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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Detection of posteriorly located breast tumors using gold nanoparticles: A breast-mimicking phantom study.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Accurately depicting breast tumors located posteriorly, close to the chest wall musculature, with conventional mammography is a technical challenge.OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates the proof of concept of an x-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) technique to address this issue.METHODS: A tissue-equivalent gel phantom is designed to mimic structures in the central part of a compressed breast. The posterior aspect of the breast and adjacent pectoralis major muscle are represented by another 10-mm-thickness breast tissue simulation phantom (BR12) that is attached to the back of the gel phantom as a region of interest (ROI). Two gold nanoparticle (GNP) solutions are embedded into the ROI to simulate varying GNP uptake within breast lesions. The ROI is imaged through performing the XFM technique with an x-ray pencil-beam and a single spectrometer.RESULTS: A 2D mapping of the middle plane in the ROI demonstrates feasibility and matches well the known spatial distribution and different GNP concentrations. 3D reconstruction of the ROI is easily rendered by repeating the 2D mapping process.CONCLUSION: XFM system geometry and its insensitivity to attenuation coefficients of breast tissue components are unique characteristics that may complement conventional mammography and improve the detection of breast cancers located posteriorly, adjacent to or overlying the chest wall musculature.
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Gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles on heterostructured TiO2 nanobelts as plasmonic photocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly facilitates the flow of hot electrons from the metal NPs to TiO2 and promotes benzyl alcohol oxidation. This efficient electron transfer was identified by the much higher photocurrent response measured for the Au/TiO2-NB nanostructure with the TiO2(B)/anatase heterojunction than those with either of the single phases under visible light irradiation. Alloying Au with Pd in Au-Pd/TiO2-NB results in a significant improvement in the visible light-promoted activity compared to the monometallic Au/TiO2-NB sample. It is supposed that the plasmon-mediated charge distribution within the alloy NPs is mainly responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bimetallic nanostructures.
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Real-time Cytotoxicity Assays in Human Whole Blood.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A live cell-based whole blood cytotoxicity assay (WCA) that allows access to temporal information of the overall cell cytotoxicity is developed with high-throughput cell positioning technology. The targeted tumor cell populations are first preprogrammed to immobilization into an array format, and labeled with green fluorescent cytosolic dyes. Following the cell array formation, antibody drugs are added in combination with human whole blood. Propidium iodide (PI) is then added to assess cell death. The cell array is analyzed with an automatic imaging system. While cytosolic dye labels the targeted tumor cell populations, PI labels the dead tumor cell populations. Thus, the percentage of target cancer cell killing can be quantified by calculating the number of surviving targeted cells to the number of dead targeted cells. With this method, researchers are able to access time-dependent and dose-dependent cell cytotoxicity information. Remarkably, no hazardous radiochemicals are used. The WCA presented here has been tested with lymphoma, leukemia, and solid tumor cell lines. Therefore, WCA allows researchers to assess drug efficacy in a highly relevant ex vivo condition.
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First report of a clinical, multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolate co-harboring fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 and cabarpenemase gene blaKPC-2 on the same transposon, Tn1721.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In order to understand the genetic background and dissemination mechanism of carbrpenem resistance and fosfomycin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates, a clinical E. coli isolate HS102707 and an Enteobacter aerogenes isolate HS112625 which were resistant to both carbrpenem and fosfomycin, and positive in both blaKPC-2 and fosA3 were studied. Beside, a clinical Klebsiella pneumonia isolate HS092839 which was resistant to carbapenem was also studied. A 70-kb plasmid was successfully transferred to recipient E.coli J53 by conjugation test. PCR and southern blot showed blaKPC-2 was located on this plasmid. The complete sequence of pHS102707 showed this plasmid, belonged to the P11 subfamily (IncP1), has a replication gene, several plasmid stable genes, an intact IV secretion system gene cluster and a composite transposon Tn1721-Tn3 harbored blaKPC-2. Interestingly, a composite IS26 transposon carrying fosA3 was inserted in Tn1721-tnpA gene in pHS102707 and pHS112625, leading to the disruption of Tn1721-tnpA and the deletion of Tn1721-tnpR. However, only an IS26 with a truncated Tn21-tnpR was inserted in pHS092839 at the same position. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of fosA3 and blaKPC-2 co-located in the same Tn1721-Tn3-like composite transposon on a novel IncP group plasmid.
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Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Frameworks Based on MoS2 Nanosheets Self-Assembled on Graphene Oxide for Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Advanced materials for electrocatalytic water splitting are central to renewable energy research. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical frameworks based on the self-assembly of MoS2 nanosheets on graphene oxide were produced via a simple one-step hydrothermal process. The structures of the resulting 3D frameworks were characterized by using a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic tools, including scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. Importantly, the three-dimensional MoS2/graphene frameworks might be used directly as working electrodes which exhibited apparent and stable electrocatalytic activity in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), as manifested by a large cathodic current density with a small overpotential of -107 mV (-121 mV when loaded on a glassy-carbon electrode) and a Tafel slope of 86.3 mV/dec (46.3 mV/dec when loaded on a glassy-carbon electrode). The remarkable performance might be ascribed to the good mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity of the 3D frameworks for fast charge transport and collection, where graphene oxide provided abundant nucleation sites for MoS2 deposition and oxygen incorporation led to the formation of defect-rich MoS2 nanosheets with active sites for HER.
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[Effect of qubi recipe on changes of oxygen free radical metabolism and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in collagen-induced arthritis rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To observe the effect of Qubi Recipe (QR) on the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha in rats with type II collagen-I induced arthritis (CIA), and to explore its therapeutic roles and mechanism.
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Monotone spline regression for accurate MTF measurement at low frequencies.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The modulation transfer function (MTF) of radiographic systems is frequently evaluated by the system's line spread function (LSF) using narrow slits. The conventional slit method requires LSF tail approximation, which is achieved by exponentially extrapolating the LSF tails beyond 1% of peak value. However, the estimated MTF at low frequencies from extrapolation may not reflect the true performance of the system. In this study, a monotone spline regression technique for LSF tail approximation is developed to improve the accuracy of MTF estimation at low frequencies. This technique is based on the underlying physical principles of the system response. The advantages of this technique are demonstrated with simulated examples of which the true MTFs are known. The application of this measurement technique is also demonstrated.
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Method for determining the modulation transfer function of X-ray fluorescence mapping system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A method for determining the modulation transfer function (MTF) in direct X-ray fluorescence mapping (XFM) system is reported. With a standard container filled with homogeneous gold nanoparticle (GNP) solution (1% by weight), sharp edges are made and utilized to acquire the data for edge spread function (ESF). Through necessary data processing such as signal extraction, attenuation correction and curve fitting and proper calculations of differentiating and Fourier transform, MTF can be determined. Influencing factors of MTF determination in XFM system are thoroughly discussed in theory and validated by experiments. The results show that different mapping steps do not noticeably affect the measured MTF, while MTF is greatly degraded as the collimator-to-object distance increases. The theoretical analyses and experimental validations of the MTF determination are useful and helpful for imaging performance evaluation, system design and optimal operations. The presented methodology could be applied in other XRF based systems with modified imaging trajectories.
