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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension complicated by a cavitating lung infection caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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A 35-year-old man with a six-month history of progressive exertional dyspnea was referred to our institution. He had been diagnosed with Mycobacterium intracellulare pulmonary infection with lung cavitation two years earlier, and was being followed up without any medications. After being referred to our hospital, he underwent computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, which indicated a pulmonary thrombus and lung cavitation. Furthermore, right heart catheterization confirmed pulmonary hypertension, and we made a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Following successful pulmonary endarterectomy, the patient's symptoms and hemodynamics were significantly improved, with the disappearance of lung cavitation. It is important to suspect CTEPH in patients with unaccountable infectious lung cavities.
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Recurrence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis after discontinuation of maintenance treatment by antifungal triazoles.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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To assess the prevalence and risk factors of recurrence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) after discontinuation of antifungal triazoles.
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Nine pulmonary aspiration syndrome cases of atypical clinical presentation, in which the final diagnosis was obtained by histological examinations.
Respir Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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While pulmonary aspiration syndrome (PAS) is primarily clinically diagnosed, atypical PAS cases can be misdiagnosed clinically and are more accurately diagnosed histologically. To elucidate clinicopathological features of these rare cases, we examined PAS cases determined by histological examination of transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimens.
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[A comparison of chest radiographs between patients with pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To elucidate the differences in affected lung segments between patients with pulmonary M. kansasii infection and those with M. tuberculosis infection in the initial stage of disease, we examined chest radiography images and CT scans. The initial stage of disease was defined as the period when less than one-sixth of the total lung area was affected by the infection, as visualized on chest radiography and CT.
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Sustained functional serotype-specific antibody after primary and secondary vaccinations with a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in elderly patients with chronic lung disease.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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An observational study was conducted to determine immunogenicity before and after primary and secondary vaccinations with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in a cohort of 40 elderly patients with chronic lung diseases. Safety of this vaccine was also compared between primary and secondary vaccination. We analyzed serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the opsonization index (OI) for serotypes 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F and compared adverse local and systemic reactions. The levels of serotype-specific IgG and the OIs significantly increased 1 month after primary and secondary vaccinations. Peak levels of IgG after secondary vaccination were 5-20% lower than those after primary vaccination, while serotype-specific OIs after secondary vaccination were comparable with those after primary vaccination. The levels of serotype-specific IgG required for 50% killing significantly decreased 1 month after vaccination. These values for serotypes 14, 19F, and 23F were slightly elevated immediately before secondary vaccination, but those for serotype 6B did not change. After secondary vaccination, these values declined slightly for serotypes 14, 19F, and 23F and remained low for serotype 6B. Although self-limited local and systemic reactions were more frequent after secondary vaccination compared with primary vaccination, no serious systemic reaction was found after either vaccination. Our data suggest a sustained functional serotype-specific IgG after primary and secondary vaccination and confirmed the safety of secondary vaccination among elderly individuals with chronic lung disease.
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Doctors delay in endobronchial tuberculosis.
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of doctors delay in diagnosing endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) and to elucidate the risk factors contributing to the delay.
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Chronological decrease of tuberculosis incidence rates by organ classification based on a birth cohort study in Japan, 1975-2005.
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The incidence and annual risk of infection of tuberculosis (TB) have decreased rapidly in Japan because of the development of anti-TB medicines and nutritional and hygienic improvements after World War II. The incidence of tuberculosis is currently high among elderly people, reflecting the fact that the prevalence rate of TB infection had been extremely high during their youth. This would suggest that most current cases of TB in the elderly are reactivation of infections acquired in their youth. TB reactivation in various organs have both common and unique aspects. We evaluated the frequency of endogenous reactivation of TB in various organs by examining the TB incidence rate over a 30-year period (1975-2005) in Japan.
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Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a patient carrying autoantibody to interferon-?.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of lung cancer with bone metastasis. He suffered multiple joint and muscle pain. (18)F-Fluorodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed multiple accumulations in the lung, bones including the vertebrae, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody was negative. Because Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was isolated from bronchial lavage fluid, bronchial wall, peripheral blood, and muscle abscess, he was diagnosed as having disseminated MAC infection. Although multidrug chemotherapy was initiated, his condition rapidly deteriorated at first. After surgical curettage of the musculoskeletal abscess, his condition gradually improved. As for etiology, we suspected that neutralizing factors against interferon-gamma (IFN-?) might be present in his serum because a whole blood IFN-? release assay detected low IFN-? level even with mitogen stimulation. By further investigation, autoantibodies to IFN-? were detected, suggesting the cause of severe MAC infection. We should consider the presence of autoantibodies to IFN-? when a patient with disseminated NTM infection does not indicate the presence of HIV infection or other immunosuppressive condition.
