The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an artificially controlled environment, particularly elevated total pressure, on net photosynthesis and respiration during plant growth. Pressure directly affects not only cells and organelles in leaves but also the diffusion coefficients and degrees of solubility of CO2 and O2. In this study, the effects of elevated total pressure on the rates of net photosynthesis and respiration of a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, were investigated in a chamber that newly developed in this study to control the total pressure. The results clearly showed that the rate of respiration decreased linearly with increasing total pressure at a high humidity. The rate of respiration decreased linearly with increasing total pressure up to 0.2 MPa, and increased with increasing total pressure from 0.3 to 0.5 MPa at a low humidity. The rate of net photosynthesis decreased linearly with increasing total pressure under a constant partial pressure of CO2 at 40 Pa. On the other hand, the rate of net photosynthesis was clearly increased by up to 1.6-fold with increasing total pressure and partial pressure of CO2.
To examine the three-dimensional structure of the perivascular glial limiting membrane (Glm) and its relationship with the vasculature in rat/mouse cerebral cortices, serial ion-etched plastic sections were observed under the scanning electron microscope and their images were reconstructed. In the case of arterioles and venules close to the pial surface, cord-like principal processes predominantly formed the endfeet; whereas in the case of capillaries and venules, sheet-like secondary processes chiefly formed Glm. Moreover, it was found that several plate-like structures protruded from the basement membrane surrounding the arterioles to penetrate into the astrocytic somata. The perivascular Glm was formed by monolayers of astrocytic processes and/or somata irrespective of the types of blood vessel. However, the thickness of the perivascular Glm, varied greatly according to the type of blood vessel. The thickness of Glm decreased in the order of arterioles, venules and capillaries. The outer surface of the perivascular Glm was extremely irregular, and sheet-like processes arising from this Glm infiltrated into the surrounding neuropil.
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