomes suggested that the activity of the centromere is regulated epigenetically; on some stably maintained dicentric chromosomes, one of the centromeres no longer functions as a platform for kinetochore formation, although the DNA sequence remains intact. Such epigenetic centromere inactivation occurs in cells of various eukaryotes harbouring regional centromeres, such as those of maize, fission yeast and humans, suggesting that the position of the active centromere is determined by epigenetic markers on a chromosome rather than the nucleotide sequence. Our recent findings in fission yeast revealed that epigenetic centromere inactivation consists of two steps: disassembly of the kinetochore initiates inactivation and subsequent heterochromatinization prevents revival of the inactivated centromere. Kinetochore disassembly followed by heterochromatinization is also observed in normal senescent human cells. Thus epigenetic centromere inactivation may not only stabilize abnormally generated dicentric chromosomes, but also be part of an intrinsic mechanism regulating cell proliferation.
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Scalable Solution-Phase Synthesis of the Biologically Active Cyclodepsipeptide Destruxin E, a Potent Negative Regulator of Osteoclast Morphology.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The scalable solution-phase synthesis of the cyclodepsipeptide destruxin E (1) has been achieved. Diastereoselective dihydroxylation of the terminal alkene in a 2-alkoxy-4-pentenoic amide, 7, was successfully accomplished utilizing (DHQD)2PHAL as the chiral ligand, and it was found that the use of the l-proline moiety in the substrate as a chiral auxiliary was essential for the induction of high diastereoselectivity to afford the key compound 4 on a gram scale. MNBA-mediated macrolactonization of 3 was also performed without formation of the dimerized product even under higher-dilution conditions, and it is noteworthy that the internal hydrogen bonds and s-cis configuration of the amide bond between N-methylalanine and N-methylvaline in the cyclization precursor 3 would assist in the macrolactonization to provide the macrolactone 2 without forming a dimerized product. Finally, epoxide formation in the side chain afforded destruxin E (1) on a gram scale in high purity (>98%).
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Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually pure T. asiatica but instead originated from the hybridization of pure T. saginata and pure T. asiatica.
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Ligand-dependent EphB1 signaling suppresses glioma invasion and correlates with patient survival.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Extensive evidence implicates the Eph receptor family of tyrosine kinases and its ligand, ephrin, in glioma invasion, but it remains incompletely understood how these receptors affect chemotactic behavior of glioma. We sought to identify the Eph family members that correlate with patients survival and to reveal the function of Eph in glioma invasion.
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Night-time blood pressure is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in a general population: the Ohasama Study.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is reportedly associated with target organ damage. However, whether ambulatory BP carries prognostic significance for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been confirmed.
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In situ generation of functionality in a reactive haloalkane-based ligand for the design of new porous coordination polymers.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Herein, we report new porous coordination polymers (PCPs) via a facile synthetic approach called "in situ generation of functionality in the ligand". Upon a synthetic process of PCPs, a neutral (-CH2OH) or a cationic functionality (-CH2-[4,4-bipyridine](+)) was generated on a isophthalate ligand from a reactive haloalkane (-CH2Br) moiety, affording two new PCPs. The PCPs have two-dimensional layered structures with large potential solvent-accessible voids for CO2 adsorption.
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Pathology of glomerular lipidosis.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Glomerular lipid deposition is sometimes associated with a particular kind of lipid metabolism disturbance. Ultrastructural analyses using electron microscopy often indicate a disease-specific aspect of intraglomerular lipid distribution.
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Immunoglobulin A nephropathy with massive paramesangial deposits caused by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for metastatic rectal cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor, has been widely used in various cancers offering substantial clinical benefit. It is reportedly associated with development of high-grade proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome with the histology of thrombotic microangiopathy, but there has been no report describing the development of immunoglobulin A nephropathy in bevacizumab-treated patients.
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Effects of Treatment for Anestrus in Water Buffaloes with PGF2? and GnRH in Comparison with Vitamin-Mineral Supplement, and Some Factors Influencing Treatment Effects.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The effect of treatment for anestrus in buffaloes with a PGF2? or GnRH injection and vitamin-mineral (Vit-M) supplementation for 1 to 2 months and some factors influencing the treatment effect were studied. In anestrus buffaloes with CL, an injection of PGF2? tended to show higher estrus detection and pregnancy rates within 17 days after treatment than Vit-M supplementation (P<0.10). In those with inactive ovaries, effect of GnRH and Vit-M did not differ. Body condition score of the animals before treatment affected pregnancy rate within 17 days after treatment (P<0.05). Pregnancy rate within 4 months after treatment was adversely influenced by low serum concentrations of calcium (P<0.01) and gastrointestinal parasitic infection before treatment (P<0.05).
