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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Laparoscopic Surgery with Open Surgery in Palliative Resection of Primary Tumor in Incurable Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 1107 (ENCORE Trial).
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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A randomized controlled trial was started in Japan to evaluate the non-inferiority of overall survival of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery for palliative resection of primary tumor in incurable Stage IV colorectal cancer. Symptomatic, Stage IV colorectal cancer patients with non-curable metastasis are pre-operatively randomized to either open or laparoscopic colorectal resection. Surgeons in 56 specialized institutions will recruit 450 patients. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, the proportion of conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery, the proportion of patients who fulfill the criteria of starting chemotherapy by 6 weeks after operation, intraoperative and post-operative complications, adverse events during chemotherapy and serious adverse events.
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Quality control by photo documentation for evaluation of laparoscopic and open colectomy with D3 resection for stage II/III colorectal cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 0404.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The quality of surgery with D3 resection in randomized controlled clinical trial [Japan Clinical Oncology Group study (JCOG0404)] was assessed by evaluation of the photo documentation of both open and laparoscopic surgeries.
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Feasibility study of immediate pharyngeal cooling initiation in cardiac arrest patients after arrival at the emergency room.
Resuscitation
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Cooling the pharynx and upper oesophagus would be more advantageous for rapid induction of therapeutic hypothermia since the carotid arteries run in their vicinity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pharyngeal cooling on brain temperature and the safety and feasibility for patients under resuscitation.
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Determination of the optimal cutoff percentage of residual tumors to define the pathological response rate for gastric cancer treated with preoperative therapy (JCOG1004-A).
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Pathological response rate (pathRR) is a common endpoint used to assess the efficacy of preoperative therapy for gastric cancer. PathRR is estimated based on the percentage of the residual tumor area in the primary tumorous bed. Various cutoff definitions used in previous trials (e.g., 10, 33, 40, 50, 67 %) often impair the comparability of pathRRs between trials.
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Computational materials design of defect-induced ferrimagnetic MnO.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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We present a computational materials design for defect-induced ferrimagnetic MnO. The magnetic properties of MnO containing Mn vacancies were investigated using first-principle calculations. For these electronic structure calculations, we employed a pseudo-self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (PSIC-LDA). We used the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) to create a random distribution of atoms at the assigned sites. Having described the magnetic properties with a classic Heisenberg model, we calculated the effective exchange coupling constants by applying the magnetic force theorem to two magnetic sites embedded in the CPA medium. We estimated the Curie temperatures from the calculated exchange interactions. This study found that the Mn vacancies induced ferrimagnetic ground states in MnO, and that the Curie temperature could reach room temperature at Mn vacancy concentrations above 20%. These findings suggest a new route for designing ferrimagnetic materials from anti-ferromagnetic host materials.
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Short-term surgical outcomes from a randomized controlled trial to evaluate laparoscopic and open D3 dissection for stage II/III colon cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG 0404.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A randomized controlled trial to confirm the non-inferiority of laparoscopic surgery to open surgery in terms of overall survival was conducted, and short-term surgical outcomes are demonstrated.
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A Phase III trial comparing irinotecan and cisplatin with etoposide and cisplatin in adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (JCOG1205/1206).
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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A randomized Phase III trial commenced in Japan in March 2013. Post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy with etoposide plus cisplatin is the current standard treatment for resected pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma including small cell lung cancer and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to confirm the superiority of irinotecan plus cisplatin in terms of overall survival over etoposide plus cisplatin as post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy for pathological Stage I-IIIA completely resected pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma patients. A total of 220 patients will be accrued from 54 Japanese institutions within 6 years. The primary endpoint is overall survival and the secondary endpoints are relapse-free survival, proportion of treatment completion, adverse events, serious adverse events and second malignancy. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000010298 [http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm].
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A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Conventional Technique Versus the No-touch Isolation Technique for Primary Tumor Resection in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1006.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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A randomized controlled trial is currently being conducted in Japan to demonstrate the superiority of the no-touch isolation technique over the conventional technique for patients with potentially curative colon and rectosigmoid cancer. The conventional technique procedure gives first priority to mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon, which is followed by central vascular ligation and ligation of other vasculature. Conversely, the no-touch isolation technique gives first priority to central vascular ligation, which is followed by mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon. A total of 850 patients will be enrolled in this trial. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, liver metastasis-free survival, mode of recurrence, surgical morbidity, adverse events due to postoperative chemotherapy, serious adverse events and short-term clinical outcomes.
