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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Flexible Gold Electrode Array for Multiplexed Immunoelectrochemical Measurement of Three Protein Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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In this work, we report a simple and novel electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slice deposited with 8 × 8 nano-Au film electrodes for simultaneous detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Primary antibodies linked with magnetic beads (Ab1-MBs) were modified on the nano-Au film electrodes via magnetic force. In the presence of corresponding antigen, horse radish peroxidase-secondary antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (HRP-Ab2-gold NRs) were brought into the surface of electrodes, generating obvious electrochemical signals of H2O2 reduction reactions. Based on this, the designed immunosensor provide good performance in sensitivity and specificity during the detection of above three biomarkers for prostate cancer. The electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor was verified for selective and accurate detection of complex samples in human serum. Data suggested that the reported multiplexed immunosensing strategy holds great promise for applications in clinical assay and diseases diagnosis.
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Increased expression of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in orofacial pain during experimental tooth movement in rats.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To investigate whether transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in pain induced by experimental tooth movement, experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g. Directed face-grooming behavior was used to evaluate nocifensive behavior in rats during experimental tooth movement. The distribution of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and its expression was detected by western blotting at several time points following the application of various magnitudes of force during tooth movement. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TRPV1 was expressed in TG, and its expression was increased after experimental tooth movement. Western blot results also showed that experimental tooth movement led to a statistically significant increase in expression of TRPV1 protein in TG. Meanwhile, the time spent on directed face-grooming peaked on day 1 and thereafter showed a gradual decrease. In addition, both the change in TRPV1 expression in the TG and directed face-grooming behavior were modulated in a force-dependent manner and in concert with initial orthodontic pain responses. Our results reveal that TRPV1 expression is modulated by experimental tooth movement and is involved in tooth-movement pain.
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Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Urea transporters (UT) play an important role in the urine concentration mechanism by mediating intrarenal urea recycling, suggesting that UT inhibitors could have therapeutic use as a novel class of diuretic. Recently we found a thienoquinolin UT inhibitor, PU-14, which exhibited diuretic activity. The purpose of this study was to identify more potent UT inhibitors that strongly inhibit UT-A isoforms in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). Efficient thienoquinolin UT inhibitors were identified by structure-activity relationship analysis. Urea transport inhibition activity was assayed in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. Diuretic activity of the compound was determined in rats and mice using metabolic cages. The results show that the compound PU-48 exhibited potent UT-A inhibition activity. The inhibition rate was 69.5% with an IC50 of 0.32 ?M. PU-48 significantly inhibited urea transport in perfused rat terminal IMCDs. PU-48 caused significant diuresis in UT-B null mice, which indicates that UT-A is the target of PU-48. The diuresis caused by PU-48 did not change blood Na(+), K(+), or Cl- levels, or non-urea solute excretion in rats and mice. No toxicity was detected in cells or animals treated with PU-48. The results indicate that thienoquinolin UT inhibitors induce a diuresis by inhibiting UT-A in the IMCD. This suggests that they may have the potential to be developed as a novel class of diuretics with fewer side effects than classical diuretics.
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[Mechanisms of myeloid cell RelA/p65 in cigarette smoking-induced lung cancer growth in mice].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cigarette smoking (CS)-induced lung cancer growth in mice.
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Development of Human Serine Protease-Based Therapeutics Targeting Fn14 and Identification of Fn14 as a New Target Overexpressed in TNBC.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The cytokine TWEAK and its receptor, Fn14, have emerged as potentially valuable targets for cancer therapy. Granzyme B (GrB)-containing Fn14-targeted constructs were generated containing either the Fn14 ligand TWEAK (GrB-TWEAK) or an anti-Fn14 humanized single-chain antibody (GrB-Fc-IT4) as the targeting moieties. Both constructs showed high affinity and selective cytotoxicity against a panel of Fn14-expressing human tumor cells including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lines. Cellular expression of the GrB inhibitor PI-9 in target cells had no impact on the cytotoxic effect of either construct. Cellular expression of MDR1 showed no cross-resistance to the fusion constructs. GrB-TWEAK and GrB-Fc-IT4 activated intracellular caspase cascades and cytochrome c-related proapoptotic pathways consistent with the known intracellular functions of GrB in target cells. Treatment of mice bearing established HT-29 xenografts with GrB-TWEAK showed significant tumor growth inhibition compared with vehicle alone (P < 0.05). Both GrB-TWEAK and GrB-Fc-IT4 displayed significant tumor growth inhibition when administered to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231 (TNBC) tumor xenografts. The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed that Fn14 mRNA expression was significantly higher in TNBC and in HER2-positive disease (P < 0.0001) compared with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and in basal-like 2 tumors (P = 0.01) compared with other TNBC molecular subtypes. IHC analysis of a 101 patient TNBC tumor microarray showed that 55 of 101 (54%) of tumors stained positive for Fn14, suggesting that this may be an excellent potential target for precision therapeutic approaches. Targeting Fn14 using fully human, GrB-containing fusion constructs may form the basis for a new class of novel, potent, and highly effective constructs for targeted therapeutic applications. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(11); 2688-705. ©2014 AACR.