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A Mannich/cyclization cascade process for the asymmetric synthesis of spirocyclic thioimidazolidineoxindoles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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An asymmetric cascade Mannich/cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and sulfimides using a commercially available organocatalyst has been developed. A wide range of structurally diverse spiro[imidazolidine-4,3'-oxindole] derivatives were obtained with good yields (up to 92%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
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Orientation and surface activity of Janus particles at fluid-fluid interfaces.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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We study the influence of shape of Janus particles on their orientation and surface activity at fluid-fluid interfaces via molecular dynamics simulations. The Janus particles are characterized by two regions with different wettability divided along their major axes. Three types of Janus particles are considered: Janus spheres, Janus rods, and Janus disks. We find that Janus spheres and Janus rods prefer one orientation at the interface, regardless of the surface property. In contrast, Janus disks can adopt one of two orientations when adhered to a fluid-fluid interface: one orientation corresponds to the equilibrium state and the other is a kinetically trapped metastable state. The orientation of Janus disks strongly depends on the disk characteristics, such as their size, aspect ratio, and surface property. Furthermore, we find that changes in the shape of Janus particles strongly influence the interfacial tension at the fluid-fluid interface. According to the time evolution of the interfacial tension, the adsorption of Janus particles is characterized by three adsorption stages based on different surface activities and adsorption kinetics depending on the particle shape.
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Feedback induction of a photoreceptor-specific isoform of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor ? by the rod transcription factor NRL.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Vision requires the generation of cone and rod photoreceptors that function in daylight and dim light, respectively. The NRL transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses cone differentiation. However, the controls over NRL induction that balance rod and cone fates remain unclear. We reported previously that the retinoid-related orphan receptor ? gene (Rorb) is required for Nrl expression and other retinal functions. We show that Rorb differentially expresses two isoforms: ROR?2 in photoreceptors and ROR?1 in photoreceptors, progenitor cells and other cell types. Deletion of ROR?2 or ROR?1 increased the cone:rod ratio ~2-fold whereas deletion of both isoforms in Rorb-/- mice produced almost exclusively cone-like cells at the expense of rods, suggesting that both isoforms induce Nrl. Electroporation of either ROR? isoform into retinal explants from Rorb-/- neonates re-activated Nrl and rod genes but in Nrl-/- explants failed to re-activate rod genes, indicating that NRL is the effector for both ROR? isoforms in rod differentiation. Unexpectedly, ROR?2 expression was lost in Nrl-/- mice. Moreover, NRL activated the ROR?2-specific promoter of Rorb indicating that NRL activates Rorb, its own inducer gene. We suggest that feedback activation between Nrl and Rorb genes reinforces commitment to rod differentiation.
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Controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In this article, the controllability of asynchronous Boolean multiplex control networks (ABMCNs) is studied. First, the model of Boolean multiplex control networks under Harvey' asynchronous update is presented. By means of semi-tensor product approach, the logical dynamics is converted into linear representation, and a generalized formula of control-depending network transition matrices is achieved. Second, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed to verify that only control-depending fixed points of ABMCNs can be controlled with probability one. Third, using two types of controls, the controllability of system is studied and formulae are given to show: (a) when an initial state is given, the reachable set at time s under a group of specified controls; (b) the reachable set at time s under arbitrary controls; (c) the specific probability values from a given initial state to destination states. Based on the above formulae, an algorithm to calculate overall reachable states from a specified initial state is presented. Moreover, we also discuss an approach to find the particular control sequence which steers the system between two states with maximum probability. Examples are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
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Feature selection for the automated detection of metaphase chromosomes: Performance comparison using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The purpose of this study is to identify a set of features for optimizing the performance of metaphase chromosome detection under high throughput scanning microscopy. In the development of computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme, feature selection is critically important, as it directly determines the accuracy of the scheme. Although many features have been examined previously, selecting optimal features is often application-oriented.
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The pH-responsive PacC transcription factor of Aspergillus fumigatus governs epithelial entry and tissue invasion during pulmonary aspergillosis.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Destruction of the pulmonary epithelium is a major feature of lung diseases caused by the mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Although it is widely postulated that tissue invasion is governed by fungal proteases, A. fumigatus mutants lacking individual or multiple enzymes remain fully invasive, suggesting a concomitant requirement for other pathogenic activities during host invasion. In this study we discovered, and exploited, a novel, tissue non-invasive, phenotype in A. fumigatus mutants lacking the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC. Our study revealed a novel mode of epithelial entry, occurring in a cell wall-dependent manner prior to protease production, and via the Dectin-1 ?-glucan receptor. ?pacC mutants are defective in both contact-mediated epithelial entry and protease expression, and significantly attenuated for pathogenicity in leukopenic mice. We combined murine infection modelling, in vivo transcriptomics, and in vitro infections of human alveolar epithelia, to delineate two major, and sequentially acting, PacC-dependent processes impacting epithelial integrity in vitro and tissue invasion in the whole animal. We demonstrate that A. fumigatus spores and germlings are internalised by epithelial cells in a contact-, actin-, cell wall- and Dectin-1 dependent manner and ?pacC mutants, which aberrantly remodel the cell wall during germinative growth, are unable to gain entry into epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. We further show that PacC acts as a global transcriptional regulator of secreted molecules during growth in the leukopenic mammalian lung, and profile the full cohort of secreted gene products expressed during invasive infection. Our study reveals a combinatorial mode of tissue entry dependent upon sequential, and mechanistically distinct, perturbations of the pulmonary epithelium and demonstrates, for the first time a protective role for Dectin-1 blockade in epithelial defences. Infecting ?pacC mutants are hypersensitive to cell wall-active antifungal agents highlighting the value of PacC signalling as a target for antifungal therapy.
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Fetal echocardiography for congenital heart disease diagnosis: a meta-analysis, power analysis and missing data analysis.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Prenatal ultrasonography is the most widely available diagnostic test for fetal congenital heart disease (CHD), but the factors influencing its diagnostic accuracy remain uncertain despite extensive research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of demographic, clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics on diagnostic yields for detecting CHD.
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[Histological and histochemical studies on mouthpart of Whitmania pigra at different months age].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Mouthpart developmental histology of Whitmania pigra at different month of age were studied by paraffin section, HE staining combined alcian blue and periodic acid schifts reaction procedure (AB-PAS). The following results was obtained: Change ranges: oral width 0.6 mm (1-3 month), 1.2 mm (34 month); oral diameter 0.3 mm (1-3 month); 1.2 mm (34 month), the oral size reached maximum during 4-6 months and unchanged thereafter. Oral lip had a thin protective film located in the front of the mouthpart. The W. pigra possessed three jaws in oral cavity, the big one was in dorsum, the other two separated on both side of abdomen respectively. Jaws and muscular pharynx were interrelated closely. The jaws were composed by cuticle, epithelial layer, muscularis and jaw cavity from outside to inside. In the front of jaws had mastoid abdomen with function of secreting acidophilic granule from 2 month age. Oral cavity was composed by mucosa, submucosa and muscularis inside and outside. Oral cavity was rich of peristomial nerves. And pharynx was composed of mucosa, muscularis, adventitia from inside to outside. The folds height and width become heighten and thicken. Mucosa epithelium from complex flat epithelium changed into columnar epithelium, muscularis gradually developed into thickened along with growing. Muscular thickness reached maximum at 4 months. Mucous cells of W. pigra were classified into I-IV types based on different staining and two mainly morphological shapes (Tubular, Pear-shaped). Jaws, oral cavity, pharynx by AB-PAS staining showed little changes at different month of age. Mucous cells were few at 1 month age, and type II cells were increased rapidly in 2-3 month age in oral lip. Oral cavity contains more mucous gland cells type I. Under the muscularis there were connective tissues which distributed a few of mucous cells type II.