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A density functional theory study of self-regenerating catalysts LaFe(1-x)M(x)O(3-y) (M = Pd, Rh, Pt).
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Periodic density functional theory was used to investigate the stability and electronic structures of precious-metal atoms in the vicinity of LaFe(1-x)M(x)O(3) (M = Pd, Rh, Pt) perovskite catalyst surfaces. It was found that the surface segregation of Pd and Pt is significantly stabilized by the introduction of O vacancies, whereas the solid-solution phase is favorable for Rh, suggesting an important role of O vacancies in the self-regeneration of Pd and Pt. On the basis of the results, we propose a possible scenario for the self-regeneration of the precious metal in the perovskite catalyst.
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Antihypertensive mechanism of a peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning: the active constituents and its suppressive effect on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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We previously reported that a peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning called fermented soybean seasoning (FSS) demonstrated antihypertensive effects both in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory substances (9 kinds of dipeptides and a nicotianamine) were identified from FSS. In the present study, we clarified the mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of FSS in SHR. FSS was divided into the nicotianamine fraction and the peptide fraction. The peptide fraction was found to exert a more prevalent antihypertensive effect than the nicotianamine fraction in SHR. Among the peptides, we identified Gly-Tyr and Ser-Tyr as the 2 primary substances in FSS that contributed to the antihypertensive effect in SHR. These peptides were neither degraded by acid nor gastrointestinal proteases, and were absorbed into the circulating blood. FSS (2000 mg/kg) exerted ACE inhibitory activity in the lung of rats and provided a decrease (P= 0.0067) in the level of serum aldosterone after a single oral administration in SHR, resulting in the antihypertensive effect. The antihypertensive mechanism was found to be similar to therapeutic ACE inhibitors and other food-derived ACE inhibitory peptides, which are in wide use and are recognized as safe.
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Functional significance of Aurora kinase A regulatory interactions with p53-ER? complex in human breast cancer cells.
Horm Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A), a proto-oncogenic mitosis-regulating serine/threonine kinase, is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer. While the kinase has been shown to cause functional inactivation of tumor suppressor protein p53, which binds estrogen receptor ? (ER?) and downregulates its transcriptional activation function, significance of Aurora-A overexpression on p53 regulatory interactions in breast cancer cells has not been investigated. We describe in this report functional consequences of Aurora-A phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor protein on its subcellular distribution and binding with ER? that may be important in downregulating the transcription of p53-responsive growth inhibitory genes and development of resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis in Aurora-A overexpressing human breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that while estrogen activates Aurora-A expression in ER?-positive cells through ER?-GATA-3 signaling cascade, Aurora-A forms a ternary complex with p53 and ER?. Phosphorylation of p53 by Aurora-A sequesters the protein in the cytoplasm and enhances its interaction with ER?, thus repressing the transactivation functions of both p53 and ER?. These findings have significant clinical implications and suggest that prolonged estrogen exposure-mediated Aurora-A overexpression may be directly contributing to deregulated proliferation and resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
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Possible mechanism of growth inhibition by Scutellaria baicalensis in an estrogen-responsive mouse tumor cell line.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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We have studied the effects of Saiboku-to, a traditional Chinese medicine having suppressive activities for leukotriene production and release, on the proliferation of the estrogen-responsive mouse Leydig tumor cell line B-1F. In our previous reports, it is shown that Saiboku-to promotes, but Scutellaria baicalensis, one of the components (herbs) of Saiboku-to, significantly inhibits the proliferation of B-1F cells in vitro and in vivo, and induces DNA fragmentation and morphological changes such as nuclear aggregation and fragmentation. In this study, we examined telomerase activity, cell cycle, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and expression of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in order to determine the mechanism of growth inhibition in B-1F cells treated with Scutellaria baicalensis. Telomerase activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in treated B-1F cells. Cellular populations in the sub-G0/G1 and G2/M phases were increased, but those in M phase had no change. Although cyclin D1 mRNA was highly expressed in the presence of estradiol (E2), cyclin A and E mRNA levels did not significantly change. When B-1F cells were treated with Scutellaria baicalensis, expression of cyclin D1 was suppressed and that of p21 was inversely increased. Moreover, Scutellaria baicalensis influenced arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolism, and increased production of 13(S)-HODE. In the presence of E2 Scutellaria baicalensis decreased expression of NF-?B p65 to 0.71-fold in B-1F cells. These results show that Scutellaria baicalensis might induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and apoptosis via inhibition of telomerase activity, changes of enzymatic activities in polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and suppression of NF-?B.