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[A case of paralytic ileus associated with varicella zoster virus infection].
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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A 79-year-old woman with a history of pyothorax was admitted with a 4-day history of abdominal distension. Physical examination revealed marked abdominal distention, absent bowel sounds, and a vesicular rash over the left Th8-10 dermatome. Abdominal radiography showed gaseous distension of the colon and ileum. Colonoscopy excluded any obstructive process of the colon. Laboratory findings yielded positive results for serum IgM and IgG against the varicella zoster virus (VZV) . Paralytic ileus associated with the VZV was therefore diagnosed. The ileus improved after conservative treatment with intravenous acyclovir. Although shingles is frequently encountered, it is a rare cause of paralytic ileus. In the future, the VZV should be considered as one of the causes of paralytic ileus, and complete resolution can be achieved with conservative management.
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MT1-MMP prevents growth inhibition by three dimensional fibronectin matrix.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The extracellular microenvironment plays a key role in regulation of cellular functions and growth control. We show here that membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) acts as a growth promoter in confluent culture. When MT1-MMP was silenced in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, cells created three dimensional (3D) fibronectin matrix in a confluent culture, and growth of cells embedded within it was retarded. Formation of 3D fibronectin matrix initiated by MT1-MMP silencing was impeded by knockdown of either FN or integrin ??, which resulted in restoration of cell growth. When cells in 3D fibronectin matrix were treated with integrin ?? inhibitory antibody, cells underwent S phase entry. These results suggest that MT1-MMP prevents growth suppression by 3D fibronectin matrix, which is mediated through integrin ??.
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[Genetic factors in myocardial infarction].
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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One of the main mechanisms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is plaque rupture or erosion followed by intraluminal thrombus formation and occlusion of the coronary arteries. Thus far, many underlying conditions or environmental factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking or obesity, as well as a family history of coronary artery diseases have been identified as risks for the onset of AMI. These risks suggest that AMI occurs due to interactions between underlying conditions and multiple genetic susceptibilities. For this reason, many target gene-disease association studies have been performed with the recent introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have further revealed new genetic susceptibilities for AMI. GWAS is a way to examine many common genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait in a case-control fashion, and typically focuses on associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and traits. SNP on chromosome 9p21 is one of the robust susceptibility variants for AMI which has been identified by many GWAS. In this review, we overview the methodology of GWAS, introduce genetic variants identified by GWAS as those with susceptibility for AMI, and describe the foresight of using GWAS to investigate genetic susceptibility to AMI.
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¹H NMR spectroscopic quantification of plasma metabolites in dialysate during hemodialysis.
Magn Reson Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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We used ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess metabolic responses in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). We collected 71 samples of plasma and dialysate from 10 patients before, during, and after HD. We used the dialysate as a possible substitute for blood plasma to quantify small metabolites by ¹H NMR. We confirmed TSP (sodium 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionate 2, 2, 3, 3-d4) as a reference of NMR intensity in dialysate. We examined TSP sensitivities in various dialysate spectra and the correlation between signal intensities and added quantities of TSP. We used integrations of signal areas on ¹H NMR spectra of plasma and dialysate to quantify concentrations of creatinine, lactate, alanine, and valine and calculate their ratios between plasma and dialysate. The ratios of metabolites in plasma to dialysate were 3.2±0.4 (creatinine), 3.6±0.5 (valine), 3.8±0.7 (alanine), and 4.0±0.8 (lactate) mM (mean±standard deviation [SD]). The broader distributions of ratios in levels of lactate and alanine suggested their de novo production during the HD session. Estimation of blood metabolite levels using dialysate is useful for quantitative analysis of metabolic status in blood during HD.