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Palladium-catalyzed difunctionalization of alkynes via C-N and S-N cleavages: a versatile approach to highly functional indoles.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular addition of C-N and S-N bond to alkynes with the migration of functional groups has been achieved. A wide range of functional groups including acyl, pyruvoyl, amide, and sulfonyl groups can migrate smoothly and be conveniently introduced at the C-3 postion of indoles in our catalytic system. The operational simplicity and broad substrate scope demonstrate the great potential of this method for the synthesis of highly functional indoles.
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A 10-year experience with hepatic trauma in a Chinese level one trauma center.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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To analyze strategies of operative management (OM) and non-operative management (NOM), mortality, and morbidity of hepatic trauma patients.
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Detection and segmentation of virus plaque using HOG and SVM: toward automatic plaque assay.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Plaque assaying, measurement of the number, diameter, and area of plaques in a Petri dish image, is a standard procedure gauging the concentration of phage in biology. This paper presented a novel and effective method for implementing automatic plaque assaying. The method was mainly comprised of the following steps: In the training stage, after pre-processing the images for noise suppression, an initial training set was readied by sampling positive (with a plaque at the center) and negative (plaque-free) patches from the training images, and extracting the HOG features from each patch. The linear SVM classifier was trained in a self-learnt supervised learning strategy to avoid possible missing detection. Specifically, the training set which contained positive and negative patches sampled manually from training images was used to train the preliminary classifier which exhaustively searched the training images to predict the label for the unlabeled patches. The mislabeled patches were evaluated by experts and relabeled. And all the newly labeled patches and their corresponding HOG features were added to the initial training set to train the final classifier. In the testing stage, a sliding-window technique was first applied to the unseen image for obtaining HOG features, which were inputted into the classifier to predict whether the patch was positive. Second, a locally adaptive Otsu method was performed on the positive patches to segment the plaques. Finally, after removing the outliers, the parameters of the plaques were measured in the segmented plaques. The experimental results demonstrated that the accuracy of the proposed method was similar to the one measured manually by experts, but it took less than 30 seconds.
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Data uncertainty in face recognition.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The image of a face varies with the illumination, pose, and facial expression, thus we say that a single face image is of high uncertainty for representing the face. In this sense, a face image is just an observation and it should not be considered as the absolutely accurate representation of the face. As more face images from the same person provide more observations of the face, more face images may be useful for reducing the uncertainty of the representation of the face and improving the accuracy of face recognition. However, in a real world face recognition system, a subject usually has only a limited number of available face images and thus there is high uncertainty. In this paper, we attempt to improve the face recognition accuracy by reducing the uncertainty. First, we reduce the uncertainty of the face representation by synthesizing the virtual training samples. Then, we select useful training samples that are similar to the test sample from the set of all the original and synthesized virtual training samples. Moreover, we state a theorem that determines the upper bound of the number of useful training samples. Finally, we devise a representation approach based on the selected useful training samples to perform face recognition. Experimental results on five widely used face databases demonstrate that our proposed approach can not only obtain a high face recognition accuracy, but also has a lower computational complexity than the other state-of-the-art approaches.
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Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux on hemoglobin cycling in hemodialysis patients.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Many studies found that hemoglobin (Hb) fluctuation was closely related to the prognosis of the maintenance hemodialysis patients. We investigated the association of factors relating dialysis dose and dialyzer membrane with Hb levels. We undertook a randomized clinical trial in 140 patients undergoing thrice-weekly dialysis and assigned patients randomly to a standard or high dose of dialysis; Hb level was measured every month for 12 months. In the standard-dose group, the mean (±SD) urea reduction ratio was 65.1%?±?7.3%, the single-pool Kt/V was 1.26?±?0.11, and the equilibrated Kt/V was 1.05?±?0.09; in the high-dose group, the values were 73.5%?±?8.7%, 1.68?±?0.15, and 1.47?±?0.11, respectively. The standard deviation (SD) and residual SD (liner regression of Hb) values of Hb were significantly higher in the standard-dose group and low-flux group. The percentage achievement of target Hb in the high-dose dialysis group and high-flux dialyzer group was significantly higher than the standard-dose group and low-flux group, respectively. Patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly appear to have benefit from a higher dialysis dose than that recommended by current KDQQI (Kidney Disease Qutcome Quality Initiative) guidelines or from the use of a high-flux membrane, which is in favor of maintaining stable Hb levels.
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[Lead compound optimization strategy (4)--improving blood-brain barrier permeability through structural modification].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Blood-brain barrier is a natural protection for human body. It protects central nervous system from the interruption and damage of xenobiotics. However, it prevents potential drugs aimed at central nervous system, thus becomes an obstruction for the development of central nervous system drugs. The recent development of blood-brain barrier permeability research and several lead optimization strategies to improve blood-brain barrier permeability are reviewed. These structure optimization methods include increasing lipophilicity, reducing hydrogen bond doners, simplifying molecule, increasing rigidity, lowering polar surface area, avoiding acid group, prodrug strategy, modifying into active transporter's substrates, as well as avoiding P-glycoprotein recognized structures.
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Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.
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Dahuang Fuzi Decoction ameliorates tubular epithelial apoptosis and renal damage via inhibiting TGF-?1-JNK signaling pathway activation in vivo.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Dahuang Fuzi Decoction (DFD) is a traditional well-prescribed formula for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. This study was carried out to examine the effects of DFD in adenine-induced tubular epithelial apoptosis and renal damage, in comparison with allopurinol (AP), then to clarify the therapeutic mechanisms in vivo.
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RISK FACTORS FOR MORTALITY IN CHINESE PATIENTS ON CONTINUOUS AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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? Objective: The intent of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and risk factors affecting mortality of the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a single peritoneal dialysis (PD) center over a period of 10years. ? Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients on PD from June 2001 to June 2011. The clinical and biochemical data were collected from the medical records. Clinical variables included gender, age at the start of PD, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), presence of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure. Biochemical variables included hemoglobin, urine volume, residual renal function (RRF), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, comorbidities, and outcomes. Survival curves were made by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses to identify mortality risk factors were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. ? Results: A total of 421 patients were enrolled, 269 of whom were male (63.9%). The mean age at the start of PD was 57.9 ± 14.8 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of ESRD (39.4%). Estimation of patient survival by Kaplan-Meier was 92.5%, 80.2%, 74.4%, and 55.7% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Patient survival was associated with age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.641 [1.027 - 2.622], p = 0.038), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.731 [1.08 - 2.774], p = 0.023), hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.782 [1.11 - 2.858], p = 0.017) in the Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Estimation of technique survival by Kaplan-Meier was 86.7%, 68.8%, 55.7%, and 37.4% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, age (HR: 1.672 [1.176-2.377], p=0.004) and hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.511 [1.050-2.174], p = 0.026) predicted technique failure. ? Conclusion: The PD patients in our center exhibited comparable or even superior patient survival and technical survival rates, compared with reports from other centers in China and other countries.
