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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Balance of antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors in the context of the etiology of preeclampsia.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The "two-stage disorder" theory that is assumed for the etiology of preeclampsia hypothesizes that antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors and/or placental debris play an important role in this disorder. The physiological actions of placental debris occur via the balance between antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors. Accordingly, this balance between antiangiogenic and angiogenic factors should be investigated to elucidate the various pathological features of preeclampsia. Their accurate evaluation is needed to investigate not only antiangiogenic factors (such as sFlt-1 and sEng) and angiogenic factors (such as vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor and transforming growth factor-?) but also the expression level of their receptors such as Flt-1 and Eng. However, it is ethically and technically difficult to investigate the above-mentioned factors at antepartum in human patients. The examination of the ratios of sFlt-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor ligands and sEng/transforming vascular endothelial growth factor-? and the use of experimental animal models may help in elucidating various unresolved issues in preeclampsia.
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Usefulness of shock indicators for determining the need for blood transfusion after massive obstetric hemorrhage.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Massive obstetric hemorrhage (MOH) requires prompt transfusion of red blood cells and coagulation factors. Because MOH has a diverse pathogenesis, the shock index (SI) alone may be insufficient for determining blood transfusion. Here, we retrospectively analyzed patients with MOH to determine usefulness of the indicators of shock including the SI in evaluating the need for blood transfusion.
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A Randomized Trial of Monopolar Soft-mode Coagulation Versus Heater Probe Thermocoagulation for Peptic Ulcer Bleeding.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Endoscopic therapy has been demonstrated to be effective in achieving hemostasis for bleeding peptic ulcers. Thermal coagulation is one of the most commonly used methods, with a high success rate. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric carcinoma was developed and hemostasis with soft coagulation using hemostatic forceps was introduced. The aim of this study was to compare the hemostatic efficacy of soft coagulation with heater probe thermocoagulation for peptic ulcer bleeding.
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The effect of progesterone on genes involved in preterm labor.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The decidua is known to be a major source of intrauterine PGF2? during late gestation and labor, and inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8, are elevated in spontaneous preterm deliveries. In the present study, to elucidate how progesterone blocks the pathways associated with preterm birth, we determined the effects of P4 on the expression of PTGS-2 and PTGFR mRNA in human decidua fibroblast cells, as well as the genes, using microarray analysis. Senescence was induced in primary cultured human decidual cells treated with IL-1?. The IL-1? treatment implicated by microarray analysis increased gene expression levels of PTGS-2, PTGFR, NF?-B p65, IL-17, and IL-8. In contrast, P4+IL-1? decreased the expression levels of all of these genes in comparison to treatment with IL-1? alone (p<0.05). IL-1? also increased the proportion of SA-?-gal-positive cells. Treatment with IL-1? also increased the p21 protein level in comparison to cells treated either with the vehicle or P4. Neither the p21 protein level nor the number of SA-?-gal-positive cells was increased in normal endometrial glandular cells by IL-1? (p<0.05). Our studies demonstrated that P4 changes the level of gene expression in a manner that favors an anti-inflammatory milieu. Because IL-8 appears to be the cytokine whose expression is most significantly modulated by P4, further studies evaluating IL-8 as a therapeutic target are needed.
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Necessity for reassessment of patients with serogroup 2 hepatitis C virus (HCV) and undetectable serum HCV RNA.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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We encountered a patient positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) whose serum HCV RNA was undetectable with the Roche AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay (CAP/CTM) version 1 but showed a high viral load with the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART). Discrepancies in the detectability of serum HCV RNA were investigated among 891 consecutive patients who were positive for anti-HCV. Specific nucleotide variations causing the undetectability of HCV RNA were determined and confirmed by synthesizing RNA coding those variations. Serum samples with the discrepancies were also reassessed by CAP/CTM version 2. Among the 891 anti-HCV-positive patients, 4 patients had serum HCV RNA levels that were undetectable by CAP/CTM version 1 despite having levels of >5 log IU/ml that were detected by ART. All four patients had HCV genotype 2a and high titers of anti-HCV. Sequencing of the HCV 5' noncoding regions revealed 2 common variations, A at nucleotide (nt) 145 and T at nt 151. Synthesized RNAs of the HCV 5' noncoding region with standard (NCR145G151C) and variant nucleotides at nt 145 and nt 151 were quantified with CAP/CTM. RNAs of NCR145G151C and NCR145G151T were quantifiable with CAP/CTM version 1, while those of NCR145A151T and NCR145A151C went undetected. The substitution from G to A at nt 145 specifically conferred this undetectability, while this undetectability was reverted in synthesized HCV RNA with correction of this variation. Reassessment of these samples by CAP/CTM version 2 resulted in similar levels of HCV RNA being detected by ART. We conclude that HCV patients with undetectable HCV RNA by CAP/CTM version 1 should be reassessed for viral quantification.
