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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Graft Extrusion in Both the Coronal and Sagittal Planes Is Greater After Medial Compared With Lateral Meniscus Allograft Transplantation but Is Unrelated to Early Clinical Outcomes.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Graft extrusion after meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) may be affected by horn fixation, which differs between medial and lateral MAT. Few studies have compared graft extrusion, especially sagittal extrusion, after medial and lateral MAT.
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Structure of the ArgRS-GlnRS-AIMP1 complex and its implications for mammalian translation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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In higher eukaryotes, one of the two arginyl-tRNA synthetases (ArgRSs) has evolved to have an extended N-terminal domain that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis and cell growth and in integration into the multisynthetase complex (MSC). Here, we report a crystal structure of the MSC subcomplex comprising ArgRS, glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS), and the auxiliary factor aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1)/p43. In this complex, the N-terminal domain of ArgRS forms a long coiled-coil structure with the N-terminal helix of AIMP1 and anchors the C-terminal core of GlnRS, thereby playing a central role in assembly of the three components. Mutation of AIMP1 destabilized the N-terminal helix of ArgRS and abrogated its catalytic activity. Mutation of the N-terminal helix of ArgRS liberated GlnRS, which is known to control cell death. This ternary complex was further anchored to AIMP2/p38 through interaction with AIMP1. These findings demonstrate the importance of interactions between the N-terminal domains of ArgRS and AIMP1 for the catalytic and noncatalytic activities of ArgRS and for the assembly of the higher-order MSC protein complex.
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Complete resolution of avascular necrosis of the human femoral head treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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We report a case of a 43-year-old man with early stage (stage 1) avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). ASC-containing stromal vascular fraction was mixed with PRP and hyaluronic acid. This mixture was then injected into the diseased hip under ultrasound guidance. The affected hip was reinjected weekly with additional PRP for 4 weeks. The patient was followed-up with sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3, 18, and 21 months after treatment, together with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Walking Index, Functional Rating Index, Harris Hip Score, and Range of Motion (ROM) assessments. The patient's severe hip pain was considerably improved at 3 months after treatment, with pain scores, ROM and MRI showing near complete resolution of AVN. Pain scores, ROM and MRI at 18 and 21 months after treatment indicated complete resolution of AVN. This case represents the first evidence of complete resolution of early stage AVN of the hip following treatment with ASCs/PRP.
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The dual binding site of angiogenin and its inhibition mechanism: the crystal structure of the rat angiogenin-heparin complex.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The heparin complex of rat angiogenin revealed that a heparin strand is fitted into a positively charged groove formed by the dual binding site of rat angiogenin, suggesting that cell adhesion to angiogenin is facilitated by its interaction with substrates on the cell surface and can be inhibited by heparin.
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Prognostic value of genetic detection using CEA and MAGE in peritoneal washes with gastric carcinoma after curative resection: result of a 3-year follow-up.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent cause of death in patients with gastric cancer. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of peritoneal washes has been used to predict peritoneal metastasis of gastric carcinoma. We applied carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and melanoma-associated gene (MAGE) RT-PCR for the detection of peritoneal metastasis of gastric carcinoma after curative surgery and evaluated its clinical significance. Peritoneal washes were obtained from 117 patients with gastric carcinoma. MAGE A1-A6 and CEA RT-PCR were performed, and the results were evaluated according to their clinicopathologic characteristics. Three-year follow-up clinical studies were periodically performed, and disease-free survival rates were retrospectively investigated using the medical records. Among 117 peritoneal fluids, 11 cases (9.4%) revealed MAGE expression and 38 cases (32.5%) revealed CEA expression. When focusing on recurrence rates, RT-PCR-positive had much higher recurrence rates than RT-PCR-negative cases (32.5% vs 5.2%, P?
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Characterization of the frhAGB-encoding hydrogenase from a non-methanogenic hyperthermophilic archaeon.
Extremophiles
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The F420-reducing hydrogenase has been known as a key enzyme in methanogenesis. Its homologs have been identified in non-methanogenic hyperthermophilic archaea, including Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, but neither physiological function nor biochemical properties have been reported to date. The enzyme of T. onnurineus NA1 was distinguished from those of other methanogens and the members of the family Desulfurobacteriaceae with respect to the phylogenetic distribution of the ? and ? subunits, organization of frhAGB genes and conservation of F420-coordinating residues. RT-qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed frhA gene is not silent but is expressed in T. onnurineus NA1 grown in the presence of sulfur, carbon monoxide, or formate. The trimeric enzyme complex was purified to homogeneity via affinity chromatography from T. onnurineus NA1 and exhibited catalytic activity toward the electron acceptors such as viologens and flavins but not the deazaflavin coenzyme F420. This is the first biochemical study on the function of the frhAGB-encoding enzyme from a non-methanogenic archaea.
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Current approaches for carpal tunnel syndrome.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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With advancement in biomechanical and biological research on idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, the insight on the pathophysiology of carpal tunnel syndrome has gained much clinical relevance. Open carpal tunnel release is still a gold standard procedure for carpal tunnel syndrome, which has evolved into mini-open procedure with development of new devices. Endoscopic carpal tunnel release has become popular in recent practice of hand surgery with an advantage of early recovery of hand function with minimal morbidity. However, endoscopic carpal tunnel release has its own limitation such as long learning curve with obvious surgical risk reported in the literature. In this review article, various treatment protocols for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome are presented with special highlight on endoscopic carpal tunnel release, which is gaining popularity in current practice.
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Clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinomas.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma is a rare and distinct type of breast carcinoma, with morphologic features similar to those of pulmonary and gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine tumors. More than 50% of cells express neuroendocrine markers. We documented the clinical and radiologic features of 11 patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine breast carcinomas. Clinical manifestations included nipple discharge (6 patients) and palpable masses (5 patients). Lesions were mainly oval or irregular on mammography (n = 8), sonography (n = 11), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 9). Understanding the clinical and radiologic features of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma will facilitate the differential diagnosis.