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High glucose-induced Galectin-1 in human podocytes implicates the involvement of Galectin-1 in diabetic nephropathy.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The diabetic milieu is believed to change the activity, or result in damage of podocytes-a key component of the glomerular filtration barrier and known to secrete matrix for glomerular basement membrane. This in turn contributes to diabetic nephropathy. However, how podocyte dysfunction is triggered in diabetic nephropathy remains ambiguous. Galectin-1 belongs to Galectin family that bind to ?-galactoside residues of glycosylated proteins. We explored whether Galectin-1 is dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy using three different techniques, namely real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescent staining, to follow the expression of Galectin-1 under high glucose levels in podocytes. High glucose consistently induced Galectin-1 expression. Immunohistochemistry using a Galectin-1-specific antibody also showed elevated Galectin-1 in renal tissues of diabetic patients with manifestation of nephropathy, indicating a correlation of Galectin-1 overexpression with diabetic nephropathy. Upregulation of Galectin-1 is associated with loss of podocin, which is important for the physiological function of podocytes and decreases in the renal tissues of diabetic nephropathy. Increased Galectin-1 is a causal event for the high glucose-induced loss of podocin, since silencing Galectin-1 in podocytes increased podocin expression in the presence of 25?mM glucose. Thus expression of Galectin-1 in diabetic nephropathy may serve as a marker and contribute to disease progression by interfering with podocin expression.
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Structure of cohesin subcomplex pinpoints direct shugoshin-Wapl antagonism in centromeric cohesion.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Orderly termination of sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis is critical for accurate chromosome segregation. During prophase, mitotic kinases phosphorylate cohesin and its protector sororin, triggering Wapl-dependent cohesin release from chromosome arms. The shugoshin (Sgo1)-PP2A complex protects centromeric cohesin until its cleavage by separase at anaphase onset. Here, we report the crystal structure of a human cohesin subcomplex comprising SA2 and Scc1. Multiple HEAT repeats of SA2 form a dragon-shaped structure. Scc1 makes extensive contacts with SA2, with one binding hotspot. Sgo1 and Wapl compete for binding to a conserved site on SA2-Scc1. At this site, mutations of SA2 residues that disrupt Wapl binding bypass the Sgo1 requirement in cohesion protection. Thus, in addition to recruiting PP2A to dephosphorylate cohesin and sororin, Sgo1 physically shields cohesin from Wapl. This unexpected, direct antagonism between Sgo1 and Wapl augments centromeric cohesion protection.
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[Curcumin alleviated liver oxidative stress injury of rat induced by paraquat].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of curcumin on liver injury in rats induced by paraquat-mediated oxidative stress and the mechanism underlying its effect.
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Sustained delivery of BMP-2 enhanced osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs based on surface hydroxyapatite nanostructure in chitosan-HAp scaffold.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The surface characteristics of biomaterials, especially regarding the sustained delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), can possibly provide a novel and effective drug delivery system that can enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the BMP-2 adsorption and release ability of the surface biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanostructure on a new HAp-coated genipin-chitosan conjugation scaffold (HGCCS), and the resulting osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro. HGCCS exhibited a loading efficiency of 65% (1.30 ?g), which is significantly higher than 28% (0.56 ?g, p < 0.01) for the genipin cross-linked chitosan framework, as quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More importantly, we found that the release of BMP-2 from HGGCS sustained for at least 14 days in simulated body fluid in vitro, which is much better than the burst release within 3 days for CGF. Moreover, the BMP-2 release from HGCCS induced an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity as an indicator of osteogenic differentiation of seeded BMSCs for 14 days in vitro. HGCCS also stimulated a high mRNA expression of osteogenic differentiation makers, runt-related transcription factor 2 for 14 days, osteopontin for 3 days, and osteocalcin for 14 days. The results of this study suggest that the surface biomimetic HAp nanostructure of HGCCS used as a delivery system for BMP-2 is capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation in vitro. These findings demonstrated that HAp nanostructure assembled on organic porous scaffold could work as both calcium source and absorption/release platform, which opened a new research avenue for cell growth factor release, and provided a promising strategy for design and preparation of bioactive scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
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Determination of the complete genome sequence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) Ch20101008 and viral molecular evolution in China.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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This study determined the complete genomic sequence of the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) strain Ch20101008 isolated from farmed brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) that died from a disease caused by the virus in northeast China. The sequence was determined from 10 overlapping clones obtained through RT-PCR amplification. The whole genome length of Ch20101008 comprised 11,129 nucleotides (nt), and the overall organization was typical of that observed for all other IHNV strains. The phylogenetic analysis results of the 65 IHNV glycoprotein genes and 47 IHNV partial nucleoprotein genes presented five major genogroups (J, U, L, E and M). The J genogroup included the J Nagano and J Shizuoka subgroups. The IHNV Ch20101008 strain belonged to the J Nagano subgroup of the J genogroup and was significantly related to other Chinese IHNV strains. All Chinese IHNV isolates are monophyletic, with a recent common ancestor, except for the BjLL strain. The N, P, M, G, NV and L genes of Ch20101008 were compared with the available IHNV sequences in GenBank. The results indicated that 198 nt were substituted, 53 of which exhibited amino acid change in the Ch20101008 genome. An adenine nucleotide deletion was found at position 4959 of the 5' UTR of the L gene. In the G gene, specific nucleotides and amino acid variations of the Chinese IHNV strains were observed when compared with 23 isolates from other countries. Of the 15 nucleotide sites that changed, seven resulted in amino acid substitution. The data further demonstrated that the J genogroup IHNV was introduced to and evolved in salmon farm environments in China.
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Capsaicin induces high expression of BAFF and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 of tonsillar mononuclear cells in IgA nephropathy patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Hot pepper is the most favorite vegetable for Chinese in Hunan and Sichuan provinces. It can be assumed that capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot pepper, is a possible risk factor in diet in the pathogenesis of IgAN.
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miR-21 in ischemia/reperfusion injury: a double-edged sword?
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are endogenous, small RNA molecules that suppress expression of targeted mRNA. miR-21, one of the most extensively studied miRNAs, is importantly involved in divergent pathophysiological processes relating to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. The role of miR-21 in renal I/R is complex, with both protective and pathological pathways being regulated by miR-21. Preconditioning-induced upregulation of miR-21 contributes to the protection against subsequent renal I/R injury through the targeting of genes such as the proapoptotic gene programmed cell death 4 and interactions between miR-21 and hypoxia-inducible factor. Conversely, long-term elevation of miR-21 may be detrimental to the organ by promoting the development of renal interstitial fibrosis following I/R injury. miR-21 is importantly involved in several pathophysiological processes related to I/R injury including inflammation and angiogenesis as well as the biology of stem cells that could be used to treat I/R injury; however, the effect of miR-21 on these processes in renal I/R injury remains to be studied.
