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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reflecting on earlier experiences with unsolicited findings: points to consider for next-generation sequencing and informed consent in diagnostics.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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High-throughput nucleotide sequencing (often referred to as next-generation sequencing; NGS) is increasingly being chosen as a diagnostic tool for cases of expected but unresolved genetic origin. When exploring a higher number of genetic variants, there is a higher chance of detecting unsolicited findings. The consequential increased need for decisions on disclosure of these unsolicited findings poses a challenge for the informed consent procedure. This article discusses the ethical and practical dilemmas encountered when contemplating informed consent for NGS in diagnostics from a multidisciplinary point of view. By exploring recent similar experiences with unsolicited findings in other settings, an attempt is made to describe what can be learned so far for implementing NGS in standard genetic diagnostics. The article concludes with a set of points to consider in order to guide decision-making on the extent of return of results in relation to the mode of informed consent. We hereby aim to provide a sound basis for developing guidelines for optimizing the informed consent procedure.
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Normal prenatal ultrasound findings in a case with de novo mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 18--how to counsel?
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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We report on a prenatally diagnosed de novo small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived form chromosome 18. Molecular cytogenetic studies led to information about the clinical relevance of the sSMC-induced chromosomal imbalance. As prenatal ultrasound was normal, detailed information with respect to prenatal counseling of the parents was necessary. In general, detection of an sSMC requires as much information on the exact genetic content with its possible impact on the phenotype as achievable.
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A de novo 1.1Mb microdeletion of chromosome 19p13.11 provides indirect evidence for EPS15L1 to be a strong candidate for split hand split foot malformation.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We describe a 3.5 year old girl presenting with short stature, developmental delay, marked muscular hypotonia with ataxia, premature pubarche, and dysmorphic features. A 1.07-1.12Mb-sized de novo microdeletion of chromosome 19p13.11 is most likely the cause for the clinical phenotype. The patient did not show any abnormalities of the extremities which contrasts with the finding of one previously reported patient with an overlapping deletion presenting with split hand and foot malformation (SHFM). The remarkable difference is that in the previously described patient but not in the patient reported herein the genes EPS15L1 and CALR3 were deleted. As EPS15L1 has been associated with limb development previously, the presented case provides indirect evidence that this may be a new candidate gene for SHFM. A possible genotype-phenotype correlation is provided based on literature review and comparison of our patient to the previously reported patients with overlapping or partly overlapping copy number variations in 19p13.11.
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Pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation profiling of Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway genes in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Fanconi anemia (FA) associated genes [FANCA, -B, -C, FANCD1(BRCA2), -D2, -E, -F, -G, -I, -L, -M, FANCN (PALB2), FANCJ(BRIP1) and FA-linked BRCA1] encode proteins of DNA damage response pathways mutated in FA patients. FA is characterized by congenital malformations, chromosomal instability and high cancer susceptibility. FA patients have a 500-700 times higher risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) compared to the non-FA population. As DNA methylation comprises one of the known gene inactivation mechanisms in cancer we have investigated the methylation status of 13 FA and one FA-linked gene in order to assess the role of FA in sporadic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tumor samples. Thirteen laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell lines (UT-SCC) and 64 primary laryngeal carcinoma cases were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. DNA from buccal swabs of 10 healthy volunteers was used as a control group. Promoter regions of FANCA, BRCA1 and BRCA2 displayed recurrent alterations in the methylation levels in cancer samples as compared to buccal swabs controls. For FANCA, hypomethylation was observed in 11/13 cell lines (p<0.0003) and all 64 primary larynx samples (p<0.001) compared to buccal swabs. For BRCA1, 4/13 cell lines (p=0.04) and 3/58 primary laryngeal cases (p=0.22) showed hypomethylation. In BRCA2, all 13 cell lines (p<0.0001) 4/63 primary LSCC (p<0.01) showed hypermethylation as compared to controls. In conclusion, we show recurrent alterations of DNA methylation levels in three Fanconi anemia genes which might contribute to the pathogenesis of LSCC.
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A duplication in 1q21.3 in a family with early onset and childhood absence epilepsy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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Early onset absence epilepsy (EOAE) starting before the age of 4 years constitutes a rare subgroup of the idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). A strong genetic component in IGE has been suggested by twin and family studies. We describe a boy with absence seizures starting at the age of 9 months whose parents both had childhood absence epilepsy. A 192-kb duplication in 1q21.3 was identified in the proband and his father, encompassing the gene CHRNB2 coding for the ?-2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and the gene ADAR coding for adenosine deaminase, an enzyme responsible for RNA editing. Both are candidate genes for seizure disorders. The duplication was not identified in 191 independent IGE patients (93 EOAE; 98 classical IGE) or in 1,157 population controls.