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Inducible costimulator gene transduced bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuate the severity of acute graft-versus-host disease in mouse models.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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In allogeneic transplantation murine models, ICOS gene transduced bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC(-ICOS-EGFP)) were evaluated for their effects on GvHD severity and long-term survival. Lethally irradiated BALB/c or first filial generation of BALB/c and C57BL/6 (CB6F1) mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells and splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice to establish acute GvHD models. Recipient mice were injected with MSC(-ICOS-EGFP), MSCs, MSC(-EGFP), ICOS-Ig fusion protein, MSCs+ICOS-Ig, or PBS (control group). Long-term survival, GvHD rates and severity, CD4(+) T cell apoptosis and proliferation, and Th1/Th2/Th17 effecter cell polarization were evaluated. In C57BL/6?CB6F1 HSCT model, the long-term survival in MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) group was higher than that in GvHD group (74.29±7.39% vs 0, P=0.00), and this survival rate was also higher than that in the MSCs, ICOS-Ig, or MSCs+ICOS-Ig groups (42.86±8.36% P=0.004, 48.57±8.45% P=0.03, or 50.43±8.45% P=0.04, respectively). The survival advantages of MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) treated group were confirmed in the C57BL/6?BALB/c HSCT model. In both HSCT models, the low mortality in the MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) group was associated with lower incidence and severity of acute GvHD. Treatment with MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) induced more CD4(+) T cell apoptosis compared with that in the GvHD group. The effect on CD4(+) T cells was shown as early as day 2 and maintained till day 14 (P<0.05 on day 2, 3, 7, and 14). Furthermore, we demonstrated that MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) was able to suppress Th1 and Th17 polarization and promote Th2 polarization in both protein expression and gene transcription levels. Higher serum levels of IL-4, IL-10, and lower levels of IFN-?, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A were detected in the MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) group. MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) could also induce GATA-3, STAT6 expression and inhibit T-bet, STAT4, ROR-rt expression. Our results showed that MSC(-ICOS-EGFP) is a promising strategy for acute GvHD prevention and treatment. It provides synergistic benefits of MSCs immune modulation and ICOS-B7h pathway blockage.
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[Effects of IVF versus ICSI on the outcomes of elective blastocyst culture].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To explore the effects of different fertilization methods on the outcomes of elective blastocyst culture.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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Disruption of glucocorticoid signaling in chondrocytes delays metaphyseal fracture healing but does not affect normal cartilage and bone development.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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States of glucocorticoid excess are associated with defects in chondrocyte function. Most prominently there is a reduction in linear growth but delayed healing of fractures that require endochondral ossification to also occur. In contrast, little is known about the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in chondrocyte function. As glucocorticoids exert their cellular actions through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we aimed to elucidate the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in chondrocyte function in vivo through characterization of tamoxifen-inducible chondrocyte-specific GR knockout (chGRKO) mice in which the GR was deleted at various post-natal ages. Knee joint architecture, cartilage structure, growth plates, intervertebral discs, long bone length and bone micro-architecture were similar in chGRKO and control mice at all ages. Analysis of fracture healing in chGRKO and control mice demonstrated that in metaphyseal fractures, chGRKO mice formed a larger cartilaginous callus at 1 and 2week post-surgery, as well as a smaller amount of well-mineralized bony callus at the fracture site 4week post-surgery, when compared to control mice. In contrast, chondrocyte-specific GR knockout did not affect diaphyseal fracture healing. We conclude that endogenous GC signaling in chondrocytes plays an important role during metaphyseal fracture healing but is not essential for normal long bone growth.
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Glucocorticoids transcriptionally regulate miR-27b expression promoting body fat accumulation via suppressing the browning of white adipose tissue.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Long-term glucocorticoid treatment induces central fat accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that microRNA-27b plays a central role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced central fat accumulation. Overexpression of miR-27b had the same effects as dexamethasone treatment in the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and the energy expenditure of primary adipocyte. Conversely, antagonizing miR-27b function prevented dexamethasone suppression of the expression of BAT-specific genes. GCs transcriptionally regulate the miR-27b expression via a GR-mediated direct DNA binding mechanism, and miR-27b suppresses browning white adipose tissue by targeting the 3'UTR of Prdm16. In vivo, antagonizing miR-27b function in dexamethasone treated mice resulted in the efficient induction of brown adipocytes within white adipose tissue (WAT), improved GC-induced central fat accumulation. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-27b functions as a central target of glucocorticoid and as an upstream regulator of Prdm16 to control browning of WAT and consequently may represent a potential target in preventing obesity.
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Transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes in response to abiotic stresses correlates with dynamic changes in histone modifications in maize.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The histone modification level has been shown to be related with gene activation and repression in stress-responsive process, but there is little information on the relationship between histone modification and cell cycle gene expression responsive to environmental cues. In this study, the function of histone modifications in mediating the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes under various types of stress was investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). Abiotic stresses all inhibit the growth of maize seedlings, and induce total acetylation level increase compared with the control group in maize roots. The positive and negative regulation of the expression of some cell cycle genes leads to perturbation of cell cycle progression in response to abiotic stresses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that dynamic histone acetylation change in the promoter region of cell cycle genes is involved in the control of gene expression in response to external stress and different cell cycle genes have their own characteristic patterns for histone acetylation. The data also showed that the combinations of hyperacetylation and hypoacetylation states of specific lysine sites on the H3 and H4 tails on the promoter regions of cell cycle genes regulate specific cell cycle gene expression under abiotic stress conditions, thus resulting in prolonged cell cycle duration and an inhibitory effect on growth and development in maize seedlings.