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Analysis of POFUT1 gene mutation in a Chinese family with Dowling-Degos disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by reticular pigmented anomaly mainly affecting flexures. Though KRT5 has been identified to be the causal gene of DDD, the heterogeneity of this disease was displayed: for example, POFUT1 and POGLUT1 were recently identified and confirmed to be additional pathogenic genes of DDD. To identify other DDD causative genes, we performed genome-wide linkage and exome sequencing analyses in a multiplex Chinese DDD family, in which the KRT5 mutation was absent. Only a novel 1-bp deletion (c.246+5delG) in POFUT1 was found. No other novel mutation or this deletion was detected in POFUT1 in a second DDD family and a sporadic DDD case by Sanger Sequencing. The result shows the genetic-heterogeneity and complexity of DDD and will contribute to the further understanding of DDD genotype/phenotype correlations and to the pathogenesis of this disease.
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[Memory B (CD5? CD19? CD27?) lymphocyte in patients with immune-related pancytopenia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To detect memory B lymphocyte (Bm) in peripheral blood (PB) of immune-related pancytopenia (IRP).
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Enalapril inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression in BSA-overload nephropathy of rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Proteinuria is not only a common marker of renal disease, but also involved in renal tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of enalapril, an ACEI, against nephropathy in rats.
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Outcome of kidney transplantation between controlled cardiac death and brain death donors: a meta-analysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of kidney transplants from controlled cardiac death donors compared with brain death donors by conducting a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
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Asymmetric synthesis of chiral heterocyclic amino acids via the alkylation of the Ni(II) complex of glycine and alkyl halides.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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An investigation into the reactivity profile of alkyl halides has led to the development of a new method for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral heterocyclic amino acids. This protocol involves the asymmetric alkylation of the Ni(II) complex of glycine to form an intermediate, which then decomposes to form a series of valuable chiral amino acids in high yields and with excellent diastereoselectivity. The chiral amino acids underwent a smooth intramolecular cyclization process to afford the valuable chiral heterocyclic amino acids in high yields and enantioselectivities. This result paves the way for the development of a new synthetic method for chiral heterocyclic amino acids.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile and octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrole-2-carbonitrile derivatives as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Based on the previous work in our group and the principle of computer-aided drug design, a series of novel ?-amino pyrrole-2-carbonitrile derivatives was designed and synthesized. Compounds 8l and 9l were efficacious and selective DPP4 inhibitors resulting in decreased blood glucose in vivo. Compound 8l had moderate DPP4 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.05 ?M) and good oral bioavailability (F = 53.2%). Compound 9l showed excellent DPP4 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.01 ?M), good selectivity (selective ratio: DPP8/DPP4 = 898.00; DPP9/DPP4 = 566.00) against related peptidases, and good efficacy in an oral glucose tolerance tests in ICR mice and moderate PK profiles (F = 22.8%, t1/2 = 2.74 h). Moreover, compound 9l did not block hERG channel and exhibited no inhibition of liver metabolic enzymes such as CYP2C9.
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The pathogenic mechanism of diabetes varies with the degree of overexpression and oligomerization of human amylin in the pancreatic islet ? cells.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The aggregation of human amylin (hA) to form cytotoxic structures has been closely associated with the causation of type 2 diabetes. We sought to advance understanding of how altered expression and aggregation of hA might link ?-cell degeneration with diabetes onset and progression, by comparing phenotypes between homozygous and hemizygous hA-transgenic mice. The homozygous mice displayed elevated islet hA that correlated positively with measures of oligomer formation (r=0.91; P<0.0001). They also developed hyperinsulinemia with transient insulin resistance during the prediabetes stage and then underwent rapid ?-cell loss, culminating in severe juvenile-onset diabetes. The prediabetes stage was prolonged in the hemizygous mice, wherein ?-cell dysfunction and extensive oligomer formation occurred in adulthood at a much later stage, when hA levels were lower (r=-0.60; P<0.0001). This is the first report to show that hA-evoked diabetes is associated with age, insulin resistance, progressive islet dysfunction, and ?-cell apoptosis, which interact variably to cause the different diabetes syndromes. The various levels of hA elevation cause different extents of oligomer formation in the disease stages, thus eliciting early- or adult-onset diabetes syndromes, reminiscent of type 1 and 2 diabetes, respectively. Thus, the hA-evoked diabetes phenotypes differ substantively according to degree of amylin overproduction. These findings are relevant to the understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of experimental therapeutics for diabetes.-Zhang, S., Liu, H., Chuang, C. L., Li, X., Au, M., Zhang, L., Phillips, A R. J., Scott, D. W., Cooper, G. J. S. The pathogenic mechanism of diabetes varies with the degree of overexpression and oligomerization of human amylin in the pancreatic islet ? cells.
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The response of human thermal sensation and its prediction to temperature step-change (cool-neutral-cool).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment) on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body.
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[Detection of p53 gene deletion in Xinjiang patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia by fluorescence in situ hybridization and its clinical significance].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To investigate the presence of p53 gene deletion in Xinjiang patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its clinical significance.
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[Stimulating Toll-like receptor 2 promotes the cell apoptosis through augmenting the expression of NIPK in lung epithelial cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To investigate if stimulating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) specifically induces the cell apoptosis in mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) and related potential mechanism.
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Effects of Priming with Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Conditioning Regimen for High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Undergoing Human Leukocyte Antigen-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Randomized Cont
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is an effective and immediate treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML) patients lacking matched donors. Relapse remains the leading cause of death for HR-AML patients after haplo-HSCT. Accordingly, the prevention of relapse remains a challenge in the treatment of HR-AML. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in southwestern China, 178 HR-AML patients received haplo-HSCT with conditioning regimens involving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) or non-rhG-CSF. The cumulative incidences of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. HR-AML patients who underwent the priming conditioning regimen with rhG-CSF had a lower relapse rate than those who were treated with non-rhG-CSF (38.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1% to 48.3% versus 60.7%, 95% CI, 50.5% to 70.8%; P < .01). The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, transplantation-related toxicity, and infectious complications appeared to be equivalent. In total, 53 patients in the rhG-CSF-priming group and 31 patients in the non-rhG-CSF-priming group were still alive at the median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 24 to 80 months). The 2-year probabilities of LFS and OS in the rhG-CSF-priming and non-rhG-CSF-priming groups were 55.1% (95% CI, 44.7% to 65.4%) versus 32.6% (95% CI, 22.8% to 42.3%) (P < .01) and 59.6% (95% CI, 49.4% to 69.7%) versus 34.8% (95% CI, 24.9% to 44.7%) (P < .01), respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that the 2-year probability of LFS of patients who achieved complete remission (CR) before transplantation was better than that of patients who did not achieve CR. The 2-year probability of LFS of patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype was better than that of patients with the M4/M5/M6 subtype in the G-CSF-priming group (67.4%; 95% CI, 53.8% to 80.9% versus 41.9%; 95% CI, 27.1% to 56.6%; P < .05). This study suggests that the rhG-CSF-priming conditioning regimen is an acceptable choice for HR-AML patients, especially for the patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype who achieved CR before transplantation.