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[The perioperative management for pheochromocytoma resection in a patient with chronic renal failure requiring long-term hemodialysis].
Masui
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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We report the perioperative management of a 55-year-old man with chronic renal failure requiring long-term hemodialysis, who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. He was pretreated with doxazosin, a calcium channel blocker and a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist to control blood pressure until surgery. His dry weight increased slowly from 57 kg to 58.5 kg for a month increasing the intravascular volume. Neither did the patient develop pulmonary edema nor congestive heart failure preoperatively. Tumor resection was successfully completed under general anesthesia. Although noraderenaline was required to keep adequate blood pressure during surgery and the first day of intensive care unit stay, there was no adverse event during perioperative period. The increasing intravascular volume before pheochromocytoma surgery in a patient on hemodialysis might make the perioperative management safer, although further study is required to determine the adequate level of increment in the preoperative dry weight.
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Protective effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on lung injury after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in rats.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HSR) induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product of heme catalysis, was shown to have potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CO inhalation at low concentration on lung injury induced by HSR in rats.
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Arpc1b, a centrosomal protein, is both an activator and substrate of Aurora A.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Here we provide evidence in support of an inherent role for Arpc1b, a component of the Arp2/3 complex, in regulation of mitosis and demonstrate that its depletion inhibits Aurora A activation at the centrosome and impairs the ability of mammalian cells to enter mitosis. We discovered that Arpc1b colocalizes with gamma-tubulin at centrosomes and stimulates Aurora A activity. Aurora A phosphorylates Arpc1b on threonine 21, and expression of Arpc1b but not a nonphosphorylatable Arpc1b mutant in mammalian cells leads to Aurora A kinase activation and abnormal centrosome amplification in a Pak1-independent manner. Together, these findings reveal a new function for Arpc1b in centrosomal homeostasis. Arpc1b is both a physiological activator and substrate of Aurora A kinase and these interactions help to maintain mitotic integrity in mammalian cells.
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Long-term outcome and survival with laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy for early gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2010
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Laparoscopically assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG) is introduced as a function-preserving operation with minimal invasion for early gastric cancer (EGC). This study aimed to investigate the long-term outcome and survival with LAPPG.
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Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2010
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Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed.
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The pure anti-androgen bicalutamide inhibits cyclin A expression both in androgen-dependent and -independent cell lines.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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We investigated the effects of testosterone and the pure anti-androgen, bicalutamide, on DNA synthesis and cell cycle in androgen-sensitive or -insensitive human and mouse cell lines by 3H-thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blotting. In androgen-dependent mouse SC-3 cells, testosterone induced DNA synthesis, shift of cell cycle distribution from G0/G1 to S/G2/M and expression of cyclin A. The induction was preceded by that of fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF-8), and completely blocked by monoclonal antibody to FGF-8. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced cyclin A expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cells, but not in androgen-independent cell lines. Bicalutamide almost completely inhibited these androgen-dependent effects both in LNCaP and SC-3 cells, but had no or limited effect on androgen-independent or FGF-8-induced DNA synthesis, and FGF-8 induced cyclin A expression. Interestingly, bicalutamide inhibited both DNA synthesis and the cyclin A expression in androgen-independent human cell lines in serum-free condition. A MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked both androgen- and rFGF-8-induced DNA synthesis. Overall, bicalutamide inhibits the cyclin A expression possibly by inhibiting FGF-8 mRNA expression and FGF-8 protein secretion but not by inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling in androgen-dependent cell lines, and by other mechanisms in androgen-independent cell lines. The results suggest that combination with compounds such as FGFR signalling inhibitors may provide additional benefits to anti-androgens. It is also suggested that cyclin A could be a sensitive marker for androgen-induced cancer growth and for the growth inhibitory effects of anti-androgen.
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Estrogen-induced aurora kinase-A (AURKA) gene expression is activated by GATA-3 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.