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The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations*.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Influenza is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in the United States; however, little is known about the burden of critical illness due to influenza virus infection. Our primary objective was to estimate the proportion of all critical illness hospitalizations that are attributable to seasonal influenza.
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Impaired erythrocyte deformability in transgenic HO-1G143H mutant mice.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the potential effects of variation of HO-1 activity on hemorheology, this study compared the hemorheological properties between transgenic HO-1G143H mutant mice and wild-type (WT) control mice. Fresh blood samples were obtained from mice via the ocular venous sinus. The whole blood viscosity was measured using a cone-plate viscometer. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation was measured using ektacytometry. The elongation index was significantly reduced in the HO-1G143H mutant mice compared to the WT mice at the shear rates of 600, 800, and 1,000 s(-1). The integrated elongation index was decreased in the HO-1G143H mutant mice compared to the WT mice. There was no statistically significant difference between the HO-1G143H mutant mice and the WT mice in terms of whole blood viscosity, aggregation index, amplitude of aggregation, and aggregation half time. The present study demonstrated that a reduction in HO-1 activity results in an impaired erythrocyte deformability. Although the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear, our study brings to light the participation of HO-1 in the variations of hemorheology.
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Genetic analysis of colon tumors induced by a dietary carcinogen PhIP in CYP1A humanized mice: Identification of mutation of ?-catenin/Ctnnb1 as the driver gene for the carcinogenesis.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Replacing mouse Cyp1a with human CYP1A enables the humanized CYP1A mice to mimic human metabolism of the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), by N(2) -hydroxylation to a proximate carcinogen. Our previous study demonstrated that PhIP, combined with the dextrin sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, induces colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A mice. Here, we employed whole exome sequencing and found multiple gene mutations in PhIP/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mutations in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1/?-catenin, however, were the predominant events. We further sequenced the key fragments of Apc, Ctnnb1, and Kras, because mutations of these genes in the humans are commonly found as the drivers of colorectal cancer. Mutations on either codon 32 or 34 in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1 were found in 39 out of 42 tumors, but no mutation was found in either Apc or Kras. The sequence context of codons 32 and 34 suggests that PhIP targets +3G in a TGGA motif of Ctnnb1. Since mutations that activate Wnt signal is a major driving force for human colorectal cancers, we conclude that the mutated ?-catenin is the driver in PhIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. This result suggests that the colon tumors in hCYP1A mice mimic human colorectal carcinogenesis not only in the dietary etiology involving PhIP, but also in the aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as the driving force. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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In situ activation of CdS electrochemiluminescence film and its application in H?S detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Nanocrystals (NCs) usually suffer from weak electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) emissions compared with conventional luminescent reagents like Ru(bpy)3(2+). In this work, we proposed a simple in situ activation approach by dipping CdS NCs film on glass carbon electrode (CdS NCs/GCE) in an activation solution containing H2O2 and citric acid, resulting in a ~58-fold enhancement of ECL intensity in the presence of coreactant H2O2. During activation, CdS NCs were oxidized by H2O2 to smaller ones which resulted in more surface S vacancies; meanwhile, citric acid played an important role in stabilizing NCs. The ECL enhancing mechanism was investigated in detail, and the coordination of H2O2 to surface excess Cd(2+) ions (S vacancies) on the CdS NCs surface formed in activation was the main factor which could stabilize the electrogenerated radicals, resulting in an enhanced ECL. ECL from the activated CdS NCs/GCE could be quenched in Na2S solution due to the bonding of S(II) to excess Cd(2+) ions on the surface of CdS NCs. On the basis of this, we then used the activated CdS NCs/GCE as an ECL probe for the detection of Na2S which showed good performance including a wide linear range of 5 nM to 20 ?M and good anti-interference ability. Moreover, this ECL probe was successfully applied for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection in a biological system.
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Dysfunction of bone marrow vascular niche in acute graft-versus-host disease after MHC-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), which is often accompanied by impaired hematopoietic reconstitution. Sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) constitute bone marrow (BM) vascular niche that plays an important role in supporting self-renewal capacity and maintaining the stability of HSC pool. Here we provide evidences that vascular niche is a target of aGvHD in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-haploidentical matched murine HSCT model. The results demonstrated that hematopoietic cells derived from GvHD mice had the capacity to reconstitute hematopoiesis in healthy recipient mice. However, hematopoietic cells from healthy donor mice failed to reconstitute hematopoiesis in GvHD recipient mice, indicating that the BM niche was impaired by aGvHD in this model. We further demonstrated that SECs were markedly reduced in the BM of aGvHD mice. High level of Fas and caspase-3 expression and high rate of apoptosis were identified in SECs, indicating that SECs were destroyed by aGvHD in this murine HSCT model. Furthermore, high Fas ligand expression on engrafted donor CD4(+), but not CD8(+) T cells, and high level MHC-II but not MHC-I expression on SECs, suggested that SECs apoptosis was mediated by CD4(+) donor T cells through the Fas/FasL pathway.