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Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Viability of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects by comparing nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (RAW cells), a macrophage cell line. Among the EDCs tested, fenitrothion (FTH) inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), resulting in reduced NO production, while treatment with andostenedione (AD), diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), estriol, or molinate decreased production of NO in an iNOS-independent fashion. In contrast, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) increased the production of NO in RAW cells. In addition, AD, DBP, or FTH inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta. Treatment with 17-?-ethynylestradiol, 17-?-estradiol, 4-n-butyl phenol, or alachlor induced apoptosis of RAW cells, while dicyclohexyl phthalate and B(a)P caused cell death in an apoptosis-independent manner. These data suggest that EDCs can influence the immune response to pathogens by modulating the functions of macrophages.
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Enhancing Functional Expression of Heterologous Proteins Through Random Substitution of Genetic Codes in the 5' Coding Region.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Recent studies using heterologous protein expression systems suggest that synonymous codons affect not only the expression but also the properties of the expressed protein. However, practical application of this information is challenging, and to date, efforts to employ bioinformatics tools to design synonymous codon mixes have been only marginally successful. Here, we sought to enhance the functional expression of heterologous protein in Escherichia coli through completely random substitution of the first ten codons with synonymous codons, using a previously isolated exocellulase CelEdx-SF301 as the model protein. Synonymous codon variants were generated by PCR using forward primers with mixed nucleotides at the third position in each codon and a conventional reverse primer. The resulting PCR products were inserted upstream of the fluorescent protein mCherry without linkers. After transformation and cultivation, colonies exhibiting red fluorescence were selected, and the activity of SF301-mCherry fusion proteins was tested. Synonymous codon variant fusion proteins exhibited 35- to 530-fold increases in functional expression compared with wild-type controls. Unlike results from other reports, we found that the stability of mRNA secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region and codon rarity were not correlated with functional expression level. Our work demonstrates that a completely random mixed of synonymous codons effectively enhances functional expression levels without the need for amino acid substitutions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Structure and backbone dynamics of vanadate-bound PRL-3: comparison of 15N nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation profiles of free and vanadate-bound PRL-3.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) constitute a novel class of small, prenylated phosphatases with oncogenic activity. PRL-3 is particularly important in cancer metastasis and represents a potential therapeutic target. The flexibility of the WPD loop as well as the P-loop of protein tyrosine phosphatases is closely related to their catalytic activity. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we studied the structure of vanadate-bound PRL-3, which was generated by addition of sodium orthovanadate to PRL-3. The WPD loop of free PRL-3 extended outside of the active site, forming an open conformation, whereas that of vanadate-bound PRL-3 was directed into the active site by a large movement, resulting in a closed conformation. We suggest that vanadate binding induced structural changes in the WPD loop, P-loop, helices ?4-?6, and the polybasic region. Compared to free PRL-3, vanadate-bound PRL-3 has a longer ?4 helix, where the catalytic R110 residue coordinates with vanadate in the active site. In addition, the hydrophobic cavity formed by helices ?4-?6 with a depth of 14-15 Å can accommodate a farnesyl chain at the truncated prenylation motif of PRL-3, i.e., from R169 to M173. Conformational exchange data suggested that the WPD loop moves between open and closed conformations with a closing rate constant k(close) of 7 s(-1). This intrinsic loop flexibility of PRL-3 may be related to their catalytic rate and may play a role in substrate recognition.
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Phosphorylation-dependent interaction between a serine/threonine kinase PknA and a putative cell division protein Wag31 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains eleven serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). Among these ST- PKs, PknA is a key component of signal transduction pathway that regulates cell shape and possibly cell division in M. tuberculosis via reversible phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. The in vitro peptide library screen showed that Wag31, a putative cell division protein, was a new substrate phosphorylated by PknA. The signal transduction pathway involving Wag31 and PknA plays a unique role in M. tuberculosis growth regulation that may participate in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. In this study, genes of PknA, wild-type Wag31 (Wag31WT), phosphoablative Wag31T73A, and phosphomimetic Wag31T73E were cloned and expressed. Far-western analyses were performed using partial purified PknA and completely purified Wag31 proteins (Wag31WT, Wag31T73A, and Wag31T73E). Far-western analysis data revealed that the direct interaction between PknA and Wag31 is dependent on the phos- phorylation state of Wag31, which can represent a novel target for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs.
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nc886, a non-coding RNA of anti-proliferative role, is suppressed by CpG DNA methylation in human gastric cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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nc886 is a 101 nucleotide long non-coding RNA that has been designated as a precursor microRNA or a vault RNA based upon it sequence. nc886 has also been suggested to be a tumor suppressor, mainly inferred by its expression pattern as well as its genomic location at human chromosome 5q31, a locus for a tumor suppressor gene(s). However, legitimate data based on nc886's correct identity for its functional cellular roles as a tumor suppressor have not been provided yet. Here we have investigated nc886 in gastric cancer where its expression is suppressed due to CpG DNA hypermethylation at its promoter region in a cohort of paired tumor/normal tissues from 88 gastric cancer patients. CpG hypermethylation of nc886 and thus its diminished expression is significantly associated with poor survival in these cancer patients. nc886 inhibits cell proliferation when ectopically expressed in gastric cancer cells. nc886's tumor suppressive role is corroborated by the induction of well-known oncogenes such as FOS, NF-?B, and MYC upon its knockdown. All these activities of nc886 are undoubtedly independent of mature microRNA or vault RNA. Our data indicate that nc886 is a putative tumor suppressor and could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker in gastric cancer.
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Vortical flow in human elbow joints: a three-dimensional computed tomography modeling study.
J. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The human elbow joint has been regarded as a loose hinge joint, with a unique helical motion of the axis during extension-flexion. This study was designed to identify the helical axis in the ulnohumeral joint during elbow extension-flexion by tracking the midpoint between the coronoid tip and the olecranon tip of the proximal ulna in a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) image model. The elbows of four volunteers were CT-scanned at four flexion angles (0°, 45°, 90°, and 130°) at neutral rotation with a custom-made holding device to control any motion during scanning. Three-dimensional models of each elbow were reconstructed and a 3D ulnohumeral joint at 45°, 90°, and 130° was superimposed onto a fully extended joint (0°) by rotating and translating each 3D ulnohumeral joint along the axes. The midpoints of the olecranon and coronoid tips were interpolated using cubic spline technique and the dynamic elbow motion was plotted to determine the motion of the helical axis. The means and standard deviations were subsequently calculated. The average midpoint pattern of joint motion from extension to flexion was elliptical-orbit-like when projected onto a sagittal plane and continuously translated a mean 2.14 ± 0.34 mm (range, 1.83-2.52 mm) to the lateral side during elbow extension-flexion. In 3D space, the average midpoint pattern of the ulnohumeral joint resembles a vortical flow, spinning along an imaginary axis, with an inconsistent radius from 0° to 130° flexion. The ulnohumeral joint axis both rotates and translates during elbow extension-flexion, with a vortex-flow motion occurring during flexion in 3D model analysis. This motion should be considered when performing hinged external fixation, total elbow replacement and medial collateral ligament reconstruction surgery.