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High resolution ArrayCGH and expression profiling identifies PTPRD and PCDH17/PCH68 as tumor suppressor gene candidates in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Many classical tumor suppressor genes (TSG) were identified by delineation of bi-allelic losses called homozygous deletions. To identify systematically homozygous deletions in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to unravel novel putative tumor suppressor genes, we screened 10 LSCC cell lines using high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) and array based expression analysis. ArrayCGH identified altogether 113 regions harboring protein coding genes that showed strong reduction in copy number indicating a potential homozygous deletion. Out of the 113 candidate regions, 22 novel homozygous deletions that affected the coding sequences of 15 genes were confirmed by multiplexPCR. Three genes were homozygously lost in two cell lines: PCDH17/PCH68, PRR20, and PTPRD. For the 15 homozygously deleted genes, four showed statistically significant downregulation of expression in LSCC cell lines as compared with normal human laryngeal controls. These were ATG7 (1/10 cell line), ZMYND11 (BS69) (1/10 cell line), PCDH17/PCH68 (9/10 cell lines), and PTPRD (7/10 cell lines). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the downregulation of the candidate genes in 10 expression array-studied cell lines and an additional cohort of cell lines; statistical significant downregulation of PCDH17/PCH68 and PTPRD was observed. In line with this also Western blot analyses demonstrated a complete absence of the PCDH17 and PTPRD proteins. Thus, expression profiling confirmed recurrent alterations of two genes identified primarily by delineation of homozygous deletions. These were PCDH17/PCH68, the protocadherin gene, and the STAT3 inhibiting receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPRD. These genes are good candidates for novel TSG in LSCC.
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Possible genetic heterogeneity of spinocerebellar ataxia linked to chromosome 15.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated an SCA family from Serbia of Roma ethnic origin; four affected and nine unaffected family members underwent a detailed neurological examination. The presenting symptom in all patients was gait unsteadiness in early adulthood. Additional features included pyramidal signs, depression, and cognitive impairment. The condition follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. After excluding repeat expansions in nine known SCA genes, a genome-wide linkage analysis with 412 microsatellite markers localized the putative disease gene to a 40.7 cM (42.5 Mb) region on chromosome 15q between markers D15S1006 and D15S116. The maximum model-based multipoint LOD score was 1.75. This region is only 4.3 Mb away from the SCA11 (TTBK2) gene. Accordingly, mutations in TTBK2 were not found, suggesting a second SCA gene on chromosome 15q as cause of this novel form of SCA. In addition, we excluded alterations in two candidate genes in the linked region, namely expansion of a polyglutamine-coding CAG repeat in ARID3B and mutations in SEMA6D.
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Deregulation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene by chromosomal translocations in B-cell malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Sequence variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus in chromosome 5p have been recently associated with disposition for various cancers. Here we show that this locus including the gene encoding the telomerase reverse-transcriptase TERT at 5p13.33 is rarely but recurrently targeted by somatic chromosomal translocations to IGH and non-IG loci in B-cell neoplasms, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. In addition, cases with genomic amplification of TERT locus were identified. Tumors bearing chromosomal aberrations involving TERT showed higher TERT transcriptional expression and increased telomerase activity. These data suggest that deregulation of TERT gene by chromosomal abnormalities leading to increased telomerase activity might contribute to B-cell lymphomagenesis.
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Deletions in 16p13 including GRIN2A in patients with intellectual disability, various dysmorphic features, and seizure disorders of the rolandic region.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Seizure disorders of the rolandic region comprise a spectrum of different epilepsy syndromes ranging from benign rolandic epilepsy to more severe seizure disorders including atypical benign partial epilepsy/pseudo-Lennox syndrome,electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Centrotemporal spikes are the unifying electroencephalographic hallmark of these benign focal epilepsies, indicating a pathophysiologic relationship between the various epilepsies arising from the rolandic region. The etiology of these epilepsies is elusive, but a genetic component is assumed given the heritability of the characteristic electrographic trait. Herein we report on three patients with intellectual disability, various dysmorphic features, and epilepsies involving the rolandic region, carrying previously undescribed deletions in 16p13. The only gene located in the critical region shared by all three patients is GRIN2A coding for the alpha-2 subunit of the neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA) receptor.
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Four patients with speech delay, seizures and variable corpus callosum thickness sharing a 0.440 Mb deletion in region 1q44 containing the HNRPU gene.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Structural genome aberrations are frequently associated with highly variable congenital phenotypes involving mental retardation and developmental delay. Although some of these aberrations may result in recognizable phenotypes, a high degree of phenotypic variability often complicates a comprehensive clinical and genetic diagnosis. We describe four patients with overlapping deletions in chromosomal region 1q44, who show developmental delay, in particular of expressive speech, seizures, hypotonia, CNS anomalies, including variable thickness of the abnormal corpus callosum in three of them. High resolution oligonucleotide and SNP array-based segmental aneuploidy profiling showed that these three patients share a 0.440 Mb interstitial deletion, which does not overlap with previously published consensus regions of 1q44 deletions. Two copies of AKT3 and ZNF238, two previously proposed dosage sensitive candidate genes for microcephaly and agenesis of the corpus callosum, were retained in two of our patients. The deletion shared by our patients encompassed the FAM36A, HNRPU, EFCAB2 and KIF26B genes. Since HNRPU is involved in the regulation of embryonic brain development, this represents a novel plausible candidate gene for the combination of developmental delay, speech delay, hypotonia, hypo- or agenesis of the corpus callosum, and seizures in patients with 1q44 deletions. Since only one of the two patients with deletions including the ZNF124 gene showed a vermis hypoplasia, mere hemizygosity for this gene is not sufficient to cause this anomaly. Moreover, to reconcile the variability in the corpus callosum thickness, additional mechanisms, such as unmasking of hemizygous mutations, position effects and possible interactions with other loci need consideration.