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The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dendrobium officinale.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract The complete chloroplast sequence of Dendrobium officinale, an endangered and economically important traditional Chinese medicine, was reported and characterized. The genome size is 152,018?bp, with 37.5% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,284?bp are separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 84,944?bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 14,506?bp). The complete cp DNA contains 83 protein-coding genes, 39 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Fourteen genes contained one or two introns.
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Effects of TLR4 on ?2-glycoprotein I-induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cells maturation.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Our previous study has demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can contribute to anti-?2-glycoprotein I/?2-glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI/?2GPI)-induced tissue factor (TF) expression in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. However, the role of TLR4 in the activation of autoimmune response in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has rarely been reported. In this study, we focused on the role of TLR4 in ?2GPI-induced maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). iDCs from C3H/HeN mice stimulated with ?2GPI were more mature than that from C3H/HeJ mice, yields of CD11c(+)MHCII(+)DCs, CD11c(+)CD80(+)DCs and CD11c(+)CD86(+)DCs and production of some pro-inflammatory cytokines in iDCs from C3H/HeN were higher than those from C3H/HeJ (p<0.05). Moreover, the ability of ?2GPI-treated iDCs from C3H/HeJ to stimulate proliferation of allogeneic mixed lymphocytes was lower than that of iDCs from C3H/HeN. In conclusion, our results indicate that TLR4 may play a significant role in ?2-glycoprotein I-induced BMDCs maturation.
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Androgen Receptor Inactivation Resulted in Acceleration in Pubertal Mammary Gland Growth, Upregulation of ER? Expression, and Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling in Female Mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The androgen receptor (AR) is widely expressed in mammary cells of female mammals including humans and mice, indicating a possible role for AR-mediated androgen actions in breast development, function, and pathology, although the specific mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the mechanisms of androgen action in mammary gland physiology and development, we used AR-knockout (AR(?ex3)KO) female mice with a universally expressed, transcriptionally inactive AR protein harboring an in-frame deletion of its second zinc finger. Although in sexually mature wild-type (WT) and AR(ex3?)KO females, the mammary epithelial growth was fully extended to the edge of the fat pad, during puberty, AR(ex3?)KO females exhibit significantly accelerated mammary ductal growth and an increased number of terminal end buds compared with WT females. Accelerated AR(ex3?)KO female mammary growth was associated with significantly increased mammary epithelial ER? expression and activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling as shown by increased Wnt4 expression and accumulation of nuclear ?-catenin. These findings are consistent with increased mammary estrogen exposure although ovarian estradiol content was unchanged compared with WT females. Furthermore, treatment with the potent pure androgen DHT markedly reduced ductal extension and terminal end bud numbers in WT but not in AR(?ex3)KO females, further supporting the concept that AR-mediated, androgen-induced suppression of murine mammary growth is a physiological characteristic of puberty. In summary, our findings reveal an inhibitory role of AR-mediated androgen actions in pubertal mammary gland development by reducing epithelial cell proliferation and could be mediated by regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
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Effects of calcium signaling on coagulation factor VIIa-induced proliferation and migration of the SW620 colon cancer cell line.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Tissue factor (TF)/VIIa/protease?activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to trigger the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. This was shown to be closely associated with the proliferation and migration of SW620 colon cancer cells; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of calcium signaling on the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells induced by coagulation factor VIIa. The results demonstrated that VIIa and PAR2 agonist PAR2?AP increased [Ca2+]i in SW620 cells. In addition, VIIa?and PAR2?AP?induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by thapsigargin (TG)?induced depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and EGTA?mediated removal of extracellular Ca2+. It was also identified that VIIa and PAR2?AP?induced proliferation and migration of SW620 cells was modulated by EGTA and TG. Taken together, the present results indicate that VIIa triggers calcium signaling in SW620 cells, in a TF?dependent manner, which is critical for VIIa?induced ERK1/2 activation in SW620 cells. These results suggested that calcium signaling had a vital role in the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells.
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[Craniofacial morphology of child and adult deepbite: a cross-sectional study].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To investigate the changes in the craniofacial morphology ofdeepbite from childhood to adulthood using cross-sectional methods. To analyze the maxillofacial characteristics of adult deepbite.