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Structure of ADC-68, a novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing class C extended-spectrum ?-lactamase isolated from Acinetobacter baumannii.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections have become more frequent worldwide owing to the emergence of several different classes of ?-lactamases. In this study, the molecular, biochemical and structural characteristics of an Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase (ADC)-type class C ?-lactamase, ADC-68, isolated from the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii D015 were investigated. The blaADC-68 gene which encodes ADC-68 was confirmed to exist on the chromosome via Southern blot analysis and draft genome sequencing. The catalytic kinetics of ?-lactams and their MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for A. baumannii D015 and purified ADC-68 (a carbapenemase obtained from this strain) were assessed: the strain was resistant to penicillins, narrow-spectrum and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenems, which were hydrolyzed by ADC-68. The crystal structure of ADC-68 was determined at a resolution of 1.8?Å. The structure of ADC-68 was compared with that of ADC-1 (a non-carbapenemase); differences were found in the central part of the ?-loop and the C-loop constituting the edge of the R1 and R2 subsites and are close to the catalytic serine residue Ser66. The ADC-68 C-loop was stabilized in the open conformation of the upper R2 subsite and could better accommodate carbapenems with larger R2 side chains. Furthermore, a wide-open conformation of the R2-loop allowed ADC-68 to bind to and hydrolyze extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Therefore, ADC-68 had enhanced catalytic efficiency against these clinically important ?-lactams (extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems). ADC-68 is the first reported enzyme among the chromosomal class C ?-lactamases to possess class C extended-spectrum ?-lactamase and carbapenemase activities.
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Transtendinous Wiring of Mallet Finger Fractures Presenting Late.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To determine if transtendinous wiring was an effective late treatment for bony mallet injuries.
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Application of in utero electroporation of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) genes, for subcellular localization of hardly identifiable GPCR in mouse cerebral cortex.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor that exerts diverse biological effects through its cognate receptors (LPA1-LPA6). LPA1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, plays a pivotal role in brain development. However, the role of LPA1 in neuronal migration has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we delivered LPA1 to mouse cerebral cortex using in utero electroporation. We demonstrated that neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex was not affected by the overexpression of LPA1. Moreover, these results can be applied to the identification of the localization of LPA1. The subcellular localization of LPA1 was endogenously present in the perinuclear area, and overexpressed LPA1 was located in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, LPA1 in developing mouse cerebral cortex was mainly expressed in the ventricular zone and the cortical plate. In summary, the overexpression of LPA1 did not affect neuronal migration, and the protein expression of LPA1 was mainly located in the ventricular zone and cortical plate within the developing mouse cerebral cortex. These studies have provided information on the role of LPA1 in brain development and on the technical advantages of in utero electroporation.
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Deltoid muscle injury scratched by an osteophyte on the greater tuberosity of the humeral head: an unusual cause of shoulder pain.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Few reports to date have discussed acute deltoid muscle injury, including partial or complete deltoid muscle detachment from its origin. The present report describes a different pathomechanism and clinical manifestations of deltoid muscle injury. A 52-year-old man experienced acute severe pain in the right shoulder as a result of abrupt elevation of the arm. The deltoid muscle had apparently been scratched by an osteophyte on the greater tuberosity. After arthroscopic excision of the osteophyte, the symptoms resolved completely. Level of evidence Case report with no comparison group, Level IV.
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Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-?-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.
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Highly sensitive detection of a bio-threat pathogen by gold nanoparticle-based oligonucleotide-linked immunosorbent assay.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Francisella (F.) tularensis causes the zoonotic disease tularemia and categorized as one of the highest-priority biological agents. The sensing approaches utilized by conventional detection methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are not sensitive enough to identify an infectious dose of this high-risk pathogen due to its low infective dose. As an attempt to detect F. tularensis with high sensitivity, we utilized the highly sensitive immunoassay system named gold nanoparticle-based oligonucleotide-linked immunosorbent assay (GNP-OLISA) which uses antibody-gold nanoparticles conjugated with DNA strands as a signal generator and RNA oligonucleotides appended with a fluorophore as a quencher for signal amplification. We modified the GNP-OLISA for the detection F. tularensis to utilize one antibody for both the capture of the target and for signal generation instead of using two different antibodies, which are usually employed to construct the antibody sandwich in the ELISA. The GNP-OLISA showed 37-fold higher sensitivity compared with ELISA and generated very consistent detection results in the sera. In addition, the detection specificity was not affected by the presence of non-target bacteria, suggesting that GNP-OLISA can be used as a sensitive detection platform for monitoring high-risk pathogens thereby overcoming the limit of the conventional assay system.
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Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with germline mutation of STK11.
Ann Surg Treat Res
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), also known as periorificial lentiginosis, is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease with an incidence of 1/200,000 live-borns. Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase 11 (STK11) gene are considered the major cause of PJS. The most frequent complication at young age is recurrent intussusception due to multiple hamartomatous polyps, primarily in the small intestine. Although extremely rare, the small bowel should be fully examined to be certain additional intussusceptions are not present. Herein, we report on a case of PJS with germline mutation of STK11 in a 12-year-old young girl who presented as a rare case of two small intestinal intussusceptions and review the literature.
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Characterization of the interaction between lysyl-tRNA synthetase and laminin receptor by NMR.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) interacts with the laminin receptor (LR/RPSA) and enhances laminin-induced cell migration in cancer metastasis. In this nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based study, we show that the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds directly to the C-terminal region of 37LRP, and the previously found inhibitors BC-K-01 and BC-K-YH16899 interfere with KRS-37LRP binding. In addition, the anticodon-binding domain of KRS binds to laminin, observed by NMR and SPR. These results provide crucial insights into the structural characteristics of the KRS-LR interaction on the cell surface.