Horm Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Aurora-A is a proto-oncogenic mitotic kinase that is frequently overexpressed in human epithelial malignancies including in breast and ovarian cancers. The mechanism of transcriptional upregulation of Aurora-A in human breast cancer is not yet elucidated. We report herein that Aurora-A transcription is positively regulated by GATA-3 in response to estrogen in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive cells. Transient expression of aurora-A promoter deletion mutants in luciferase constructs identified a GATA binding sequence motif as a functional regulatory element in ER?-positive breast cancer cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identified the binding of regulatory proteins to the GATA element. Anti-GATA-3 antibody generated a supershifted complex. Recruitment of GATA-3 to the aurora-A promoter was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis with GATA-3 antibody. Ectopic expression of GATA-3 resulted in elevated expression of Aurora-A in both ER?-positive and negative cells while siRNA-mediated silencing led to downregulation of endogenous Aurora-A in ER?-positive cells. Estrogen treatment of ER?-positive cells induced increased Aurora-A expression with enhanced recruitment of GATA-3 to the aurora-A promoter. Finally, in the ACI rat model of estrogen-induced breast cancer, known to be associated with elevated Aurora-A expression, we observed increased expression of GATA-3 in preinvasive and invasive mammary epithelial cells exposed to prolonged estrogen treatment and in developing breast tumors. These results demonstrate a direct positive role of estrogen in regulating Aurora-A expression through activation of the ER?-GATA-3 signaling cascade and suggest that this pathway may be critical in the origin of estrogen-stimulated sporadic breast cancer.
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A genetic variant of Aurora kinase A promotes genomic instability leading to highly malignant skin tumors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2009
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Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) belongs to a highly conserved family of mitotis-regulating serine/threonine kinases implicated in epithelial cancers. Initially we examined Aurora-A expression levels at different stages of human skin cancer. Nuclear Aurora-A was detected in benign lesions and became more diffused but broadly expressed in well and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), indicating that Aurora-A deregulation may contribute to SCC development. To mimic the overexpression of Aurora-A observed in human skin cancers, we established a gene-switch mouse model in which the human variant of Aurora-A (Phe31Ile) was expressed in the epidermis upon topical application of the inducer RU486 (Aurora-AGS). Overexpression of Aurora-A alone or in combination with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), did not result in SCC formation in Aurora-AGS mice. Moreover, Aurora-A overexpression in naive keratinocytes resulted in spindle defects in vitro and marked cell death in vivo, suggesting that the failure of Aurora-A to initiate tumorigenesis was due to induction of catastrophic cell death. However, Aurora-A overexpression combined with exposure to TPA and the mutagen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene accelerated SCC development with greater metastatic activity than control mice, indicating that Aurora-A cannot initiate skin carcinogenesis but rather promotes the malignant conversion of skin papillomas. Further characterization of SCCs revealed centrosome amplification and genomic alterations by array CGH analysis, indicating that Aurora-A overexpression induces a high level of genomic instability that favors the development of aggressive and metastatic tumors. Our findings strongly implicate Aurora-A overexpression in the malignant progression of skin tumors and suggest that Aurora-A may be an important therapeutic target.
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Anesthetic management of a patient with Alport-leiomyomatosis syndrome.
J Anesth
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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We report the anesthetic management of esophagectomy for a patient with Alport-leiomyomatosis syndrome. A 23-year-old woman complained of dysphagia and severe chest pain. Her chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an enlarged esophagus, in contact with the trachea, heart, aorta, and large vessels. She frequently experienced severe asthma attacks. Because various risks in both respiration and circulation, especially in anesthesia induction, were of concern, her right femoral vessels were exposed, for the emergency use of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), prior to anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium. Esophagectomy was performed uneventfully and no severe events were seen in anesthesia management. Alportleiomyomatosis syndrome is a very rare disease. When we are involved in the anesthetic management of a patient with this disease, evaluation of the influence of the enlarged esophagus on both respiration and circulation, and careful preparation for emergence, are very important.
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Effects of chymase inhibitor on angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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Chymase may play an important role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether chymase is involved in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA development in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice.