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Involvement of TLR4 in Oxidized LDL/?2GPI/Anti-?2GPI-Induced Transformation of Macrophages to Foam Cells.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Aim: It has been reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) forms a stable and non-dissociable complex with ?2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) and that IgG anti-?2GPI autoantibodies are able to recognize this complex, thus facilitating macrophage-derived foam cell formation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, the immunopathological mechanisms of oxLDL/?2GPI complexes in promoting foam cell formation are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex-induced transformation of mouse peritoneal macrophages to foam cells. Methods: Oil red O staining and optical density (OD) measurements of intracellular stained oil red O solution were used to monitor the transformation of peritoneal macrophages to foam cells in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN and TLR4-mutant C3H/HeJ mice. During foam cell formation induced by the oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex, the expression of TLR4 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) were confirmed by analyzing the protein and mRNA levels of these compounds. Furthermore, the related active molecule expression during foam cell formation induced by the oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex was examined in the presence or absence of TLR4. Results: The data showed that treatment with the oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex markedly increased foam cell formation, the TLR4 expression, NF-?B activation, the tissue factor (TF) expression and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion in the C3H/HeN mice. However, the transformation of macrophages to foam cells and the expression levels of phosphorylated NF-?B, TF, TNF-? and MCP-1 were significantly reduced in the C3H/HeJ mice treated with the oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex. In addition, compared with that achieved by oxLDL alone, the oxLDL/?2GPI complex decreased foam cell formation and the related signaling molecule expression in the C3H/HeN mice. Conclusions: Our results indicate that TLR4 plays an important role in the process of oxLDL/?2GPI/anti-?2GPI complex-induced transformation of macrophages to foam cells, which may accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in the setting of APS. However, ?2GPI alone functions as an antiatherogenic protein by preventing the foam cell formation induced by oxLDL.
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Band-Selective Infrared Photodetectors with Complete-Composition-Range InAsx P1-x Alloy Nanowires.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Band-selective infrared photodetectors (PDs) are constructed with InAsx P1-x alloy nanowires from the complete composition range (0 ? x ? 1) achieved by a new growth route combining the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with an additional ion-exchange process. Increasing the composition x value from 0 to 1 in the PDs allows the peak response wavelength to be gradually tuned from ca. 900 to ca. 2900 nm.
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Reciprocal interaction between fish TGF-?1 and IL-1? is responsible for restraining IL-1? signaling activity in grass carp head kidney leukocytes.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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In the present study, we found that recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) simultaneously up-regulated grass carp IL-1? (gcIL-1?) and TGF-?1 (gcTGF-?1) expression via NF-?B and MAPK signaling in grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), promoting us to clarify whether TGF-?1 is an effective antagonist in IL-1? expression and activity. Our results showed that a stimulation of gcIL-1? on its own expression was noted within 6?h, but gcTGF-?1 neutralizing antibody prolonged gcIL-1? autostimulation up to 12?h, indicating a possible inhibitory role of gcTGF-?1 in regulating gcIL-1? effect. This notion was reinforced by the fact that recombinant grass carp TGF-?1 (rgcTGF-?1) could impede rgcIL-1?-induced gcIL-1? gene expression and secretion in a reciprocal manner. Further studies revealed that rgcTGF-?1 was able to attenuate rgcIL-1?-induced mRNA expression of its own receptor signaling molecules and the activation of NF-?B. By contrast, rgcIL-1? significantly amplified rgcTGF-?1-mediated gcTGF-?1 type I receptor (ALK5) expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in the same cell model. Taken together, these data shed light on an intrinsic mechanism for controlling inflammatory response by the reciprocal interaction between TGF-?1 and IL-1? in teleost.
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[Sources and spatial distribution of typical heavy metal pollutants in soils in Xihu Scenic Area].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Due to the importance as a famous scenic area in China and its special geographical position, heavy metal pollution in soils in Xihu Scenic Area has attracted great concerns. Typical heavy metals in surface soils (0- 20 cm) in Xihu Scenic Area was investigated using the grid sampling method and statistical analysis and Aregis approaches. It was suggested that there were anthropogenic accumulations of Cu, Zn and Pb in soils, and they were the main heavy metal pollutants in Xihu Scenic Area. The contents of Cu, Zn, Pb in soils are in the ranges of 4.6-197 mg x kg(-1), 11.1-885 mg x kg(-1) and 11.7-346 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The area with the highest 25% of Cu, Pb and Zn content located in the north-east part of the scenic area, which had lower ratios of green land, dense traffic roads and was characterized with high urbanization. Results of multiple comparison among different land uses and spatial cluster and outlier analysis revealed that those three main heavy metal pollutants Cu, Pb and Zn in Xihu Scenic Area were from traffic emissions. The purpose of this study was to provide basic data and theoretical bases for the ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils and environmental management of urban soils.
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Targeting the ion channel Kv1.3 with scorpion venom peptides engineered for potency, selectivity, and half-life.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Ion channels are an attractive class of drug targets, but progress in developing inhibitors for therapeutic use has been limited largely due to challenges in identifying subtype selective small molecules. Animal venoms provide an alternative source of ion channel modulators, and the venoms of several species, such as scorpions, spiders and snails, are known to be rich sources of ion channel modulating peptides. Importantly, these peptides often bind to hyper-variable extracellular loops, creating the potential for subtype selectivity rarely achieved with small molecules. We have engineered scorpion venom peptides and incorporated them in fusion proteins to generate highly potent and selective Kv1.3 inhibitors with long in vivo half-lives. Kv1.3 has been reported to play a role in human T cell activation, and therefore, these Kv1.3 inhibitor fusion proteins may have potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Our results support an emerging approach to generating subtype selective therapeutic ion channel inhibitors.