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Heavy chain deposition disease: an overview.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD) is one of three entities of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease, characterized histopathologically by the presence of nodular glomerulosclerosis and glomerular and tubular deposition of monoclonal heavy chains without associated light chains. Although HCDD is an extremely rare disease, >30 cases have been reported to date in the literature. Of these cases, only three cases have been reported in Japan. The majority of the patients presents with nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and hypertension, and develop progressive renal failure with or without the complication of multiple myeloma. Some cases have been treated successfully using chemotherapy. Because of its rarity, a thorough understanding of HCDD is essential for both accurate diagnosis and adequate subsequent treatment.
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Clinical impact of acute hyperglycemia on development of diabetes mellitus in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Acute hyperglycemia (AH) after the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a manifestation of transient abnormal glucose metabolism that may reflect AMI severity, and thus be a predictor of poor prognosis. However, it remains unknown whether AH may predict development of de novo diabetes mellitus (dn-DM) in non-diabetic AMI patients.
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Significance of combined cyclosporine-prednisolone therapy and cyclosporine blood concentration monitoring for idiopathic membranous nephropathy with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: a randomized controlled multicenter trial.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Combined treatment with cyclosporine microemulsion preconcentrate (CyA MEPC) and steroids has been widely used for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) associated with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Recent studies have shown that once-a-day and preprandial administration of CyA MEPC is more advantageous than the conventional twice-a-day administration in achieving the target blood CyA concentration at 2 h post dose (C2). We designed a randomized trial to compare these administrations.
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Psychopathological symptoms in two generations of the same family: a cross-cultural comparison.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The main aims of the present study were to compare the frequency and correlates of psychopathological symptoms in two generations of the same family in Japan and in England.
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Living alone and risk of cardiovascular events following discharge after acute myocardial infarction in Japan.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Little is known about the long-term risk of cardiovascular events after discharge among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors living alone in Japan.
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A distinct genetic population of Gongylonema pulchrum from water buffaloes in Nepal.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Whole-length esophagi of 111 Murrah cross water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in the Kathmandu and Chitwan districts of Nepal from December 2009 to February 2010. Gullet worms showing a typical epithelium-dwelling character were detected in 13 of 53 (24.5%) buffaloes in Kathmandu and in 5 of 58 (8.6%) buffaloes in Chitwan. The worms morphology and measurements were identical to those of Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, except for the length of the left spicules relative to the body length. Scanning electron microscopy did not detect any further morphological differences regarding the collected specimen from Nepal compared with G. pulchrum . The ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), including internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2, and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of the worms were characterized and compared with those of G. pulchrum collected from cattle, deer, wild boars, and monkeys in Japan and from cattle in Iran. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the buffalo-collected worms had 99.8% (1,779/1,782), 100% (158/158), and 98.3-98.8% (3,494-3,507/3,551) identities, respectively, with those of G. pulchrum from the other host mammals. The ITS regions exhibited higher variations between the buffalo-collected worms and G. pulchrum from the other host mammals (85-88% identity for ITS1 and 56-80% identity for ITS2). The COI also showed lower identities (89.2-90.2%), although only a single amino acid substitution was noted compared with the majority of G. pulchrum samples collected in Japan. Based on these molecular genetic characters in the rDNA and COI mitochondrial DNA, together with a shorter left spicule length relative to body length, the gullet worms isolated from buffaloes in Nepal might belong to a distinct local or buffalo-preferring population of G. pulchrum, although its geographical distribution on the continent and host specificity remain to be clarified.
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Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n?=?15) measuring 9.5-11.4 ?m in width, 7.3-8.6 ?m in suture width, 8.9-10.9 ?m in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 ?m in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 ?m by 1.8-2.3 ?m. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n?=?30) measuring 8.2-10.5 ?m in width, 7.0-8.8 ?m in thickness, and 6.1-6.8 ?m in length; and polar capsule measuring 2.5-3.4 ?m by 1.3-2.0 ?m. The similarities of the 18S and 28S rDNA sequences between these two species were 98.5 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Simultaneously, the dimensions of cysts in the trunk muscle formed by K. thunni are clearly larger than those of the present species from a chub mackerel: 1.3-2.0 mm by 1.1-1.4 mm (n?=?14) vs. 0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm (n?=?7), respectively. Thus, Kudoa scomberi n. sp. is proposed for this multivalvulid species found in the chub mackerel.