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Functional modification of Drosophila intestinal stem cells by ionizing radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Although the diverse effects of ionizing radiation on biological and pathological processes at various levels ranging from molecular to whole body are well studied, the effects on adult stem cells by ionizing radiation remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the functional modifications of adult Drosophila midgut intestinal stem cells after ionizing radiation treatment. A dose of 10 Gy of radiation decreased the proliferative capacity of intestinal stem cells. Interestingly, after irradiation at 2 Gy, the intestinal stem cells exhibited increased proliferative activity, misdifferentiation and ?H2AvD and 8-oxo-dG levels. In addition, the guts irradiated with 2 Gy showed increased JNK and AKT activities. Furthermore, we showed that 2 Gy of ionizing radiation induced centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of adult midguts. Our data gives molecular insights into the effects of ionizing radiation on functional modifications of stem cells. The adult Drosophila midgut intestinal stem cells offer a potentially rich new system for the exploration of the biological effects of ionizing radiation.
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Gene expression profiling of bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with lipoteichoic acid plus peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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A Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus is known to be one of the major pathogenic bacteria responsible for causing bovine mastitis. Among the various cell wall components of S. aureus, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) are closely associated with inflammatory responses. However, the role of LTA and PGN derived from S. aureus in bovine mastitis has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we characterized the gene expression profile of a bovine mammary gland epithelial cell line, MAC-T cells, in the presence of LTA and PGN from S. aureus. LTA plus PGN, but not LTA or PGN alone, activated MAC-T cells. The analysis of transcriptional profiles using an Affymetrix genechip microarray showed that stimulation with LTA plus PGN produced a total of 2019 (fold change >1.2) differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 801 up-regulated genes and 1218 down-regulated genes. Of the up-regulated genes, 14 inflammatory mediator-related DEGs, 22 intra-cellular signaling molecule-related DEGs, and 15 transcription factor-related DEGs were observed, whereas among the down-regulated DEGs 17 inflammation-related DEGs were found. The microarray results were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR of 18 genes with substantial changes in expression (9 each from the up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs). These results provide a comprehensive analysis of gene-expression profiles elicited by S. aureus LTA and PGN in MAC-T cells, contributing to an understanding of the pathogenesis for S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.
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Pulmonary toxocariasis mimicking invasive aspergillosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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A 45-year-old-male who had underlying ulcerative colitis and presented with fever and dry cough. Initially, the patient was considered to have invasive aspergillosis due to a positive galactomannan assay. He was treated with amphotericin B followed by voriconazole. Nevertheless, the patient deteriorated clinically and radiographically. The lung biopsy revealed eosinophilic pneumonia, and ELISA for Toxocara antigen was positive, leading to a diagnosis of pulmonary toxocariasis. After a 10-day treatment course with albendazole and adjunctive steroids, the patient recovered completely without any sequelae. Pulmonary toxocariasis may be considered in patients with subacute or chronic pneumonia unresponsive to antibiotic agents, particularly in cases with eosinophilia.
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Tension wire fixation for mallet fracture after extension block pinning failed.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Various surgical treatments such as extension block pinning have been proposed for acute bony mallet finger. We evaluated the clinical results of tension wire fixation technique for the treatment of nonunion of mallet fracture after failed mallet finger surgery.
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Follow-up outcomes of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer with undifferentiated histology.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The application of endoscopic resection (ER) for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD-EGC) remains controversial. The aim was to examine long-term outcomes of ER for UD-EGC. Furthermore, we investigated whether long-term outcomes of ER differed between poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PD) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC).
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Influence of TEM specimen preparation on chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.
Micron
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The influences of different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation techniques on the chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals was studied. Ion-milled samples where no cooling with liquid nitrogen (L-N2) was applied show permanently changed composition also deep inside the bulk material. When the PMN-PT samples were cooled to L-N2 temperature during the ion-milling process and in addition lower accelerating voltages were used, the chemical composition was altered only in the thinnest parts close to the specimen edge. Samples prepared using only tripod polishing technique show compositional irregularities close to the specimen edge. For the preparation of lead-containing samples, such as PMN-PT single crystals, a combination of tripod polishing and short Ar-ion-milling at low accelerating voltages while cooling the samples to liquid nitrogen temperature proved to be the most suitable to obtain artefact-free electron-transparent TEM lamellae.
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IgE in the absence of allergen induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the rat basophilic cell-line RBL-2H3.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Recently, basophils have been suggested to produce inflammatory mediators in response to IgE in the absence of allergens. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in the initiation of inflammatory responses by recruiting various immune cells to the site of allergic inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether IgE under allergen-free conditions could stimulate basophils and lead to the production of MCP-1. Exposure of the rat basophilic cell-line RBL-2H3 to IgE without allergen resulted in a dose- and time-dependent induction of MCP-1 expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Although allergen was not necessary for IgE-induced MCP-1 expression, it was essential for degranulation as determined by ?-hexosaminidase release assay. IgE enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinases including ERK, p38 kinase, and JNK. However, IgE-induced MCP-1 expression was attenuated by inhibitors for JNK and PKC. Concomitantly, IgE induced activation of AP-1, which is an important transcription factor for MCP-1 gene expression in RBL-2H3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IgE alone is sufficient to stimulate basophils to increase expression of MCP-1, which in turn might contribute to the inflammatory response.