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Constructing predictive models for vaginal surgery in patients with noninvasive gynecological conditions.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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To develop predictive models for vaginal operative route selection based on clinical variables that can be easily assessed preoperatively in patients with noninvasive gynecological conditions.
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H2O2 mediates the crosstalk of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid in tomato responses to heat and oxidative stresses.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The production of H2O2 is critical for brassinosteroid (BR)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the relationship between BR and ABA in the induction of H2O2 production and their roles in response to heat and paraquat (PQ) oxidative stresses were studied in tomato. Both BR and ABA induced increases in RBOH1 gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, and heat and PQ stress tolerance in wild-type plants. BR could only induced transient increases in these responses in the ABA biosynthetic mutant notabilis (not), whereas ABA induced strong and prolonged increases in these responses in the BR biosynthetic mutant d (^im) compared with wild-type plants. ABA levels were reduced in the BR biosynthetic mutant but could be elevated by exogenous BR. Silencing of RBOH1 compromised BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 production, ABA accumulation, and PQ stress responses; however, ABA-induced PQ stress responses were largely unchanged in the RBOH1-silenced plants. BR induces stress tolerance involving a positive feedback mechanism in which BR induces a rapid and transient H2O2 production by NADPH oxidase. The process in turn triggers increased ABA biosynthesis, leading to further increases in H2O2 production and prolonged stress tolerance. ABA induces H2O2 production in both the apoplastic and chloroplastic compartments.
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Ellagic acid protects Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury in mice.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Ellagic acid, a natural polyphenol found in certain fruits, nuts and vegetables, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of ellagic acid on acute hepatic injury have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ellagic acid on Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury in mice. The results showed that LPS/GalN increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content, TNF-? level, serum ALT and AST levels and TNF-? level. However, these changes were attenuated by ellagic acid. Western blot analysis showed that ellagic acid inhibited LPS/GalN-induced NF-?B activation. Furthermore, ellagic acid induced the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1. In conclusion, our results showed that ellagic acid protected against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury by enhancing the antioxidative defense system and reducing inflammatory response.
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Chloroplastic thioredoxin-f and thioredoxin-m1/4 play important roles in brassinosteroids-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Chloroplast thioredoxins (TRXs) and glutathione function as redox messengers in the regulation of photosynthesis. In this work, the roles of chloroplast TRXs in brassinosteroids (BRs)-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and CO2 assimilation were studied in the leaves of tomato plants. BRs-deficient d (^im) plants showed decreased transcripts of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x, while exogenous BRs significantly induced CO2 assimilation and the expression of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-x. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the chloroplast TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y genes individually increased membrane lipid peroxidation and accumulation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin dimers, and decreased the activities of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in the leaves. Furthermore, partial silencing of TRX-f, TRX-m2, TRX-m1/4, and TRX-y resulted in decreased expression of genes involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle and decreased activity of the associated enzymes. Importantly, the BRs-induced increase in CO2 assimilation and the increased expression and activities of antioxidant- and photosynthesis-related genes and enzymes were compromised in the partially TRX-f- and TRX-m1/4-silenced plants. All of these results suggest that TRX-f and TRX-m1/4 are involved in the BRs-induced changes in CO2 assimilation and cellular redox homeostasis in tomato.
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Meiofauna and its sedimentary environment as an integrated indication of anthropogenic disturbance to sandy beach ecosystems.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The accuracy and applicability of the Nematode/Copepod index (N/C) in monitoring the effects of environmental disturbances is controversial. In this study, we used an integrated approach that includes both meiofauna and the sedimentary environment to demonstrate a tourism-induced disturbance gradient among sampled beaches. We also analysed the relationships between meiofauna and environmental factors. The results showed that disturbed beaches were characterised by high values of meiofauna abundance, chlorophyll a content, total organic carbon content and N/C but lower levels of dissolved oxygen. The chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen contents were found to be the most important factors for explaining the disturbance gradient amongst the beaches. The N/C index had a positive relationship with chlorophyll a and a negative relationship with dissolved oxygen. There was no significant relationship between N/C index and total organic carbon content.
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Enhanced iridium complex electrochemiluminescence cytosensing and dynamic evaluation of cell-surface carbohydrate expression.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A newly prepared [(ppy)2 Ir(dcbpy)](+) ?PF6 (-) (ppy: 2-phenylpyridyl; dcbpy: 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl) and gold nanoparticle functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Au/Ir-MSN) is reported. Based on the binding between concanavalin?A (Con?A) and mannose, the novel nanoparticle was applied to an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) in situ cytosensing strategy and the dynamic evaluation of cell-surface carbohydrate expression. The ECL activity of the presented Con?A@Au/Ir-MSN nanoprobe was greatly enhanced by employing a functionalized nanoparticle and graphene nanomaterial with an increased surface area and simultaneously improved electron-transfer efficiency at the electrode interface. Under optimal conditions, the sandwich-type ECL cytosensor showed a linear response to K562 cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0×10(2) to 1.0×10(6) ?cells?mL(-1) and realized a low detection limit of a single cell. The proposed method could also be successfully used for monitoring the dynamic variation of carbohydrate expression in cancer cells in response to external stimulation by an inhibitor.