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A founder haplotype of APOE-Sendai mutation associated with lipoprotein glomerulopathy.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a hereditary disease characterized by lipoprotein thrombi in the glomerulus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and a marked increase in serum apolipoprotein E (APOE). More than 12 APOE mutations have been identified as causes of LPG, and APOE-Sendai (Arg145Pro) mutation was frequently detected in patients from the eastern part of Japan including Yamagata prefecture. Recently, effective therapy with intensive lipid-lowering agents was established, and epidemiologic data are required for early diagnosis. We determined the haplotype structure of APOE-Sendai in 13 patients from 9 unrelated families with LPG, and found that the haplotype of all APOE-Sendai mutations was identical, suggesting that APOE-Sendai mutation is common in Japanese patients probably through a founder effect. We also studied the gene frequency of APOE-Sendai in 2023 control subjects and 418 patients receiving hemodialysis in Yamagata prefecture using the TaqMan method, but did not identify any subjects carrying the mutation, indicating that it is very rare in the general population even in the eastern part of Japan. In addition to APOE mutation, other genetic and/or epigenetic factors are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPG because of its low penetrance. The patients did not have a common haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele, and some patients had the same haplotype of the counterpart APOE allele as the asymptomatic carriers. These results suggest that the counterpart APOE allele is not likely associated with the onset of LPG. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis of LPG.
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Various roles of th cytokine mRNA expression in different forms of glomerulonephritis.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Kidney disease is characterized by injurious immune responses to self or foreign antigens. The development and maintenance of immune responses generally involves activation of T lymphocytes. We evaluated mRNA expression patterns of T-cell cytokines to identify the principal Th-cell subset involved in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (ANCAGN), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), and membranous nephropathy (MN).
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Aberrant glycogen synthase kinase 3? is involved in pancreatic cancer cell invasion and resistance to therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The major obstacles to treatment of pancreatic cancer are the highly invasive capacity and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. Glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) regulates multiple cellular pathways and is implicated in various diseases including cancer. Here we investigate a pathological role for GSK3? in the invasive and treatment resistant phenotype of pancreatic cancer.
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Japan Renal Biopsy Registry and Japan Kidney Disease Registry: Committee Report for 2009 and 2010.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (J-RBR) was started in 2007 and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (J-KDR) was then started in 2009 by the Committee for Standardization of Renal Pathological Diagnosis and the Committee for the Kidney Disease Registry of the Japanese Society of Nephrology. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize the registered data from 2009 and 2010. For the J-KDR, data were collected from 4,016 cases, including 3,336 (83.1 %) by the J-RBR and 680 (16.9 %) other cases from 59 centers in 2009, and from 4,681 cases including 4,106 J-RBR cases (87.7 %) and 575 other cases (12.3 %) from 94 centers in 2010, including the affiliate hospitals. In the J-RBR, 3,165 native kidneys (94.9 %) and 171 renal grafts (5.1 %) and 3,869 native kidneys (94.2 %) and 237 renal grafts (5.8 %) were registered in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Patients younger than 20 years of age comprised 12.1 % of the registered cases, and those 65 years and over comprised 24.5 % of the cases with native kidneys in 2009 and 2010. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic nephritic syndrome (55.4 % and 50.0 % in 2009 and 2010, respectively), followed by nephrotic syndrome (22.4 % and 27.0 %); the most frequent pathological diagnosis as classified by the pathogenesis was IgA nephropathy (31.6 % and 30.4 %), followed by primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) (27.2 % and 28.1 %). Among the primary glomerular diseases (except IgA nephropathy) in the patients with nephrotic syndrome, membranous nephropathy was the most common histopathology in 2009 (40.3 %) and minor glomerular abnormalities (50.0 %) were the most common in 2010 in native kidneys in the J-RBR. Five new secondary and longitudinal research studies by the J-KDR were started in 2009 and one was started in 2010.
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Electrolyte-gated SmCoO3 thin-film transistors exhibiting thickness-dependent large switching ratio at room temperature.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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A Mott transistor that exhibits a large switching ratio of more than two orders at room temperature is demonstrated by using the electric double layer of an ionic liquid for gating on a strongly correlated electron system SmCoO3. From the thickness dependence of the on-state channel current, we estimate the screening length of the SmCoO3 to be ?5 nm. The good carrier confinement within the Thomas-Fermi screening length demonstrates that the SmCoO3-channel electric double layer transistor is the first candidate for a two-dimensional Mott transistor.