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Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome following HIV infection.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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In the present study, a case of disseminated abscesses caused by Nocardia in a patient undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for nephrotic syndrome and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported. The patient had membranous nephropathy and received systemic corticosteroid therapy for one year. During this time, the patient was diagnosed with HIV and developed disseminated abscesses in the lungs, brain and hip. Pathogens isolated from sputum and pus were identified as Nocardia asteroides. The patient was successfully treated following surgical drainage of the abscesses and by oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
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Chemical Dynamic Kinetic Resolution and S/R?Interconversion of Unprotected ?-Amino Acids.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Reported herein is the first purely chemical method for the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of unprotected racemic ?-amino acids (?-AAs), a method which can rival the economic efficiency of the enzymatic reactions. The DKR reaction principle can be readily applied for S/R?interconversions of ?-AAs, the methodological versatility of which is unmatched by biocatalytic approaches. The presented process features a virtually complete stereochemical outcome, fully recyclable source of chirality, and operationally simple and convenient reaction conditions, thus allowing its ready scalability. A quite unique and novel mode of the thermodynamic control over the stereochemical outcome, including an exciting interplay between axial, helical, and central elements of chirality is proposed.
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A simplified procedure for gram-scale production of sialylglycopeptide (SGP) from egg yolks and subsequent semi-synthesis of Man3GlcNAc oxazoline.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Heterogeneity of glycan structures in native glycoconjugates always hampers precise studies on carbohydrate-involved biological functions. To construct homogeneous glycoconjugates from natural resource of homogeneous glycans is therefore a practical approach to solve this problem. We report here an optimized procedure for gram-scale production of sialylglycopeptide (SGP) containing a disialyl biantennary complex-type N-glycan from egg yolks. Our new procedure simplified the extraction process by treating the egg yolk powder with 40% acetone, avoiding massive emulsification, high-speed centrifugation, and sophisticated chromatography in reported methods. Subsequent semi-synthesis of the N-glycan core Man3GlcNAc oxazoline from SGP was accomplished for the first-time via glyco-trimming and successive oxazoline formation. This efficient semi-synthesis provides an alternative to the pure chemical approach that involves multi-step total synthesis and facilitates the application of endo-glycosidase-enabled chemoenzymatic synthesis of various homogeneous glycoconjugates.
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Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel 4-Aminopiperidinyl-linked 3,5-Disubstituted-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione Derivatives as HIV-1 NNRTIs.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Based on the hybridization of the privileged fragments in DABO and DAPY-typed HIV-1 NNRTIs, a novel series of 4-aminopiperidinyl-linked 3,5-disubstituted-1,2,6-thiadiazine-1,1-dione derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-HIV activities in MT-4 cells. Most of the target compounds showed weak inhibitory activity against WT HIV-1. In order to confirm the mode of action of the target compounds, representative compounds Ba8 and Bb8 were selected to perform the HIV-1 RT inhibitory assay. In this assay, Ba8 and Bb8 displayed good activity with IC50 values of 3.15 and 1.52 ?M, respectively. Additionally, preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) analysis and molecular docking studies of newly synthesized compounds are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Association between the mitochondrial DNA 4977 common deletion in the hair shaft and hearing loss in presbycusis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA common deletion (CD) 4977 (mtDNACD4977) in the hair shaft in patients with presbycusis. A total of 87 individuals with presbycusis and 95 normal?hearing controls were selected based on strict audiometric criteria. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and quantitative (q)PCR were used to examine the expression levels of mtDNACD4977 in the hair shaft in presbycusis. Nested PCR of the hair shaft demonstrated that 8/95 cases with normal hearing were found to be positive for mtDNACD4977, as compared with 59/87 cases in the presbycusis group. The mtDNACD4977 was positive in 22/43 cases with mild?to?moderate hearing loss, 25/31 cases with moderate?to?severe, severe hearing loss, and 12/13 cases with profound deafness. Statistically significant differences in mtDNACD4977 expression were identified among all of the groups (P<0.001). The sequencing and qPCR assays demonstrated a trend towards an increase in the mean CD level of mtDNACD4977 with a more severe hearing loss at 8 kHz (r=0.778, P<0.001) and all ranges of frequency (r=0.858, P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a correlation between mtDNACD4977 in the human hair shaft and the severity of hearing loss in presbycusis.
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Design, synthesis and evaluation of benzo[a]thieno[3,2-g]quinolizines as novel l-SPD derivatives possessing dopamine D1, D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A multiple action profiles.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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A novel scaffold derived from l-SPD with a substituted thiophene group in the D ring were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their binding affinities at dopamine (D1, D2 and D3) and serotonin (5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) receptors. Most of the tetracyclic compounds exhibited higher affinities for D2 and 5-HT1A receptors than l-SPD, while compound 23e showed the highest Ki value of 7.54nM at D2 receptor which was 14 times more potent than l-SPD. Additionally, compounds 23d and 23e were more potent than l-SPD at D3 receptor. According to the functional assays, 23d and 23e were demonstrated as full antagonists at D1 and D2 receptors and full agonists at 5-HT1A receptor. Since the combination of D2 antagonism and 5-HT1A agonism is considered effective in treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, these novel compounds are implicated as potential therapeutic agents.
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Association of cardiac development with assisted reproductive technology in childhood: a prospective single-blind pilot study.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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To examine the pattern and extent of cardiovascular developmental alterations among children conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) and its association with potential confounders.
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Study on the immune response to recombinant Hsp70 protein from Megalobrama amblycephala.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is induced in response to many factors including high temperature, infection, metal pollutants and toxic chemicals. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala HSP70 promoter was cloned, and characteristic heat shock elements (HSEs) were identified in the promoter region. The recombinant M. amblycephala Hsp70 protein (rMaHsp70) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). To evaluate in vivo immune response of rMaHsp70, we administered intraperitoneal (IP) injection, and demonstrated that rMaHsp70 stimulated M. amblycephala immune activity by inducing the expression of HSP70, HIF-1?, HSC70, CXCR4b, TNF-? and IL-1? mRNAs in liver, headkidney, spleen and gill, as well as SOD, glutathione, lysozyme and interferon alpha proteins in serum and liver. The effect of rMaHsp70 as adjuvant against Aeromonas hydrophila was assessed by injecting a mixed vaccine of rMaHsp70 and A. hydrophila (A. hydrophila/Hsp70) into M. amblycephala, and the relative percent survival (RPS) in the A. hydrophila/Hsp70 group was 75% compared to 50% in the A. hydrophila/PBS group. Furthermore, rMaHsp70 also promoted the proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in M. amblycephala fin cells (MAF) in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that rMaHsp70 can induce organic immune response and improve environmental tolerance.