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C-type natriuretic peptide attenuates LPS-induced endothelial activation: involvement of p38, Akt, and NF-?B pathways.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Endothelial activation elicited by inflammatory agents is regarded as a key event in the pathogenesis of several vascular inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanism of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) on LPS-induced endothelial activation were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The effect of CNP on adhesion molecule expression was assessed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analyses. The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated HUVECs were investigated using western blotting analyses, and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a fluorescence method. Pretreatment with CNP inhibited LPS-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin in a concentration-dependent manner. CNP suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 and NF-?B activation in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, CNP reduced ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation induced by LPS but not JNK. Furthermore, CNP induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. CNP significantly inhibited the production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that CNP effectively attenuated LPS-induced endothelial activation by inhibiting the NF-?B and p38 signaling pathways, eliminating LPS-induced intracellular ROS production, and activating the PI3K/Akt/HO-1 pathway in HUVECs; thereby, demonstrating that CNP may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of sepsis and inflammatory vascular diseases.
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Targeting IL-6 and RANKL signaling inhibits prostate cancer growth in bone.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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In prostate cancer metastases to bone, cancer cell-derived cytokines stimulate RANKL expression by cells of the osteoblast lineage, which in turn activates osteoclastic bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether cells of the osteoblast lineage signal back to prostate cancer cells, and if so, whether such direct cross-talk can be targeted therapeutically. Using the human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, we identified two novel signalling pathways acting between cells of the osteoblast lineage and cancer cells. First, exposure to RANKL stimulated the expression and release of IL-6 by PC3 cells in vitro (which is known to promote RANKL expression by osteoblasts). Second, treatment of PC3 cells with IL-6 increased the expression of RANK, the cognate receptor of RANKL, and enhanced the RANKL-induced release of IL-6 by PC3 cells. Third, targeted disruption of IL-6 signaling with tocilizumab, a clinically available antibody against the human IL-6 receptor, inhibited skeletal tumor growth in vivo and reduced serum RANKL levels as well as RANK expression by PC3-derived bone tumors. Similar effects were achieved when RANK expression was knocked down in PC3 cells. In contrast, disruption of IL-6 or RANK/RANKL signalling had no effect on PC3 tumor growth in soft tissues, indicating that these signalling pathways act specifically within the bone microenvironment. In conclusion, prostate cancer cells and cells of the osteoblast lineage communicate via two inter-dependent signaling pathways, which through auto-amplification strongly enhance metastatic prostate cancer growth in bone. Both pathways may be targeted for effective therapeutic intervention.
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Furazolidone-based triple and quadruple eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of furazolidone-based triple and quadruple therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in a multi-center randomized controlled trial.
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Developing hypothetical inhibition mechanism of novel urea transporter B inhibitor.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane channel protein that specifically transports urea. UT-B null mouse exhibited urea selective urine concentrating ability deficiency, which suggests the potential clinical applications of the UT-B inhibitors as novel diuretics. Primary high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of 50000 small-molecular drug-like compounds identified 2319 hit compounds. These 2319 compounds were screened by high-throughput screening using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay. Based on the pharmacological data, putative UT-B binding sites were identified by structure-based drug design and validated by ligand-based and QSAR model. Additionally, UT-B structural and functional characteristics under inhibitors treated and untreated conditions were simulated by molecular dynamics (MD). As the result, we identified four classes of compounds with UT-B inhibitory activity and predicted a human UT-B model, based on which computative binding sites were identified and validated. A novel potential mechanism of UT-B inhibitory activity was discovered by comparing UT-B from different species. Results suggest residue PHE198 in rat and mouse UT-B might block the inhibitor migration pathway. Inhibitory mechanisms of UT-B inhibitors and the functions of key residues in UT-B were proposed. The binding site analysis provides a structural basis for lead identification and optimization of UT-B inhibitors.
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Effects of silencing RIP1 with siRNA on the biological behavior of the LoVo human colon cancer cell line.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing RIP1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the biological behavior of the LoVo human colorectal carcinoma cell line and to provide evidence for the feasibility of colorectal cancer gene therapy. LoVo cells were divided into the RIP1 siRNA group, the blank control group and the negative control group. Chemically synthesized siRNA targeting RIP1 (RIP1 siRNA) was transfected into LoVo cells. Following transfection of the RIP1-targeted siRNA into the LoVo cells, the expression of the RIP1 gene was effectively inhibited. The results demonstrated that RIP1 effectively regulated the malignant biological behavior of the LoVo colon cancer cell line. Furthermore, the proliferation, motility and invasiveness of LoVo cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of RIP1. The results revealed that the RIP1 gene has an important role in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells.