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Proliferation of estrogen-responsive mouse tumor cell line B-1F stimulated by Saiboku-to, but inhibited by Scutellaria baicalensis, a component of Saiboku-to.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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We have demonstrated that the proliferation of estrogen-responsive mouse Leydig tumor cell line B-1F is induced via suppression of 5-lipoxygenase activity followed by decrease of leukotrienes (LTs). Additionally, it has been reported that LTD4 induces apoptosis in B-1F cells. In this study, we examined effects of Saiboku-to, a traditional Chinese medicine having suppressive activities for LT production and release, on the proliferation. Saiboku-to promoted, but Scutellaria baicalensis, one of components (herbs) of Saiboku-to, significantly inhibited the proliferation of B-1F cells in vitro and in vivo. The action of Scutellaria baicalensis in B-1F cells was studied in more detail. Although Scutellaria baicalensis consists of flavonoids, iridoids, volatile oils and others, it and its major constituents had no direct effect on estrogen binding sites in B-1F cells. B-1F cells treated with Scutellaria baicalensis showed morphological changes such as nuclear aggregation and fragmentation. DNA fragmentation was also observed, indicating that Scutellaria baicalensis induces apoptosis in B-1F cells and that it or its constituents might be a good resource for searching new drugs, especially anti-cancer drugs. Moreover, Saiboku-to promoted B-1F cell proliferation, but Scutellaria baicalensis inhibited it, showing complexity of action of traditional Chinese medicines.
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Involvement of vascular angiotensin II-forming enzymes in the progression of aortic abdominal aneurysms in angiotensin II- infused ApoE-deficient mice.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in apoE-deficient mice has been used as a model of human AAA, but it has been unclear why the progression of AAA continues after stopping the Ang II infusion. The involvement of vascular Ang II-forming enzymes in the progression of AAA was studied.
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Safer glycemic control using isomaltulose-based enteral formula: a pilot randomized crossover trial.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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Preventing harmful hyperglycemia is important in critical illness. However, insulin therapy increases the risk of hypoglycemia. In patients with diabetes, isomaltulose-based enteral formula (IF) feeding has been shown to reduce glycemia. This randomized controlled crossover study was conducted to determine whether IF feeding improves glycemia in postoperative critically ill patients.
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Left-sided approach for suprapancreatic lymph node dissection in laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy without duodenal transection.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with extended lymph node dissection has not yet been widely adopted for the treatment of gastric cancers because of the perceived complexity of the procedure. Suprapancreatic lymph node dissection is one of the most important and demanding procedures in this approach. The techniques of duodenal transection within the abdominal cavity or taping of the common hepatic or splenic artery had traditionally been adopted for suprapancreatic nodal dissection during open surgery. In 2005, we developed a new laparoscopic procedure to safely and simply perform suprapancreatic lymph node dissection in LADG. We introduced a left-sided approach for the dissection of lymph nodes in the left gastropancreatic fold, where the body of the stomach is turned over and lifted ventrally to expose the left gastropancreatic fold through the opened lesser sac, without duodenal transection, and the suprapancreatic lymph nodes are resected en bloc in reverse order, i.e., including the lymph nodes along the proximal splenic artery (station 11p), around the celiac artery (station 9), and along the common hepatic artery (station 8a). Between April 2005 and December 2007, a total of 391 patients with cT1,2 gastric cancer underwent this surgical approach. In all patients, surgery was completed safely with favorable outcomes; mean operating time was 239 min and mean blood loss was 63 ml. The complication rate was 4.6% (18/391); there were ten conversions (2.6%) and no mortality. The aim of the present study was to describe the surgical technique of our new approach for LADG with extended lymph node dissection and to evaluate the treatment outcomes achieved by this technique.
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Prevention of hemorrhagic shock-induced intestinal tissue injury by glutamine via heme oxygenase-1 induction.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is an oxidative stress that causes intestinal tissue injury. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is induced by oxidative stress and is thought to play an important role in the protection of tissues from oxidative injury. We previously reported the ileum to be the most susceptible to HS-induced tissue injury site in the intestine because HO-1 induction is the lowest at this site. We also previously demonstrated that glutamine (GLN) significantly induced HO-1 in the lower intestinal tract. In the present study, we investigated whether GLN pretreatment improves HS-induced intestinal tissue injury in the ileum by HO-1 induction. Treatment of rats with GLN (0.75 g/kg, i.v.) markedly induced functional HO-1 protein in mucosal epithelial cells in the ileum. Glutamine treatment before HS (MAP of 30 mmHg for 60 min) significantly ameliorated HS-induced mucosal inflammation and apoptotic cell death in the ileum, as judged by significant decreases in gene expression of TNF-alpha, iNOS, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, myeloperoxidase activity, the number of infiltrated neutrophils, DNA fragmentation by in situ oligo ligation assay, and activated caspase-3 expression, and by increases in gene expression of IL-10 and Bcl-2. In contrast, treatment with tin mesoporphyrin, a specific inhibitor of HO activity, abolished the beneficial effect of GLN pretreatment. These findings indicate that GLN pretreatment significantly ameliorated tissue injury in the ileum after HS by inducing HO-1. Glutamine treatment may thus protect mucosal cells from HS-induced oxidative damage via the anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties of HO-1.