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Combination therapy of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 with antibiotics protects mice from Escherichia coli-induced sepsis*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Inflammation occurs along with infection during sepsis. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 has protective and resolving effects in experimental models of infection. In this study, we examined the effects of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 combined with antibiotics on Escherichia coli-induced peritonitis.
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Post-partum recovery course in patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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We examined the post-partum recovery course in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) and evaluated the associated factors.
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Sleep quality and stress in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus.
Women Birth
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Pregnant women with complications including pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) often experience disrupted sleep patterns because of activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These pathologies are aggravated by sympathetic nervous system activation and may be related to stress. The present study aimed to clarify the characteristics of and changes in sleep quality and stress in pregnant women with PIH and GDM during the second and third trimesters.
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L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model with upregulation of mitochondrial pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease characterized by lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, and fibrosis with an inherent risk for progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to play a role in the progression from simple steatosis to NASH. L-carnitine (L-b-hydroxy-g-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid), an essential nutrient that converts fat into energy in mitochondria, has been shown to ameliorate liver damage. The aim of the present study was to explore the preventive and therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in NASH model mice. Eight-week-old male STAM mice, a NASH-cirrhosis-hepatocarcinogenic model, were divided into 3 experimental groups and fed as follows: 1) high-fat diet (HFD) (control group); 2) HFD mixed with 0.28% L-carnitine (L-carnitine group); and 3) HFD mixed with 0.01% ?-tocopherol (?-tocopherol group). After 4 or 8 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Blood samples and livers were collected, and hepatic tumors were counted and measured. Livers were subjected to histological study, immunohistochemical staining of 4-hydroxynonenal and ferritin, determination of 8-OHdG levels, mRNA and protein expressions for multiple genes, and metabolomic analysis. The intestinal microbiome was also analyzed. L-carnitine increased hepatic expression of genes related to long-chain fatty acid transport, mitochondrial ?-oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes following suppression of hepatic oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines in NASH, and mice treated with L-carnitine developed fewer liver tumors. Although ?-tocopherol resulted in NASH improvement in the same manner as L-carnitine, it increased periodontitis-related microbiotic changes and hepatic iron transport-related gene expression and led to less effective for anti-hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion: L-carnitine prevents progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a mouse model by upregulating the mitochondrial ?-oxidation and redox system.
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Placental transfer of intravenous nicardipine and disposition into breast milk during the control of hypertension in women with pre-eclampsia.
Hypertens Pregnancy
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Objective: To assess nicardipine safety for fetuses and neonates. Methods: Nicardipine was measured in maternal plasma (MP), umbilical cord arterial (UaP) and venous (UvP) plasma and breast milk (BrM) of 18 women with severe preeclampsia. Results: Nicardipine was infused for a mean 11.9?±?10.5 days before and 4.6?±?1.6 days after delivery. Nicardipine dose and MP concentration were linearly correlated, as were MP with UaP, UvP, and BrM concentrations. The BrM/MP ratio was 0.06 to 0.30. The mean relative infant dose was 0.082%. Conclusion: Nicardipine is safe for fetuses and neonates due to its low levels of placental transfer and disposition in BrM.
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Neonatal outcome in infants of chronically hypertensive mothers.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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?We investigated the neonatal outcome in chronically hypertensive patients with controlled hypertension, uncontrollable hypertension, or superimposed pre-eclampsia.
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Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for massive pulmonary thromboembolism.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) can result in significant adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Monteplase-a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-is considered effective for the treatment of PTE; however, only a few reports have described cases wherein surgical procedures were performed following treatment with monteplase. Here, we present a patient diagnosed with a massive PTE at 28 weeks of gestation leading to maternal cardiac arrest and intrauterine fetal death. The patient was treated with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and monteplase. Thrombolysis was achieved 30 min after its administration. The patient went into spontaneous labour and delivered a stillborn vaginally. Using gauze tamponade and uterotonic agents, haemostasis was achieved after 4 h, and bleeding completely ceased after 7 h. Thus, we suggest that a thrombolytic agent can be administered in critical cases, even if delivery is expected shortly.