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Src plays a key role in ADAM28 expression in v-src-transformed epithelial cells and human carcinoma cells.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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ADAM28, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28, is overexpressed by carcinoma cells with direct correlations with carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanisms of ADAM28 gene expression in carcinoma cells remain elusive. Herein, we investigated the expression of ADAM28 in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells transformed by oncogenes, including v-src, LMP1, ErbB2, Ha-Ras, and c-Fos, and found that v-src transformants selectively induce ADAM28. Implantation of the v-src transformants showed a progressively growing tumor, which was significantly suppressed by local injections of anti-ADAM28 antibody. ADAM28 expression in v-src transformants was partially inhibited by treatment with inhibitors to Src kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), or mammalian target of rapamycin, and abrogated by v-Src kinase inhibitor, radicicol, or a mixture of MEK and PI3K inhibitors. Human carcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, ovary, kidney, and colon showed ADAM28 expression, which was correlated with phosphorylation of c-Src and suppressed by the inhibitors in a similar way to v-src transformants. IHC of the human tumor tissues demonstrated co-expression of ADAM28 and phosphorylated Src in neoplastic cells of the breast, lung, and colon carcinomas and some adenomas of the colon, but not in nonneoplastic colon mucosa. Our data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence that Src is an inducer of ADAM28 gene expression through the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase and PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways.
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Decreased mortality associated with statin treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction and lymphotoxin-alpha C804A polymorphism.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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We previously reported the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lymphotoxin alpha (LT?) gene with susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and increased mortality after discharge. In the present study, we investigated whether the adverse effect of LT? C804A polymorphism on mortality could be pharmacologically modified by statin treatment after AMI.
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Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.
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Evaluation of hypercoagulability using soluble fibrin monomer complex in sick newborns.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC) and fibrin monomer (FM) are well known as markers for hypercoagulability, but such measurements have not been investigated in detail for the neonate. To identify the presence of a hypercoagulable state in sick newborns, the behavior of SFMC with special reference to those of other coagulation tests, and the relationships with other parameters of blood coagulation as well as lactate, which is considered to be the gold standard for assessing tissue hypoxia, were studied.
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Encephalomalacia in surviving twin after single fetal death diagnosed at 18 weeks of gestation in monochorionic twin pregnancy.
Am J Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patient: Female, 28 Final Diagnosis: Single intrauterine fetal death Symptoms: - Medication: - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Obstetrics and Gynecology.
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Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs that emigrated from endemic areas.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Two dogs, emigrated from Zambia and China to Japan, were diagnosed with Ehrlichia canis infection. Both cases had thrombocytopenia, non-regenerative anemia, and hypergloblinemia with polyclonal gammopathy. Case 1 had ataxia of the hind limbs. Severe meningitis was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging examination. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in mononuclear cells of cerebrospinal fluid. Case 2 had a history of bilateral epistaxis, and severe pancytopenia was noticed in complete blood count. Diagnosis was finally achieved by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Thus, even in non-endemic areas, E. canis infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of clinically ill dogs that emigrated from endemic areas.
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Cleavage of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 by membrane-type MMP-1 activates matriptase.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Co-expression of membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP with hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) in HEK293T cells resulted in cleavage of HAI-1 to produce three fragments. Recombinant MT1-MMP was shown to cleave HAI-1 protein in vitro. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 was initially identified as the cognate inhibitor of matriptase, a transmembrane serine protease that processes urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Co-expression of HAI-1 with matriptase suppressed matriptase protease activity, and co-expression of MT1-MMP with them resulted in recovery of matriptase activity by stimulating shedding of HAI-1 fragments. Matriptase protein was detected in squamous carcinoma-derived HSC-4 cells, however, matriptase protease activity was undetectable. Transfection of siRNA for HAI-1 enhanced serine protease activity, which was suppressed by cotransfection of matriptase siRNA. Collagen-gel culture or treatment with concanavalin A (ConA) of HSC-4 cells enhanced MT1-MMP activity, which induced shedding of HAI-1 fragments and conversely stimulated uPA activation by these cells. Serine protease activity, including uPA activation of cells treated with ConA, was abrogated by downregulation of either matriptase or MT1-MMP through the transfection of each siRNA. These results suggest that MT1-MMP induced by collagen-gel culture or ConA treatment causes cleavage and shedding of HAI-1 protein, which allows activation of matriptase in HSC-4 cells. HSC-4 cells showed a characteristic invasive growth by forming vacuole-like structures in collagen gel, which was suppressed by transfection of siRNA for either MT1-MMP or matriptase, suggesting that activation of matriptase through the cleavage of HAI-1 is one of the MT1-MMP multifunctions essential for invasive growth of HSC-4 cells.