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Combination of biobarcode assay with on-chip capillary electrophoresis for ultrasensitive and multiplex biological agent detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Early diagnosis of biological agents is of paramount importance to prevent the casualties and fatal disease in human during bioterrorism or biological warfare. In this study, we reported an efficient and sensitive multiplex biological agent detection method based on the DNA biobarcode assay and the micro-capillary electrophoresis (?CE) technology. Monoplex as well as multiplex pathogen identification was performed using five targets including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Vaccinia virus and Botulinum toxin A. Through the DNA biobarcode assay process, the magnetic microparticle-pathogen-polystyrene microbead complexes were formed, and the FAM labeled single stranded barcode DNA could be released from the complexes upon denaturation. Different lengths of a barcode DNA were designed to designate each pathogen, so that the specific peak elution time in the capillary electrophoresis on a chip allows us to distinguish the target with high accuracy within 3 min. We improved the assignment accuracy of the peak in the electropherogram by adding two bracket ladders. Owing to the abundant amount of barcode DNAs, the presence of B. anthracis, F. tularensis, Y. pestis, Vaccinia virus was confirmed with a limit of detection of 50CFU/mL, while Botulinum toxin A was analyzed even at a concentration of 12.5 ag/mL. Multiple pathogen detection was also successfully conducted in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as well as a serum medium with background of other pathogens. Thus, our analytical platform based on the biobarcode assay and on-chip CE analysis provides rapid, sensitive, multiplex, and accurate biological agent identification.
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Analysis of reverse transcriptase gene mutations in the hepatitis B virus at a university hospital in Korea.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Most mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) are related to resistance to antiviral agents. Cross-sectional studies on the mutations of this gene are rare. Thus, we analyzed the mutation patterns of RT genes and their biochemical parameters.
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Effects of GC7101, a Novel Prokinetic Agent on Gastric Motor Function: Ex Vivo Study.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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GC7101, an extract of Lonicera Flos, is a novel developing drug for reflux esophagitis and functional dyspepsia. However, the drug's exact pharmacological mechanism of action remains unclear. This study assessed the effects of GC7101 on gastro-intestinal (GI) motor function.
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Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called `SARAH' (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1-RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1-RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432-Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3??-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1-RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438-Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441-Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST-RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1-RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.
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A Case of Postfundoplication Dysphagia without Symptomatic Improvement after Endoscopic Dilatation.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Laparoscopic fundoplication is a treatment option for gastroesophageal reflux disease refractory to medical treatment. When deciding whether or not to undergo surgery, patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal motility disorder need to fully understand the operative procedure, postoperative complications, and residual symptoms such as dysphagia, globus sensation, and recurrence of reflux. Herein, we report a case of a patient diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease and aperistalsis who underwent Nissen (total, 360°) fundoplication after lack of response to medical treatment and subsequently underwent pneumatic dilatation due to unrelieved postoperative dysphagia and globus sensation.
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Morphometric analysis of the proximal ulna using three-dimensional computed tomography and computer-aided design: varus, dorsal, and torsion angulation.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The proximal ulna, particularly the course of the posterior border, has a complex three-dimensional (3D) morphology which has been highlighted recently due to its clinical relevance in relation to surgical treatments. 3D computed tomography (CT) reconstruction and computer-aided design (CAD) based software can help to visualize the complex anatomy and thus aid the investigation of the more detailed morphology of the proximal ulna.
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TopBP1 deficiency impairs V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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TopBP1 was initially identified as a topoisomerase II-?-binding protein and it plays roles in DNA replication and repair. We found that TopBP1 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid tissues and is essential for early lymphocyte development. Specific abrogation of TopBP1 expression resulted in transitional blocks during early lymphocyte development. These defects were, in major part, due to aberrant V(D)J rearrangements in pro-B cells, double-negative and double-positive thymocytes. We also show that TopBP1 was located at sites of V(D)J rearrangement. In TopBP1-deficient cells, ?-H2AX foci were found to be increased. In addition, greater amount of ?-H2AX product was precipitated from the regions where TopBP1 was localized than from controls, indicating that TopBP1 deficiency results in inefficient DNA double-strand break repair. The developmental defects were rescued by introducing functional TCR ?? transgenes. Our data demonstrate a novel role for TopBP1 as a crucial factor in V(D)J rearrangement during the development of B, T and iNKT cells.
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The structural basis for the negative regulation of thioredoxin by thioredoxin-interacting protein.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The redox-dependent inhibition of thioredoxin (TRX) by thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) plays a pivotal role in various cancers and metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism of this regulation is largely unknown. Here, we present the crystal structure of the TRX-TXNIP complex and demonstrate that the inhibition of TRX by TXNIP is mediated by an intermolecular disulphide interaction resulting from a novel disulphide bond-switching mechanism. Upon binding to TRX, TXNIP undergoes a structural rearrangement that involves switching of a head-to-tail interprotomer Cys63-Cys247 disulphide between TXNIP molecules to an interdomain Cys63-Cys190 disulphide, and the formation of a de novo intermolecular TXNIP Cys247-TRX Cys32 disulphide. This disulphide-switching event unexpectedly results in a domain arrangement of TXNIP that is entirely different from those of other arrestin family proteins. We further show that the intermolecular disulphide bond between TRX and TXNIP dissociates in the presence of high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. This study provides insight into TRX and TXNIP-dependent cellular regulation.
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The effect of short-term low-energy ultraviolet B irradiation on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial.
Srp Arh Celok Lek
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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The importance of vitamin D on bone health and osteoporosis was studied by many researchers. The main role of the Vitamin D is to absorb calcium and phosphate and increase bone mineralization. Older people are at an increased risk of the inadequate vitamin D production in the skin because of lower sun exposure and reduced ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D.
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Nail-preserving excision for subungual glomus tumour of the hand.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Abstract Subungual glomus tumours can cause excruciating pain and nail deformity. Conventional surgical excision requires nail removal and, therefore, nail deformity often occurs. Because nail preservation prevents further damage to the nail bed, it is beneficial for patients from the perspectives of pain and cosmesis. Here, the authors introduce a nail-preserving transungual approach for subungual glomus tumours. Between 1996-2010, 34 patients were treated using this nail-preserving transungual approach for the excision of a subungual glomus tumour and were followed up. Preoperatively, all patients complained of pain (mean visual analogue scale (VAS) 8.9), and seven of the 34 patients presented concomitant nail deformities. During surgeries, nails were elevated after incising nail folds, and tumours were excised after a longitudinal nail bed incision. Elevated nails were relocated to their original position after nail bed repair. Thirty-two of the 34 patients achieved complete recovery without sign of recurrence. Mean postoperative pain was reduced (VAS 0.9, range = 0-2), and preoperative nail deformity was also improved. The nail preserving transungual approach provides several advantages, that is, better nail bed exposure, resulting in easier tumour excision, and less damage to the nail bed with less deformity of the nail.