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Construction of a biotinylated cameloid-like antibody for lable-free detection of apolipoprotein B-100.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Nanobodies (Nbs), also known as the variable domain of the heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH), are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from heavy-chain antibodies that occur naturally in sera of camelids. Due to their unique properties of small size (15kD), intrinsic stability, high affinity and specificity, Nbs are suitable for detecting clinical relevant antigens. Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) is a highly predictive marker for coronary artery disease (CAD), which is frequently detected in clinical diagnosis. Herein, we successfully obtained anti-ApoB-100 Nbs for the first time and further fabricated a label-free and sensitive immunosensor for ApoB-100 based on isolated anti-ApoB-100 nanobody (Nb) using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. We have generated an immunized phage display library against ApoB-100 and isolated four anti-ApoB-100 Nbs with high affinity and stability. The Nb with the highest affinity was biotinylated based on in vivo BirA system. Further, we developed a label-free electrochemical impedance immunosensor for ApoB-100 using this anti-ApoB-100 Nb. The attachment of ApoB-100 onto the anti-ApoB-100 Nb-immobilized sensing layer led to the increased electron-transfer resistance, which was proportional to ApoB-100 concentration in the range from 0.05 to 5ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03ngmL(-1). This proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity to detect ApoB-100, acceptable intra-assay precision and good stability, functioning as a feasible technique for CAD diagnosis.
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Fasting hyperglycemia increases in-hospital mortality risk in nondiabetic female patients with acute myocardial infarction: a retrospective study.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Previous studies had shown that elevated admission plasma glucose (APG) could increase mortality rate and serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG) had the same role remains controversial. In this retrospective study, 253 cases of AMI patients were divided into diabetic (n = 87) and nondiabetic group (n = 166). Our results showed that: compared with the nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher APG, FPG, higher plasma triglyceride, higher rates of painless AMI (P < 0.01), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and reinfraction (P < 0.05). They also had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol and rate of malignant arrhythmia, but in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). While nondiabetic patients were subgrouped in terms of APG and FPG (cut points were 11.1?mmol/L and 7.0?mmol/L, resp.), the mortality rate had significant difference (P < 0.01), whereas glucose level lost significance in diabetic group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FPG (OR: 2.014; 95% confidence interval: 1.296-3.131; p < 0.01) but not APG was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for nondiabetic patients. These results indicate that FPG can be an independent predictor for mortality in nondiabetic female patients with AMI.
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High-dose diosgenin reduces bone loss in ovariectomized rats via attenuation of the RANKL/OPG ratio.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of diosgenin (DG) on rats that had osteoporosis-like features induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Seventy-two six-month-old female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy (n = 60) or Sham operation (SHAM group, n = 12). Beginning at one week post-ovariectomy, the OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group, n = 12), estradiol valerate (EV group, n = 12), or DG at three doses (DG-L, -M, -H group, n = 12, respectively). After a 12-week treatment, administration of EV or DG-H inhibited OVX-induced weight gain, and administration of EV or DG-H or DG-M had a significantly uterotrophic effect. Bone mineral density (BMD) and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in tibia were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our results show that DG at a high dose (DG-H) had a significant anti-osteoporotic effect compared to OVX control. DG-H treatment down-regulated expression of RANKL and up-regulated expression of OPG significantly in tibia from OVX rats compared to control, and thus lowered the RANKL/OPG ratio. This suggests that the anti-osteoporotic effect of DG might be associated with modulating the RANKL/OPG ratio and DG had potential to be developed as alternative therapeutic agents of osteoporosis induced by postmenopause.
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Activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species: A novel mechanism of albumin-induced tubulointerstitial inflammation.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Albuminuria is not only an important marker of chronic kidney disease but also a crucial contributor to tubulointerstitial inflammation (TIF). In this study, we determined whether activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome is involved in albuminuria induced-TIF and the underlying mechanisms of inflammasome activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). We established an albumin-overload induced rat nephropathy model characterised by albuminuria, renal infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilation and atrophy. The renal expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1? and IL-18 were significantly increased in this animal model. In vitro, albumin time- and dose-dependently increased the expression levels of the Nlrp3 inflammasome, IL-1? and IL18. Moreover, the silencing of the Nlrp3 gene or the use of the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk significantly attenuated the albumin-induced increase in IL-1? and IL-18 expression in HK2 cells. In addition, mROS generation was elevated by albumin stimulation, whereas the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) inhibited Nlrp3 expression and the release of IL-1? and IL-18. In kidney biopsy specimens obtained from patients with IgA nephropathy, Nlrp3 expression was localised to the proximal tubular epithelial cells, and this result is closely correlated with the extent of proteinuria and TIF. In summary, this study demonstrates that albuminuria may serve as an endogenous danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that stimulates TIF via the mROS-mediated activation of the cytoplasmic Nlrp3 inflammasome.
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Deregulated Expression of miR-224 and its Target Gene: CD59 Predicts Outcome of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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miRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules; their deregulations may contribute to cancer pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of how miRNA dysfunction contributes to the lymphomagenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are not well established. In this study, we analyzed the expression of miR-224 in four DLBCL cell lines and 168 patients' specimens. We found that the expression of miR-224 in DLBCL was down-regulated compared with normal B-cell but was not statistically different between the germinal center B-cell-like-type and the activated B-cell-like-type. Using bioinformatics prediction and luciferase report assays, we demonstrated that miR-224 directly down-regulated CD59 expression by binding to its 3'-untranslated region. We also used immunohistochemical staining of CD59 in human DLBCL specimens and analyzed the relationship between the expression of miR-224, CD59 and the overall/progress-free survival of DLBCL patients who were uniformly treated with rituximab,cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). We found that miR-224 may contribute to DLBCL pathogenesis. Most importantly, the expression of miR-224 and CD59 can predict the response and outcome of DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-anilinothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based hydroxamic acid derivatives as novel histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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A series of 4-anilinothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based hydroxamic acid derivatives as novel HDACs inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated. Most of these compounds displayed good to excellent inhibitory activities against HDAC1, 3, 6. The IC50 values of compound 10r against HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC6 was 1.14±0.03nM, 3.56±0.08nM, 11.43±0.12nM. Compound 10r noticeably up-regulated the level of histone H3 acetylation compared to the SAHA. Most of the compounds showed the strong anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cell lines including RMPI8226 and HCT-116. The IC50 values of Compounds 10r and 10t against RPMI8226 was 2.39±0.20?M, 1.41±0.44?M, respectively, and the HCT-116 was sensitive to the compounds 10h, 10m, 10r, 10w with the IC50 values <1.9?M.
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Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH).
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Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase 894G>T polymorphism and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of literature studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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To date, several studies have been conducted to assess the association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene 894G?>?T polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but the results are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between 894G?>?T polymorphism and PCa risk, the present meta-analysis was performed. A total of eight case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the associations. Our results suggested that 894G?>?T polymorphism is associated with PCa risk under codominant (GT vs. GG) (OR?=?1.11, 95 % CI?=?1.01-1.22, P?=?0.04) and overdominant (GT vs. GG?+?TT) (OR?=?1.12, 95 % CI?=?1.02-1.23, P?=?0.02) models in the overall population, while there are no associations observed under dominant (GT?+?TT vs. GG), recessive (TT vs. GG?+?GT), and allelic (T vs. G) models. Moreover, when the eligible studies were stratified according to sources of control, significant association between 894G?>?T polymorphism and susceptibility of PCa was also identified under codominant (OR?=?1.12, 95 % CI?=?1.01-1.24, P?=?0.03) and overdominant (OR?=?1.13, 95 % CI?=?1.02-1.25, P?=?0.02) models when using healthy individuals as control. However, there are no significant associations found under any genetic models when using BPH patients as control group. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis suggested that the eNOS gene 894G?>?T polymorphism might be a risk factor in the onset of PCa.