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Rationale for physicians to propose do-not-resuscitate orders in elderly community-acquired pneumonia cases.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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AIM: In many countries, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders were not legislated, partly because rationale for proposal of DNR orders have not been studied in elderly pneumonia patients with cognitive and physical disorders. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the factors influencing physicians proposal for DNR orders and their validity as prognostic predictor, by comparing elderly pneumonia cases with and without DNR orders. METHODS: Medical records of community-acquired pneumonia patients aged 65?years or older were retrospectively studied (n?=?641). The patients were categorized into two groups; one with DNR orders within 72?h after admission and the other without it. RESULTS: DNR was decided in 183 patients (28.5%). The DNR group, containing more elderly patients with poorer performance status, showed higher rates of malnutrition, dementia, aspiration, very severe pneumonia, respiratory failure and mortality. The choice of antimicrobials was not affected by the presence of DNR orders. Mortality rate within 30?days was higher in the DNR group than in the non-DNR group (33.9% vs 2.8%, P?
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[A case of tuberculous pleurisy developing contralateral effusion during anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest pain, fever, and right pleural effusion that was exudative and lymphocyte-dominant with a high level of adenosine deaminase (ADA). Since her blood QuantiFERON-TB 3G test (QFT) was positive, she was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. After initiation of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, her symptoms improved. Later, liquid culture of the pleural effusion turned positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the 18th day of treatment, her chest X-ray and computed tomography exhibited pleural effusion in a moderate amount in the left thorax, with subsiding pleural effusion in the right thorax. Thoracocentesis demonstrated that the left thorax effusion was also exudative and lymphocyte-dominant, with elevated QFT response and high ADA concentration, suggesting tuberculous pleurisy. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in the culture of a left pleural biopsy specimen obtained by thoracoscopy. We assumed that the left pleural effusion was due to paradoxical worsening because (1) on admission no effusion or lung parenchymal lesion was detected in the left hemithorax, (2) on the 14th day of treatment she was afebrile without pleural effusion on both sides, and (3) the bacilli were sensitive to the drugs she had been taking regularly. We performed drainage of the left effusion and continued the same anti-tuberculosis drugs, which led to the elimination of all her symptoms and of the pleural effusion on both sides. In conclusion, paradoxical worsening should be included in the differential diagnosis when contralateral pleural effusion is detected during the treatment of tuberculosis.
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[Nine cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis predominantly affecting the lower lung fields].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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Pulmonary sarcoidosis which predominantly affects the lower lung fields is relatively rare. We performed this study to clarify the clinical manifestations of this type of sarcoidosis.
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[A case of cold abscess of the chest wall due to thoracic drainage for tuberculous pleuritis].
Kekkaku
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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A 56-year-old man underwent thoracic drainage for two weeks for tuberculous pleuritis. He was put on antituberculosis chemotherapy with INH (400 mg), RFP (450 mg), and EB (750 mg). Two months later, he developed an elastic hard subcutaneous mass in the area of the previous thoracic drainage. The mass was 10 cm in diameter, warm, reddish and painful. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed localized and encapsulated empyema in the left thoracic space and a subcutaneous abscess with rim enhancement in the left lateral chest wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a dumbbell abscess in the subcutaneous tissue communicating with the empyema through the chest wall. A needle aspiration of the subcutaneous abscess had acid-fast bacilli smears of 2+ and tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, he was diagnosed with a cold abscess of the chest, with the empyema in the thoracic space draining into the chest wall through the cut for artificial drainage. Continuation of the anti-tuberculosis treatment and the drainage of the empyema with repeated aspiration reduced the subcutaneous mass, and the clinical and radiological course was favorable. Both the smear and culture for acid-fast test became negative. After completion of chemotherapy, there has been no disease recurrence.