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Fracture dislocation of the proximal humerus with ipsilateral shaft fracture: a report of two cases.
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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We report two cases of ipsilateral proximal humerus fracture dislocation and shaft fracture in young adults. Fractures were treated with prosthetic replacement for the proximal humerus and open reduction and internal fixation for the shaft fracture due to the extent and complexity of the injury.
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Role of preferential weak hybridization between the surface-state of a metal and the oxygen atom in the chemical adsorption mechanism.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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We report on the chemical adsorption mechanism of atomic oxygen on the Pt(111) surface using angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional calculations. The detailed band structure of Pt(111) from ARPES reveals that most of the bands near the Fermi level are surface-states. By comparing band maps of Pt and O/Pt, we identify that dxz (dyz) and dz(2) orbitals are strongly correlated in the surface-states around the symmetry point M and K, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that the s- or p-orbital of oxygen atoms hybridizes preferentially with the dxz (dyz) orbital near the M symmetry point. This weak hybridization occurs with minimal charge transfer.
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Evaluation of the robustness of the preprocessing technique improving reversible compressibility of CT images: tested on various CT examinations.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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To modify the preprocessing technique, which was previously proposed, improving compressibility of computed tomography (CT) images to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts and to evaluate the robustness of the technique in terms of segmentation correctness and increase in reversible compression ratio (CR) for various CT examinations.
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Comparison of cervical lengths using transabdominal and transvaginal sonography in midpregnancy.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Cervical length assessment is helpful to predict and prevent preterm birth. However, transvaginal sonography is not easy to perform. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship and discrepancies between cervical lengths measured by transabdominal and transvaginal sonography in midpregnancy.
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Continuous exposure to 60?Hz magnetic fields induces duration- and dose-dependent apoptosis of testicular germ cells.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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To evaluate duration- and dose-dependent effects of continuous exposure to a 60?Hz magnetic field (MF) on the testes in mice, BALB/c male mice were exposed to a 60?Hz MF at 100??T for 24?h a day for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks, and at 2, 20, or 200??T for 24?h a day for 8 weeks. Any exposures to MF did not significantly affect body or testicular masses. However, the apoptotic cells among testicular germ cells were increased duration-dependent at exposures of 100??T for 6 and 8 weeks and dose-dependent at exposures of 20 and 200??T for 8 weeks. The number of sperm in epididymis and the diameter of seminiferous tubule decreased in mice exposed to 100 and 200??T for 8 weeks, respectively. To induce the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice, the minimum dose is 20??T at continuous exposure to a 60?Hz MF for 8 weeks and the minimum duration is 6 weeks at continuous exposure of 100??T. Taken together, these results suggest that continuous exposure to a 60?Hz MF might affect, duration- and dose-dependent biological processes including apoptotic cell death and spermatogenesis in the male reproductive system of mice. Bioelectromagnetics © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Musicians medicine: musculoskeletal problems in string players.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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There is increasing attention to medical problems of musicians. Many studies find a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians, ranging from 73.4% to 87.7%, and string players have the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. This paper examines the various positions and movements of the upper extremities in string players: 1) basic postures for holding instruments, 2) movements of left upper extremity: fingering, forearm posture, high position and vibrato, 3) movements of right upper extremity: bowing, bow angles, pizzicato and other bowing techniques. These isotonic and isometric movements can lead to musculoskeletal problems in musicians. We reviewed orthopedic disorders that are specific to string players: overuse syndrome, muscle-tendon syndrome, focal dystonia, hypermobility syndrome, and compressive neuropathy. Symptoms, interrelationships with musical performances, diagnosis and treatment of these problems were then discussed.
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Lipoteichoic acid of Enterococcus faecalis induces the expression of chemokines via TLR2 and PAFR signaling pathways.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections, and its LTA is known as an important virulence factor causing inflammatory responses. As chemokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases by triggering leukocyte infiltration into the infection site, we purified EfLTA and investigated its effect on the expression of chemokines, IP-10, MIP-1?, and MCP-1, in murine macrophages. EfLTA induced the expression of these chemokines at the mRNA and protein levels. TLR2, CD14, and MyD88 were involved in the EfLTA-induced chemokine expression, as the expression was reduced remarkably in macrophages derived from TLR2-, CD14-, or MyD88-deficient mice. EfLTA induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and enhanced the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B, AP-1, and NF-IL6 transcription factors. The induction of IP-10 required ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, PKC, PTK, PI3K, and ROS. We noticed that all of these signaling molecules, except p38 MAPK and ROS, were indispensable for the induction of MCP-1 and MIP-1?. Interestingly, the EfLTA-induced chemokine expression was mediated through PAFR/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathways without IFN-? involvement, which is different from LPS-induced chemokine expression requiring IFN-?/JAK/STAT1 signaling pathways. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of EfLTA-treated RAW 264.7 cells promoted the platelet aggregation, and exogenous PAF induced the chemokine expression in macrophages derived from WT and TLR2-deficient mice. These results suggest that EfLTA induces the expression of chemokines via signaling pathways requiring TLR2 and PAFR, which is distinct from that of LPS-induced chemokine expression.
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Direct observation of cationic ordering in double perovskite Sr?FeReO? crystals.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Two kinds of Sr?FeReO? (SFRO) samples, pristine SFRO and Re-excess SFRO, were prepared and we visualized the local atomic structure in terms of cationic ordering in the prepared SFRO samples via high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HAADF-STEM results demonstrated the high degree of cationic ordering maintains in both the pristine SFRO and Re-excess SFRO samples. On the other hand, defective structures such as antiphase boundary and Re-deficient phase were observed dominantly in the pristine SFRO, and thus the poor magnetic property in the pristine SFRO is attributed to those defective structures related with the frustrated Fe/Re ordering.
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Gastric cancer detection using gastric juice pepsinogen and melanoma-associated gene RNA.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To develop a new method for gastric cancer detection with gastric juice using melanoma-associated gene (MAGE) RNA and pepsinogen (PG).
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Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression for human dental mesenchymal stem cells.
Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Human dental mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) have been isolated from extracted human teeth and proven to have different proliferation and differentiation abilities among the subtypes. Despite increasing interest in the clinical use of hDMSCs, a well-defined specific marker has been absent for these stem cells. In this study, a comparative analysis with known mesenchymal stem cell surface markers such as STRO-1, CD90, CD146, CD34 and TfR (CD71) was performed.
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Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.
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Chemical inhibition of prometastatic lysyl-tRNA synthetase-laminin receptor interaction.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS), a protein synthesis enzyme in the cytosol, relocates to the plasma membrane after a laminin signal and stabilizes a 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) that is implicated in cancer metastasis; however, its potential as an antimetastatic therapeutic target has not been explored. We found that the small compound BC-K-YH16899, which binds KRS, impinged on the interaction of KRS with 67LR and suppressed metastasis in three different mouse models. The compound inhibited the KRS-67LR interaction in two ways. First, it directly blocked the association between KRS and 67LR. Second, it suppressed the dynamic movement of the N-terminal extension of KRS and reduced membrane localization of KRS. However, it did not affect the catalytic activity of KRS. Our results suggest that specific modulation of a cancer-related KRS-67LR interaction may offer a way to control metastasis while avoiding the toxicities associated with inhibition of the normal functions of KRS.
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The prevalence and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects classified as low risk based on traditional risk stratification algorithm: assessment with coronary CT angiography.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic subjects classified as low risk by National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guideline using coronary CT angiography (CCTA).
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[Effects of perceived health status, self-esteem and family function on expectations regarding aging among middle-aged women].
J Korean Acad Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate expectations regarding aging by middle-aged women in the community, and identify factors contributing to their expectations about aging.
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A new examination method for anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis in the little finger.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Current examination methods to assess the anatomical variations of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon in the little finger necessitate a strong external force applied by the examiner and cause false negatives. A new examination method was designed to detect the variations more accurately.
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For Patients with Primary Achalasia the Clinical Success of Pneumatic Balloon Dilatation Can Be Predicted from the Residual Fraction of Radionuclide During Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and esophagography have long been used to evaluate patients with achalasia. The objectives of our study were to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic dilatation (EPD) as treatment for Koreans with achalasia and to determine which findings from ETS and esophagography predict successful treatment of achalasia.
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Conformational changes in human prolyl-tRNA synthetase upon binding of the substrates proline and ATP and the inhibitor halofuginone.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases recognize cognate amino acids and tRNAs from their noncognate counterparts and catalyze the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Halofuginone (HF), a coccidiostat used in veterinary medicine, exerts its effects by acting as a high-affinity inhibitor of the enzyme glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS). In order to elucidate the precise molecular basis of this inhibition mechanism of human EPRS, the crystal structures of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase domain of human EPRS (hPRS) at 2.4?Å resolution (hPRS-apo), of hPRS complexed with ATP and the substrate proline at 2.3?Å resolution (hPRS-sub) and of hPRS complexed with HF at 2.62?Å resolution (hPRS-HF) are presented. These structures show plainly that motif 1 functions as a cap in hPRS, which is loosely opened in hPRS-apo, tightly closed in hPRS-sub and incorrectly closed in hPRS-HF. In addition, the structural analyses are consistent with more effective binding of hPRS to HF with ATP. Mutagenesis and biochemical analysis confirmed the key roles of two residues, Phe1097 and Arg1152, in the HF inhibition mechanism. These structures will lead to the development of more potent and selective hPRS inhibitors for promoting inflammatory resolution.
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Compartmentalized, functional role of angiogenin during spotted fever group rickettsia-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction: evidence of possible mediation by host tRNA-derived small noncoding RNAs.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction is the central enigma in spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses. Angiogenin (ANG) is one of the earliest identified angiogenic factors, of which some are relevant to the phosphorylation of VE-cadherins that serve as endothelial adherens proteins. Although exogenous ANG is known to translocate into the nucleus of growing endothelial cells (ECs) where it plays a functional role, nuclear ANG is not detected in quiescent ECs. Besides its nuclear role, ANG is thought to play a cytoplasmic role, owing to its RNase activity that cleaves tRNA to produce small RNAs. Recently, such tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) have been shown to be induced under stress conditions. All these observations raise an intriguing hypothesis about a novel cytoplasmic role of ANG, which is induced upon infection with Rickettsia and generates tRFs that may play roles in SFG rickettsioses.
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Licochalcone E present in licorice suppresses lung metastasis in the 4T1 mammary orthotopic cancer model.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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We investigated whether licochalcone E (LicE), a phenolic constituent of licorice, inhibits mammary tumor growth and metastasis using animal and cell culture models. 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic BALB/c mice. Starting 7 days after the injection, the mice received LicE (7 or 14 mg/kg body weight/day) via oral gavage for 25 days. LicE suppressed solid tumor growth and lung metastasis, but did not exhibit kidney or liver toxicity. In tumor tissues, LicE treatment induced a reduction in the expression of Ki67, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and stimulated apoptosis with increased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 but decreased expression of Bcl-2. In addition, LicE decreased expression of CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and C, VEGF-receptor 2, lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1, CD45, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and hypoxia inducible factor-1? in tumor tissues. In lung tissues, LicE reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis/metastasis-related proteins. In mammary cancer cell cultures, LicE (5-20 ?mol/L) dose dependently inhibited cell migration and invasion. LicE inhibited secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and VEGF-A, and stimulated secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, LicE inhibited tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. We show that LicE administration suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis in the mouse model in conjunction with LicE inhibition of cell migration, invasion, and tube formation in vitro. Reduced tumor growth and metastasis in LicE-treated mice may be, at least in part, attributed to reduced inflammation and tumor angiogenesis.