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Reliability of a new 4th generation FloTrac algorithm to track cardiac output changes in patients receiving phenylephrine.
J Clin Monit Comput
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Phenylephrine is often used to treat intra-operative hypotension. Previous studies have shown that the FloTrac cardiac monitor may overestimate cardiac output (CO) changes following phenylephrine administration. A new algorithm (4th generation) has been developed to improve performance in this setting. We performed a prospective observational study to assess the effects of phenylephrine administration on CO values measured by the 3rd and 4th generation FloTrac algorithms. 54 patients were enrolled in this study. We used the Nexfin, a pulse contour method shown to be insensitive to vasopressor administration, as the reference method. Radial arterial pressures were recorded continuously in patients undergoing surgery. Phenylephrine administration times were documented. Arterial pressure recordings were subsequently analyzed offline using three different pulse contour analysis algorithms: FloTrac 3rd generation (G3), FloTrac 4th generation (G4), and Nexfin (nf). One minute of hemodynamic measurements was analyzed immediately before phenylephrine administration and then repeated when the mean arterial pressure peaked. A total of 157 (4.6 ± 3.2 per patient, range 1-15) paired sets of hemodynamic recordings were analyzed. Phenylephrine induced a significant increase in stroke volume (SV) and CO with the FloTrac G3, but not with FloTrac G4 or Nexfin algorithms. Agreement between FloTrac G3 and Nexfin was: 0.23 ± 1.19 l/min and concordance was 51.1 %. In contrast, agreement between FloTrac G4 and Nexfin was: 0.19 ± 0.86 l/min and concordance was 87.2 %. In conclusion, the pulse contour method of measuring CO, as implemented in FloTrac 4th generation algorithm, has significantly improved its ability to track the changes in CO induced by phenylephrine.
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Potent antitumor activity of the Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus combined with interleukin-24 for acute myeloid leukemia via induction of apoptosis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus represents a promising new platform for anticancer therapy. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic progenitor cells and is the most common malignant myeloid disorder in adults. Myeloid and other hematopoietic cell lineages are involved in the process of clonal proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether chimeric oncolytic adenovirus-mediated transfer of the human interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene induces enhanced antitumor potency. Our results showed that the Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus carrying hIL-24 (AdCN205?11-IL-24) produced high levels of hIL-24 in AML cancer cells, as compared with the Ad5 oncolytic adenovirus expressing hIL-24 (AdCN205-IL-24). AdCN205-11-IL-24 specifically induced a cytotoxic effect on AML cancer cells, but had little or no effect on a normal cell line. AdCN205-11-IL-24 induced higher antitumor activity in AML cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vitro. This study suggests that transfer of IL-24 by an Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus may be a potent antitumor approach for AML cancer therapy.
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FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Aim:FTY720, a new immunomodulatory drug with low cytotoxicity, is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on inflammatory cell infiltration in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats.Methods:Male Wistar rats were subjected to right-side nephrectomy and divided into 3 groups. One week after the surgery, albumin overload (AO) group was treated with BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; AO+FTY720 group was given BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) plus FTY720 (0.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; and control group received daily ip injection of equivalent volume of saline. All rats were killed 9 weeks after nephrectomy.Results:AO rats exhibited gradually increased urinary protein excretion accompanied by elevated urinary N-acetyl-?-O-glucosaminidase activity, and both reached their peak values at week 7. Furthermore, AO significantly increased lymphocytes and monocytes in circulation and the inflammatory cells recruited to tubulointerstitium, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6, as well as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1pr1 and S1pr3, and S1P-synthesizing enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) in the kidney. Concomitant administration of FTY720 significantly attenuated all the AO-induced pathological changes.Conclusion:FTY720 alleviates tubulointerstitium inflammation in an AO rat model of nephropathy via down-regulation of the Sphk1 pathway.
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Mutation analysis of the IL36RN gene in Chinese patients with generalized pustular psoriasis with/without psoriasis vulgaris.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare type of psoriasis with potentially life-threatening implications. Mutations in IL36RN gene have been suggested to be causative or predisposing factors for GPP.
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Comparison of glucocorticoids alone and combined with cyclosporine a in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different treatment regimes in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN): steroids alone and in combination with a medium dose of cyclosporine A (CsA).
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Long term evaluation of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in a feline model of chronic allergic asthma.
Clin. Exp. Allergy
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decrease airway eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and remodeling in murine models of acutely induced asthma. We hypothesized that MSCs would diminish these hallmark features in a chronic feline asthma model.
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Diversity and distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and risk to human health in jiuhua mountain area, china.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China.
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Stress signaling in response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDPK-3.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The study is the first to reveal the proteomic response in plants to a single PAH stress, and indicates that NDPK3 is a positive regulator in the Arabidopsis response to phenanthrene stress. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly carcinogenic pollutants that are byproducts of carbon-based fuel combustion, and tend to persist in the environment for long periods of time. PAHs elicit complex, damaging responses in plants, and prior research at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional levels has indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress play major roles in the PAH response. However, the proteomic response has remained largely unexplored. This study hypothesized that the proteomic response in Arabidopsis thaliana to phenanthrene, a model PAH, would include a strong oxidative stress signature, and would provide leads to potential signaling molecules involved. To explore that proteomic signature, we performed 2D-PAGE experiments and identified 30 proteins levels that were significantly altered including catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxiredoxins (POD), glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase. Also upregulated was nucleoside diphosphate kinase 3 (NDPK-3), a protein known to have metabolic and stress signaling functions. To address whether NDPK-3 functions upstream of the oxidative stress response, we measured levels of stress-responsive enzymes in NDPK-3 overexpressor, loss-of-function knockout, and wild-type plant lines. In the NDPK-3 overexpressor, the enzyme activities of APX, CAT, POD, as well as superoxide dismutase were all increased compared to wild type; in the NDPK-3 knockout line, these enzymes had reduced activity. This pattern occurred in untreated as well as phenanthrene-treated plants. These data support a model in which NDPK-3 is a positive regulator of the Arabidopsis stress response to PAHs.
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Bifocal juvenile papillomatosis as a marker of breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Juvenile papillomatosis (JP), also termed Swiss cheese disease, is a rare and benign type of proliferative breast tumor that is specifically observed in children and adolescents. The majority of JP patients are Caucasian and exhibit a single breast mass. The current report presents an unusual case of bifocal JP in an 11-year-old Chinese female. The patient presented with a slow-growing palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography identified a further impalpable lesion in the lower outer quadrant of the ipsilateral breast. The preoperative clinical diagnosis of the two masses was fibroadenoma, however, following complete excision of the two tumors, histopathology revealed JP. Furthermore, the patient had a family history of breast cancer. The current report describes a review of the literature regarding the presentation, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of JP and its association with breast carcinoma. In the current case, JP was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the patient, as well as the patient's elder female relatives; therefore, a more thorough medical follow-up may prove prudent for those individuals with a high risk of developing breast cancer.
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Core Bioactive Components Promoting Blood Circulation in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Xueshuantong Capsule (CXC) Based on the Relevance Analysis between Chemical HPLC Fingerprint and In Vivo Biological Effects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and protocatechualdehyde may have novel therapeutic uses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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