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Site-specific induction of intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-1? after hemorrhagic shock.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2009
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The intestine is a major target organ in hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced tissue injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? is the primary transcription factor responsible for regulating cellular response to changes in oxygen tension. Since HS is an acute hypoxic insult, the present study examined changes in the gene expression of HIF-1? in various regions of the intestine, as well as the distribution of HIF-1? protein in the intestinal cells of a rat model of HS. Levels of HIF-1? mRNA were marginally detectable in the intestine of sham-operated control animals, but obviously induced following HS. Duodenal, jejunal and colonic levels of HIF-1? mRNA robustly increased and reached a maximum during the ischemic phase of HS, followed by a rapid decrease almost to control levels during the early phase of resuscitation. The induction of HIF-1? mRNA was maximal in the duodenum. In contrast to the duodenum, jejunum and colon, in the ileum the HIF-1? mRNA level did not increase after HS. Consistent with enhanced HIF-1? gene expression, HIF-1? protein was expressed in the mucosal cells of the duodenum, jejunum and colon, but not in the ileum following HS. These findings indicate that intestinal HIF-1? expression was up-regulated at both the transcriptional and protein level in a site-specific manner in this rat model of HS. Differential regulation of HIF-1? expression along the longitudinal axes of the intestine might be a determinant of the adaptive response to HS-induced intestinal damage.
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Specific Removal of Monocytes from Peripheral Blood of Septic Patients by Polymyxin B-immobilized Filter Column.
Acta Med. Okayama
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the major causes of septic shock. The polymyxin B-immobilized filter column (PMX) was developed for the adsorption of endotoxin by direct hemoperfusion and has been used for the treatment of LPS-induced septic shock. In this study, we demonstrated that PMX also specifically bound monocytes from the peripheral blood leukocytes of septic patients by mean of an analysis of bound cells using immunocytochemical and electron microscopic techniques. The specific removal of monocytes from septic patients may produce beneficial effects by reducing the interaction between monocytes and functionally associated cells including vascular endothelial cells.
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Heme Oxygenase-1 is an Essential Cytoprotective Component in Oxidative Tissue Injury Induced by Hemorrhagic Shock.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Hemorrhagic shock causes oxidative stress that leads to tissue injuries in various organs including the lung, liver, kidney and intestine. Excess amounts of free heme released from destabilized hemoproteins under oxidative conditions might constitute a major threat because it can catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. Cells counteract this by rapidly inducing the rate-limiting enzyme in heme breakdown, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is a low-molecular-weight stress protein. The enzymatic HO-1 reaction removes heme. As such, endogenous HO-1 induction by hemorrhagic shock protects tissues from further degeneration by oxidant stimuli. In addition, prior pharmacological induction of HO-1 ameliorates oxidative tissue injuries induced by hemorrhagic shock. In contrast, the deletion of HO-1 expression, or the chemical inhibition of increased HO activity ablated the beneficial effect of HO-1 induction, and exacerbates tissue damage. Thus, HO-1 constitutes an essential cytoprotective component in hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative tissue injures. This article reviews recent advances in understanding of the essential role of HO-1 in experimental models of hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative tissue injuries with emphasis on the role of its induction in tissue defense.
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Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection following standardization--a preliminary study.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with standard D2 dissection is a complex procedure usually performed only by experienced surgeons, and the feasibility of this procedure still remains unclear.
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Anti-influenza virus effects of elderberry juice and its fractions.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
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Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) has traditionally been used for treating influenza and colds. We evaluated the antiviral effect of concentrated juice of elderberry (CJ-E) on the human influenza A virus (IFV). CJ-E had a relatively strong effect on IFV-infected mice, although its anti-IFV activity was weak in a cell culture system. The in vivo anti-IFV activities of the fractions were determined after separating CJ-E by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange chromatography. Oral administration of the high-molecular-weight fractions of CJ-E to IFV-infected mice suppressed viral replication in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs), and increased the level of the IFV-specific neutralizing antibody in the serum, as well as the level of secretory IgA in BALFs and feces. Fr. II from high-molecular-weight fraction HM, which contained acidic polysaccharides, showed relatively strong defense against IFV infection. We conclude that CJ-E had a beneficial effect by the stimulating immune response and preventing viral infection.