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[Rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis based on the detection of a pulmonary rheumatoid nodule in a patient with Hansens disease].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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A 77-year-old man with Hansens disease was referred to our hospital because of a small nodular lesion detected adjacent to the pleura in the right lower lobe (S10) on chest CT. He had lost all ten fingers due to Hansens disease and was using a prosthetic limb after amputation of the right lower leg. Although the patient had an 11-year history of shoulder and back pain and was suspected of having interstitial pneumonia 6 years previously, no detailed examination had been conducted. Bronchoscopy did not yield a definitive diagnosis, and a lung biopsy was performed under thoracoscopic guidance. Histological examination of the resected nodule with colliquative necrosis revealed palisading granulomas with multinucleated giant cells and plasma cell infiltration with formation of lymphoid follicles. Since serum levels of both anti-MMP3 and anti CCP antibodies were elevated, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with rheumatoid lung was diagnosed. Therefore, the nodule was considered a rheumatoid nodule. Since diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is difficult when lacking characteristic joint manifestations, it is important to include rheumatoid nodules as a differential diagnosis and to measure RA specific autoantibodies, to make a comprehensive diagnosis for non-specific necrotizing granulomas.
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The value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients whose pre-bronchoscopic sputum specimens were negative both for smear and PCR analyses.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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This study assessed the diagnostic rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBS) in patients with suspected PTB, and negative pre-bronchoscopy smear and polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) in sputum.
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[Pulmonary histoplasmosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy].
Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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A 34-year-old Japanese man working in Mexico City since April 2004, was referred to our hospital in December 2005 because of a nodule in the left lingular bronchus, first pointed out in September 2005. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed coagulation necrosis, which contained yeast-like cells stained with fungiflora Y stain. We diagnosed pulmonary histoplasmosis (histoplasmoma type) based on the shape of the fungi and on his residential history. The nodule, resected in January, presented histological findings in concordance with the TBLB specimen. We later confirmed his serum was positive for an anti-histoplasma antibody. The pathogen was identified as Histoplasma capsulatum by PCR using lung tissue. This is apparently the first report of Histoplasmosis diagnosed by TBLB. Since imported mycosis is increasing, we should accumulate cases to make guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.
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Reevaluation of the Japanese guideline for healthcare-associated pneumonia in a medium-sized community hospital in Japan.
J. Infect. Chemother.
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The Japanese guidelines for nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) categorize patients by risk of resistant bacteria and defined antimicrobials to be used, similar to the healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) guidelines of the United States. The data were collected in large-scale hospitals, possibly a cause of inconsistency with everyday practice in medium-sized community hospitals. To test the feasibility of this guideline based on a retrospective study performed in a medium-sized community hospital in Japan, the medical records of pneumonia patients were retrospectively studied [718 patients: NHCAP, 477, 66.4 %; community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), 241, 33.4 %). Factors related to patients background, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment, and outcome were compared between NHCAP and CAP. The A-DROP system, scored by age, dehydration, respiratory failure, disorientation, and low blood pressure, evaluated the severity of pneumonia. In contrast to CAP patients, NHCAP patients included more elderly patients requiring nursing care and revealed higher rates of poor nutrition, dementia, aspiration, severe cases, detection of drug-resistant bacteria, and mortality. For NHCAP, the success rate did not differ between those receiving and not receiving proper initial treatment (76.9 vs. 78.5 %) nor did mortality rate within 30 days differ (13.1 vs. 13.8 %). Risk factors for mortality within 30 days for NHCAP were diabetes [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.394, p = 0.009], albumin <2.5 g/dl (AOR 2.766, p = 0.002), A-DROP very severe (AOR 1.930, p = 0.021), and imaging showing extensive pneumonia (AOR 2.541, p = 0.002). The severity of pneumonia rather than risk of resistant bacteria should be considered, in addition to ethical concerns, in initial treatment strategy in NHCAP to avoid excessive use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.
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A patient with relapsing polychondritis who had been diagnosed as intractable bronchial asthma.
Intern. Med.
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A 62-year-old woman, diagnosed as bronchial asthma 3 years previously, was admitted due to acute severe dyspnea. Physical examination revealed saddle nose, flare/swelling of the ear auricles, and stridor. Computed tomography demonstrated thickening of tracheal/bronchial walls and stenosis of the lumen that deteriorated on expiration, suggesting tracheobronchomalacia. Auricle biopsy indicated cartilage destruction. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as relapsing polychondritis. As demonstrated in this case, relapsing polychondritis involving airways might be misdiagnosed as bronchial asthma due to stridor and transient corticosteroid-related improvement. Early diagnosis is necessary to prevent irreversible airway stenosis and progression to tracheobronchomalacia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.