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Loss of the plastid envelope protein AtLrgB causes spontaneous chlorotic cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To identify nuclear genes involved in plastid function, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with albino, pale green or variegated leaves using the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon tagging system. In this study, we focused on mutants with a Ds insertion in the gene At1g32080 (AtLrgB), which encodes a homolog of the bacterial membrane protein LrgB. Although the detailed function of bacterial LrgB remains unclear, it is speculated that LrgB functions against cell death and lysis in cooperation with LrgA. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and promoter-GUS (?-glucuronidase) analyses showed that AtLrgB is expressed in leaves, stems and flowers, but not in roots. Moreover, its expression in leaves continued until senescence. We used three Ac/Ds-tagged mutants (atlrgB) that showed the same phenotypes. During the continuous observation of seedlings under short-day conditions, we found that the cotyledons and true leaves of the mutant plants during early development showed immediate greening, similar to wild-type plants, after which some parts showed a chlorotic phenotype. In contrast, true leaves at the late stage of plant development did not show degreening. When the atlrgB mutant was grown under continuous light, its chlorotic phenotype was suppressed. Transformation with normal AtLrgB restored these phenotypes. Trypan blue staining and electron microscopic observations indicated that chlorotic cell death occurred in the white sectors. The phenotypes of atlrgB resembled those in lesion mimic mutants, suggesting that AtLrgB functions against cell death, similar to the bacterial Lrg system.
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Longitudinal risk of cardiovascular events in relation to depression symptoms after discharge among survivors of myocardial infarction. Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depression symptoms 1 year after onset and subsequent cardiovascular events among survivors of myocardial infarction (MI).
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Redescription of Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) based on material collected from wild Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata (Primates: Cercopithecidae).
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Enterobius (Enterobius) macaci Yen, 1973 (Nematoda: Oxyuridae: Enterobiinae) was collected from a Japanese macaque, Macaca fuscata, in Nara and Yamaguchi Prefectures, Honshu Island, Japan, for the first time. A redescription is presented along with DNA sequence data. This pinworm is a typical member of the subgenus Enterobius and is characteristic in the spicule morphology, being readily distinguished from other congeners. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Cox1 gene assign its position in the pinworm lineage adapted to the Old World primates, showing divergence before the splitting of the chimpanzee and human pinworms.
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Losartan modulates muscular capillary density and reverses thiazide diuretic-exacerbated insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin sensitivity (IS). The role of RAS in insulin resistance and muscular circulation has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, this study sought to determine the mechanisms of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or diuretics on IS and capillary density (CD) in fructose-fed rats (FFRs). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal chow (control group) or fructose-rich chow for 8 weeks. For the last 4 weeks, FFRs were allocated to four groups: an FFR group and groups treated with the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), with the ARB losartan, or both. IS was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique at week 8. In addition, CD in the extensor digitorum longus muscle was evaluated. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the FFRs than in the controls. HCTZ, losartan and their combination significantly lowered blood pressure. IS was significantly lower in the FFR group than in the controls and was even lower in the HCTZ group. Losartan alone or combined with HCTZ significantly increased IS. In all cases, IS was associated with muscular CD, but not with plasma adiponectin or lipids. These results indicate that losartan reverses HCTZ-exacerbated insulin resistance, which can be mediated through the modulation of muscular circulation in rats with impaired glucose metabolism.
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Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase regulates fibronectin assembly to promote cell motility.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly is an essential process in normal vertebrate development, which is frequently lost in tumor cells. Here we show that membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) regulates FN matrix assembly. MT1-MMP knockdown induced FN assembly in breast carcinoma cells. Ectopic expression of MT1-MMP reduced specifically the assembled FN matrix level without affecting whole FN production in fibroblasts. Treatment of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with dexamethasone (DEX) enhanced FN synthesis, resulting in short fibrils but not dense matrix formation. Combined treatment of DEX and MT1-MMP inhibitor accelerated FN matrix assembly, which mediated cellular adhesion and reduced cell migration and invasion. These results indicate that MT1-MMP stimulates cell migration and invasion by negatively regulating FN assembly.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.