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Isolation and characterization of human trophoblast side-population (SP) cells in primary villous cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo cell line.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among "side-population" (SP) cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported. In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs) were stained with Hoechst 33342 and SP and non-SP (NSP) fractions were isolated using a cell sorter. A small population of SP cells was identified in HTR-8/SVneo cells and in vCTBs. SP cells expressed several vCTB-specific markers and failed to express syncytiotrophoblast (STB) or extravillous cytotrophopblast (EVT)-specific differentiation markers. SP cells formed colonies and proliferated on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells or in MEF conditioned medium supplemented with heparin/FGF2, and they also showed long-term repopulating property. SP cells could differentiate into both STB and EVT cell lineages and expressed several differentiation markers. Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells. vCTB cells sorted as positive for both IL7R and IL1R2 failed to express trophoblast differentiation markers and spontaneously differentiated into both STB and EVT in basal medium. These features shown by the SP cells suggested that IL7R and IL1R2 are available as markers to detect the SP cells and that vCTB progenitor cells and trophoblast stem cells were involved in the SP cell population.
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Limitations of internal iliac artery ligation for the reduction of intraoperative hemorrhage during cesarean hysterectomy in cases of placenta previa accreta.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of internal iliac ligation as a bleeding control during cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta.
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Resolvins as regulators of the immune system.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or injury, but excessive or inappropriate inflammatory responses contribute to a range of acute and chronic human diseases. Clinical assessment of dietary supplementation of ù-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) indicate that they have beneficial impact on these diseases, although the mechanisms are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this decade, it has been revealed that EPA and DHA are enzymatically converted to bioactive metabolites in the course of acute inflammation and resolution. These metabolites were shown to regulate immune cell functions and to display potent anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Because of their ability to resolve an acute inflammatory response, they are referred to as proresolving mediators, or resolvins. In this review, we provide an overview of the formation and actions of these lipid mediators.
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Effect of Toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor on LPS-induced lung injury.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays important roles in the recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the activation of inflammatory cascade. In this study, we evaluated the effect of TAK-242, a selective TLR4 signal transduction inhibitor, on acute lung injury (ALI).
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The anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator resolvin E1 protects mice from bacterial pneumonia and acute lung injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Whereas pneumonia is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide, most cases of pneumonia spontaneously resolve. Mechanisms that promote pneumonia resolution remain to be determined. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous mediator that displays proresolving actions in sterile inflammation. In this study, we developed a new model of aspiration pneumonia to evaluate the effect of RvE1 on acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration and subsequent bacterial challenge. Mice received hydrochloric acid into the left lung followed by the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli. I.v. administration of RvE1 (approximately 0.005 mg/kg) prior to acid injury selectively decreased lung neutrophil accumulation by 55% and enhanced clearance of E. coli. RvE1 significantly decreased lung tissue levels of several proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-6, HMGB-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and MCP-1, in a manner independent of the anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10 and lipoxin A4. In addition, animals treated with RvE1 had a marked improvement in survival. These findings in experimental aspiration pneumonia have uncovered protective roles for RvE1 in pathogen-mediated inflammation that are both anti-inflammatory for neutrophils and protective for host defense, suggesting that RvE1 represents the first candidate for a novel therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury and pneumonia that harnesses natural resolution mechanisms.
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Examination of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in placenta villi from sufferers of pregnancy induced hypertension.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)) synthase in pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
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[Hormone excretion and peroxisomes of human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells (TCL-2) derived from first-trimester placenta].
Yakugaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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We studied the hormone excretion of human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells (TCL-2, first-trimester cells) and determined whether peroxisomes are present in TCL-2. The results of TCL-2 were compared with those of TCL-1 (third-trimester cells). Morphologically, TCL-2 cells were fibroblast-like, and the growth rate of TCL-2 was slower than that of TCL-1 during 3 days culture. Progesterone was detected in the medium of TCL-2, and its concentration was approximately one-tenth of that in TCL-1. The activity of the peroxisomal marker enzyme catalase was detected in the TCL-2 homogenate, and it was about one-third the level of that in TCL-1. Fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected in TCL-2, and it was about one-seventh the level of that in TCL-1. On the other hand, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was detected in the medium of TCL-2, and its concentration after 3 days of culture was about 2-fold that in TCL-1. Using the diaminobenzidine (DAB) method, peroxisomes were found in TCL-2, but only a very small amount of catalase was detected. These results indicate that human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells (TCL-2) synthesize, secrete hCG and progesterone, and may contain peroxisomes. Because extravillous trophoblast cells are difficult to obtain from the first-trimester placenta, TCL-2 cells are useful for the study of the physiologic functions (including peroxisomal function) of first-trimester cells.
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Dynamic programming algorithms and grammatical modeling for protein beta-sheet prediction.
J. Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Protein structure prediction is one major task in computational biology, and various methods have been proposed for secondary structure prediction. In particular, it is a challenge to predict beta-sheet structures since they range over several discontinuous regions in an amino acid sequence. In this article, we propose dynamic programming algorithms for several kinds of antiparallel beta-sheets, where the proposed approach can be extended for more general classes of beta-sheets. Experimental results for real data show that our prediction algorithms have good performance in accuracy. We also show a relation between the proposed algorithms and an existing grammar-based method, and present another grammatical modeling. Furthermore, we prove that prediction of planar beta-sheet structures is NP-hard.