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Mutations in GRIN2A and GRIN2B encoding regulatory subunits of NMDA receptors cause variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. Two glycine-binding NR1 subunits and two glutamate-binding NR2 subunits each form highly Ca²(+)-permeable cation channels which are blocked by extracellular Mg²(+) in a voltage-dependent manner. Either GRIN2B or GRIN2A, encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NR2B and NR2A, was found to be disrupted by chromosome translocation breakpoints in individuals with mental retardation and/or epilepsy. Sequencing of GRIN2B in 468 individuals with mental retardation revealed four de novo mutations: a frameshift, a missense and two splice-site mutations. In another cohort of 127 individuals with idiopathic epilepsy and/or mental retardation, we discovered a GRIN2A nonsense mutation in a three-generation family. In a girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, we identified the de novo GRIN2A mutation c.1845C>A predicting the amino acid substitution p.N615K. Analysis of NR1-NR2A(N615K) (NR2A subunit with the p.N615K alteration) receptor currents revealed a loss of the Mg²(+) block and a decrease in Ca²(+) permeability. Our findings suggest that disturbances in the neuronal electrophysiological balance during development result in variable neurological phenotypes depending on which NR2 subunit of NMDA receptors is affected.
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Two siblings with immunodeficiency, facial abnormalities and chromosomal instability without mutation in DNMT3B gene but liability towards malignancy; a new chromatin disorder delineation?
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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ICF syndrome (standing for Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome) is a very rare autosomal recessive immune disorder caused by mutations of the gene de novo DNA-methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). However, in the literature similar clinical cases without such mutations are reported, as well.
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Dosage effect of zero to three functional LBR-genes in vivo and in vitro.
Nucleus
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2010
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The Lamin B receptor (LBR) is a pivotal architectural protein in the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the Lamin B receptor lead to nuclear hyposegmentation (Pelger-Huët anomaly). We have exactly quantified the nuclear lobulation in neutrophils from individuals with 0, 1, 2 and 3 functional copies of the lamin B receptor gene and analyzed the effect of different mutation types. Our data demonstrate that there is a highly significant gene-dosage effect between the gene copy number and the nuclear segmentation index of neutrophils. This finding is paralleled by a dose-dependent increase in LBR protein and staining intensity of the nuclear membrane in corresponding lymphoblastoid cell lines, which demonstrates a significant correlation on the protein level as well. We further show that LBR expression continually increases during granulopoiesis in vitro from human precursor cells with ovoid nuclei to multi-segmented neutrophil nuclei 11 days later, indicating relevance for regular human granulopoiesis. Altogether, LBR is a unique model that will allow the systematic study of gene-dosage effects and of modifying endogeneous and exogeneous factors on granulopoiesis.
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Deregulated expression of cytokine receptor gene, CRLF2, is involved in lymphoid transformation in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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We report 2 novel, cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL): a translocation, either t(X;14)(p22;q32) or t(Y;14)(p11;q32), in 33 patients and an interstitial deletion, either del(X)(p22.33p22.33) or del(Y)(p11.32p11.32), in 64 patients, involving the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. The incidence of these abnormalities was 5% in childhood ALL (0.8% with the translocation, 4.2% with the deletion). Patients with the translocation were older (median age, 16 years), whereas the patients with the deletion were younger (median age, 4 years). The 2 abnormalities result in deregulated expression of the cytokine receptor, cytokine receptor-like factor 2, CRLF2 (also known as thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin receptor, TSLPR). Overexpression of CRLF2 was associated with activation of the JAK-STAT pathway in cell lines and transduced primary B-cell progenitors, sustaining their proliferation and indicating a causal role of CRLF2 overexpression in lymphoid transformation. In Down syndrome (DS) ALL and 2 non-DS BCP-ALL cell lines, CRLF2 deregulation was associated with mutations of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain, suggesting oncogenic cooperation as well as highlighting a link between non-DS ALL and JAK2 mutations.
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Chromosomal aberrations associated with clonal evolution and leukemic transformation in fanconi anemia: clinical and biological implications.
Anemia
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Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and extreme risk of leukemic transformation. Bone marrow surveillance is an important part of the clinical management of FA and often reveals cytogenetic aberrations. Here, we review bone marrow findings in FA and discuss the clinical and biological implications of chromosomal aberrations associated with leukemic transformation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.