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Expression of MAGE A1-6 and the clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The expression of melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) gene has been studied in many types of cancer. In the present study we evaluated the correlation between MAGE expression and the clinical features and oncologic outcomes of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
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A retinyl palmitate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle system: effect of surface modification with dicetyl phosphate on skin permeation in vitro and anti-wrinkle effect in vivo.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing retinyl palmitate (Rpal) were prepared by the hot-melt method using Gelucire 50/13(®) and Precirol ATO5(®). Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was added to negatively charge the surfaces of the SLNs and thereby enhance the skin distribution properties of Rpal. In vitro skin permeation and in vivo anti-aging studies were performed using SLNs dispersed in a hydrogel. The SLNs were under 100 nm in size with an even polydispersity index (PDI), and the high absolute zeta-potential value was sufficient to maintain the colloidal stability of the SLNs. DCP-modified negative SLNs (DCPmod-SLNs) enhanced the skin distribution of Rpal 4.8-fold and delivered Rpal to a greater depth than did neutral SLNs. The in vivo anti-wrinkle effect of the DCPmod-SLN formulation was Rpal dose-dependent. However, the anti-wrinkle effects of the DCPmod-SLN formulations were significantly different from that of the negative control and effectively prevented the reduction of elastin and superoxide dismutase by UV irradiation. In conclusion, the DCPmod-SLN system presented is a good candidate for topical Rpal delivery.
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Carcinomatosis matters: clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for clinical success of stent placement in malignant gastric outlet obstruction.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Although carcinomatosis is not a contraindication to stenting in selected patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), associate factors for clinical success rate of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement in GOO patients with carcinomatosis have not been fully characterized.
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Mechanism of metformin: inhibition of DNA damage and proliferative activity in Drosophila midgut stem cell.
Mech. Ageing Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Age-related changes in stem cells could have a profound impact on tissue aging and the development of age-related diseases such as cancer. However, the effects of metformin, a recently recognized anti-cancer drug, on stem cell aging remain largely unknown. In the present study, an experiment was set up to investigate the underlying mechanism of metformins beneficial effects on age-related changes in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) derived from Drosophila midgut. Results showed that metformin reduced age- and oxidative stress-related accumulation of DNA damage marked by Drosophila ?H2AX foci and 8-oxo-dG in ISCs and progenitor cells. Metformin also inhibited age and- oxidative stress-related ISC hyperproliferation as well as intestinal hyperplasia. Our study further revealed that the inhibitory effects of metformin on DNA damage accumulation may be due to the down-regulation of age-related and oxidative stress-induced AKT activity. These data indicate that metformin has beneficial effects on age-related changes in ISCs derived from Drosophila midgut. Further, our results suggest a possible impact of DNA damage on stem cell genomic instability, which leads to the development of age-related diseases. Additionally, our study suggests that Drosophila midgut stem cells can be a suitable model system for studying stem cell biology and stem cell aging.
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Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays.
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Structural basis for the ?-lactamase activity of EstU1, a family VIII carboxylesterase.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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EstU1 is a unique family VIII carboxylesterase that displays hydrolytic activity toward the amide bond of clinically used ?-lactam antibiotics as well as the ester bond of p-nitrophenyl esters. EstU1 assumes a ?-lactamase-like modular architecture and contains the residues Ser100, Lys103, and Tyr218, which correspond to the three catalytic residues (Ser64, Lys67, and Tyr150, respectively) of class C ?-lactamases. The structure of the EstU1/cephalothin complex demonstrates that the active site of EstU1 is not ideally tailored to perform an efficient deacylation reaction during the hydrolysis of ?-lactam antibiotics. This result explains the weak ?-lactamase activity of EstU1 compared with class C ?-lactamases. Finally, structural and sequential comparison of EstU1 with other family VIII carboxylesterases elucidates an operative molecular strategy used by family VIII carboxylesterases to extend their substrate spectrum.
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Improvement of the diagnostic sensitivity of scrub typhus using a mixture of recombinant antigens derived from Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Diagnosis of scrub typhus is difficult because its symptoms are very similar to other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis, murine typhus, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. To differentiate scrub typhus from other acute febrile diseases, a rapid and reliable serological diagnosis is important. We have developed a chimeric recombinant antigen cr56 and two other recombinant antigens, r21 and kr56, from various serotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi. They were tested for the detection of antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in the patients serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot-blot analyses. As of conventional immunofluorescence assay (IFA), when the mixture of these three recombinant antigens was used, both sensitivity and specificity of the recombinant antigens were increased up to 98% in IgM and IgG at ELISA and dot blotting. Additionally, both sensitivity and specificity by detection of IgM and IgG antibodies at rapid diagnostic test (RDT), using the mixture of three antigens and gold conjugated antibodies, were 99%. Our results suggest the use of mixture of these recombinant antigen proteins in ELISA or RDT is suitable as a diagnostic test for scrub typhus.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The complete mitochondrial genome of a Korean Ussurian tube-nosed bat, Murina ussuriensis, was determined. The mitochondrial genome of M. ussuriensis is 17,285 bp in length with a total base composition of 33.8% A, 28.9% T, 23.8% C, and 13.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,401 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. The total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1516 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA (Ser) ((AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA (Leu) ((UUR)) and tRNA (Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 2496 bp in length.
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Flexion and extension gaps created by the navigation-assisted gap technique show small acceptable mismatches and close mutual correlations.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the development of gap differences in total knee arthroplasty using the navigation-assisted gap technique and to assess whether these gap differences have statistical significance.
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Clinical outcomes and predictive factors in oral corticosteroid-refractory active ulcerative colitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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To evaluate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors after intravenous corticosteroids following oral corticosteroid failure in active ulcerative colitis patients.
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CO-dependent H2 production by genetically engineered Thermococcus onnurineus NA1.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Hydrogenogenic CO oxidation (CO + H(2)O ? CO(2) + H(2)) has the potential for H(2) production as a clean renewable fuel. Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, which grows on CO and produces H(2), has a unique gene cluster encoding the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) and the hydrogenase. The gene cluster was identified as essential for carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic metabolism by gene disruption and transcriptional analysis. To develop a strain producing high levels of H(2), the gene cluster was placed under the control of a strong promoter. The resulting mutant, MC01, showed 30-fold-higher transcription of the mRNA encoding CODH, hydrogenase, and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and a 1.8-fold-higher specific activity for CO-dependent H(2) production than did the wild-type strain. The H(2) production potential of the MC01 mutant in a bioreactor culture was 3.8-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. The H(2) production rate of the engineered strain was severalfold higher than those of any other CO-dependent H(2)-producing prokaryotes studied to date. The engineered strain also possessed high activity for the bioconversion of industrial waste gases created as a by-product during steel production. This work represents the first demonstration of H(2) production from steel mill waste gas using a carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbe.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.