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Omega-3 PUFA derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator resolvin E1.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Inflammation is a defensive response to injury and infection, but excessive or inappropriate inflammation contributes to a range of acute and chronic human diseases. Clinical assessment of dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) indicate their beneficial impact on human diseases in which inflammation is suspected as a key component of the pathogenesis. Although the mechanism of EPA and DHA action is still not fully defined in molecular terms, recent studies have revealed that, during the course of acute inflammation, omega-3 PUFA-derived mediators including resolvins and protectins with potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties are produced. In this review, we provide an overview of the formation and actions of EPA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator resolvin E1.
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Oxidative stress produced by xanthine oxidase induces apoptosis in human extravillous trophoblast cells.
J. Reprod. Dev.
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Oxidative stress has been recognized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. It has been reported that the expression of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the cytotrophoblast and plasma hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) level are significantly higher in preeclamptics than in control women. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by XO on extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. TCL1 cells, a human immortalized EVT cell line, were incubated with xanthine and XO (X/XO). We then measured the cell number, urate level of the culture media and the apoptotic cell ratio. Similar experiments were performed with additional administration of allopurinol, catalase, L-NAME or D-NAME, and with administration of H(2)O(2) in substitution for X/XO. We assessed the effects of H(2)O(2) on invasion ability, tube-like formation and protein expression of HIF1A and ITGAV of TCL1. Finally, the apoptotic cell ratio using primary cultured trophoblasts was measured following exposure to H(2)O(2). X/XO decreased the relative cell number and increased the urate level and apoptotic cell ratio significantly. Elevation of the urate level and apoptotic cell ratio was attenuated by allopurinol and catalase, respectively. L-NAME and D-NAME had no influence on these effects. H(2)O(2) also decreased the relative cell number. Pretreatment with H(2)O(2) significantly inhibited the invasion ability, tube-like formation and HIF1A and ITGAV of TCL1. H(2)O(2) also induced apoptosis in primary cultured trophoblasts. In conclusion, ROS produced by XO induced apoptosis and affected EVT function including invasion and differentiation.
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A retrospective analysis of transfusion management for obstetric hemorrhage in a Japanese obstetric center.
ISRN Obstet Gynecol
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Background. Since cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, or recombinant activated factor VII is not approved by public medical insurance in Japan, we retrospectively assessed blood product usage in patients with obstetric hemorrhage at our tertiary obstetric center. Material and Methods. 220 patients with obstetric hemorrhagic disorders who underwent blood product transfusion in our institution during a 5-year period were reviewed for the types and volumes of blood products transfused. Results. There was a significant positive correlation (P< 0.001) between the volume of RCC (red blood cell concentrate) transfused and that of FFP (fresh frozen plasma), irrespective of underlying obstetric disorders. The median of FFP to RCC ratio in each patient was 1.3-1.4, when 6 or more units of RCC were transfused. Conclusions. In transfusion for massive obstetric hemorrhage in terms of appropriate supplementation of coagulation factors, the transfusion of RCC : FFP = 1 : 1.3-1.4 may be desirable.
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Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women.
Nat. Med.
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Germline stem cells that produce oocytes in vitro and fertilization-competent eggs in vivo have been identified in and isolated from adult mouse ovaries. Here we describe and validate a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based protocol that can be used with adult mouse ovaries and human ovarian cortical tissue to purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and can spontaneously generate 35- to 50-?m oocytes, as determined by morphology, gene expression and haploid (1n) status. Injection of the human germline cells, engineered to stably express GFP, into human ovarian cortical biopsies leads to formation of follicles containing GFP-positive oocytes 1-2 weeks after xenotransplantation into immunodeficient female mice. Thus, ovaries of reproductive-age women, similar to adult mice, possess rare mitotically active germ cells that can be propagated in vitro as well as generate oocytes in vitro and in vivo.
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High-risk ovarian cancer based on 126-gene expression signature is uniquely characterized by downregulation of antigen presentation pathway.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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High-grade serous ovarian cancers are heterogeneous not only in terms of clinical outcome but also at the molecular level. Our aim was to establish a novel risk classification system based on a gene expression signature for predicting overall survival, leading to suggesting novel therapeutic strategies for high-risk patients.
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Assessment of health-related quality of life predicts the outcome of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
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Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) decreases health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The present study was planned to investigate the impact of HRQOL of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) on the outcomes of therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, in addition to IL28B polymorphisms.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.