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Effect of sugammadex on bronchial smooth muscle function in rats.
J Smooth Muscle Res
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Sugammadex can encapsulate the steroid-based neuromuscular blocker molecule and results in rapid reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium. However, several cases of bronchospasm after the administration of sugammadex have been reported. The current study was carried out to determine whether sugammadex directly affects smooth muscle function of the airways. The ring strips of left main bronchi were isolated from male Wistar rats and isometric forces were measured. In the isolated bronchial smooth muscle tissues, sugammadex (10??-10?³ M) had no effect on baseline tension or the acetylcholine (ACh; 30 µM)-induced sustained contraction. Moreover, sugammadex did not affect bronchial smooth muscle responsiveness to ACh. These findings indicate that sugammadex itself does not affect contractile function in bronchial smooth muscle of the rat.
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Effects of pharyngeal cooling on brain temperature in primates and humans: a study for proof of principle.
Anesthesiology
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Pharyngeal cooling decreases brain temperature by cooling carotid arteries. This study was designed to evaluate the principle of pharyngeal cooling in monkeys and humans.
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A Phase II study of systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (DCS) followed by surgery in gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study JCOG1002.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
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A Phase II trial was initiated in Japan to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and S-1 for gastric cancer with extensive lymph node metastasis. Patients are eligible to participate in the study if they have para-aortic lymph node metastases (stations no. 16a2/16b1) and/or a bulky lymph node (?3 cm × 1 or ?1.5 cm × 2) along the celiac, splenic, common or proper hepatic arteries or the superior mesenteric vein, while patients with other distant metastases are ineligible. A total of 50 patients will be enrolled over 2.5 years. The primary endpoint is the response rate of the preoperative chemotherapy, which will be assessed based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors ver. 1.0. The secondary endpoints are %3-year survival, %5-year survival, proportion of patients with R0 resection, proportion of patients who complete the preoperative chemotherapy and surgery, proportion of patients who complete the protocol treatment, pathological response rate and adverse events. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/) as UMIN000006069.
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Aurora kinase-A inactivates DNA damage-induced apoptosis and spindle assembly checkpoint response functions of p73.
Cancer Cell
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Elevated Aurora kinase-A expression is correlated with abrogation of DNA damage-induced apoptotic response and mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) override in human tumor cells. We report that Aurora-A phosphorylation of p73 at serine235 abrogates its transactivation function and causes cytoplasmic sequestration in a complex with the chaperon protein mortalin. Aurora-A phosphorylated p73 also facilitates inactivation of SAC through dissociation of the MAD2-CDC20 complex in cells undergoing mitosis. Cells expressing phosphor-mimetic mutant (S235D) of p73 manifest altered growth properties, resistance to cisplatin- induced apoptosis, as well as premature dissociation of the MAD2-CDC20 complex, and accelerated mitotic exit with SAC override in the presence of spindle damage. Elevated cytoplasmic p73 in Aurora-A overexpressing primary human tumors corroborates the experimental findings.
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Dual defects of cation and anion in memristive nonvolatile memory of metal oxides.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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The electrically driven resistance change of metal oxides, called bipolar memristive switching, is a fascinating phenomenon in the development of next-generation nonvolatile memory alternatives to flash technology. However, our understanding of the nature of bipolar memristive switching is unfortunately far from comprehensive, especially the relationship between the electrical transport and the local nonstoichiometry. Here we demonstrate that the coexistence of anion and cation defects is critical to the transport properties of NiO, one of the most promising memristive oxides, by utilizing first-principles calculations. We find that, in the presence of both nickel and oxygen defects, which must exist in any real experimental systems, carrier concentrations of holes generated by nickel defects can be modulated by the presence or absence of oxygen defects around the nickel defect. Such alternation of local nonstoichiometry can be understood in terms of an oxygen ion drift induced by an external electric field. This implication provides a foundation for understanding universally the nature of bipolar memristive switching in various p-type metal oxides.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.