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Hydrogen peroxide mediates abscisic acid-induced HSP70 accumulation and heat tolerance in grafted cucumber plants.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Root-shoot communications play important roles in plant stress responses. Here, we examined the roles of root-sourced signals in the shoot response to heat in cucumber plants. Cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and luffa roots were exposed to aerial and root-zone heat to examine their tolerance by assessing the levels of oxidative stress, PSII photoinhibition, accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), H2 O2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 using immunoblotting, chlorophyll fluorescence, immunoassay, CeCl3 staining and Western blotting, respectively. Grafting onto the luffa rootstock enhanced the shoot tolerance to the heat. This enhanced tolerance was associated with increased accumulation of ABA and apoplastic H2 O2 , RBOH transcripts and HSP70 expression and a decrease in oxidative stress in the shoots. The increases in the ABA and H2 O2 concentrations in the shoots were attributed to an increase in ABA transport from roots and an increase in ABA biosynthesis in the shoots when the root-zone and shoots were heat stressed, respectively. Inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation compromised luffa rootstock-induced HSP70 expression and heat tolerance. These results suggest that, under heat stress, ABA triggers the expression of HSP70 in an apoplastic H2 O2 -dependent manner, implicating the role of an ABA-dependent H2 O2 -driven mechanism in a systemic response involving root-shoot communication.
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Febrile seizure recurrence reduced by intermittent oral levetiracetam.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common form of childhood seizure disorders. FS is perhaps one of the most frequent causes of admittance to pediatric emergency wards worldwide. We aimed to identify a new, safe, and effective therapy for preventing FS recurrence.
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The sub/supra-optimal temperature-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative damage in cucumber leaves are alleviated by grafting onto figleaf gourd/luffa rootstocks.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Shoot-root communication is involved in plant stress responses, but its mechanism is largely unknown. To determine the role of roots in stress tolerance, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) shoots from plants with roots of their own or with figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, a chilling-tolerant species) or luffa (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., a heat-tolerant species) rootstocks were exposed to low (18/13°C), optimal (27/22°C) and high (36/31°C) temperatures, respectively. Grafting onto figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks significantly alleviated chilling and heat-induced reductions, respectively, in biomass production and CO2 assimilation capacity in the shoots, while levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were decreased. Figleaf gourd and luffa rootstocks upregulated a subset of stress-responsive genes involved in signal transduction (MAPK1 and RBOH), transcriptional regulation (MYB and MYC), protein protection (HSP45.9 and HSP70), the antioxidant response (Cu/Zn-SOD, cAPX and GR), and photosynthesis (RBCL, RBCS, RCA and FBPase) at low and high growth temperatures, respectively, and this was accompanied by increased activity of the encoded enzymes and reduced glutathione redox homeostasis in the leaves. Moreover, Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) expression in cucumber leaves was strongly induced by the luffa rootstock at the high growth temperature but slightly induced by the figleaf gourd rootstock at low or high growth temperatures. These results indicate that rootstocks could induce significant changes in the transcripts of stress-responsive and defense-related genes, and the ROS scavenging activity via unknown signals, especially at stressful growth temperatures, and this is one of mechanisms involved in the grafting-induced stress tolerance.
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Age estimation in northern Chinese children by measurement of open apices in tooth roots.
Int. J. Legal Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Cameriere's methods on dental age estimation in the northern Chinese population. A sample of orthopantomographs of 785 healthy children (397 girls and 388 boys) aged between 5 and 15 years was collected. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated with Cameriere's method. The sample was split into a training set to develop a Chinese-specific prediction formula and a test set to validate this novel developed formula. Following the training dataset study, the variables gender (g), x 3 (canine teeth), x 4 (first premolar), x 7 (second molar), N 0, and the first-order interaction between s and N 0 contributed significantly to the fit, yielding the following linear regression formula: Age = 10.202 + 0.826 g?-?4.068x 3?-?1.536x 4?-?1.959x 7 + 0.536 N 0?-?0.219 s?[Symbol: see text]?N 0, where g is a variable, 1 for boys and 0 for girls. The equation explained 91.2 % (R (2)?=?0.912) of the total deviance. By analyzing the test dataset, the accuracy of the European formula and Chinese formula was determined by the difference between the estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA). The European formula verified on the collected Chinese children underestimated chronological age with a mean difference of around -0.23 year, while the Chinese formula underestimated the chronological age with a mean difference of -0.04 year. Significant differences in mean differences in years (DA?-?CA) and absolute difference (AD) between the Chinese-specific prediction formula and Cameriere's European formula were observed. In conclusion, a Chinese-specific prediction formula based on a large Chinese reference sample could ameliorate the age prediction accuracy in the age group of children.
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SOCS3 methylation in synergy with Reg3A overexpression promotes cell growth in pancreatic cancer.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Pancreatic cancer (PaC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the world, but the molecular mechanisms for its development remain unclear. Regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (Reg3A) has been reported overexpressed in pancreatic inflammation and associated with PaC malignancies, thus believed as a potential target in inflammation-linked pancreatic carcinogenesis. Silencing of suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS3, a well-known feedback inhibitor of cell proliferation, has been found in many human cancers. Here, we identified that SOCS3 was aberrantly methylated in its CpG island in 3/5 human PaC cell lines and 11/36 cancer tissue samples. SOCS3 restoration by a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of methylated PaC cells. Moreover, we also have shown that Reg3A was highly expressed in PaC cells and tissue samples. Assessment of potential relationship between SOCS3 and Reg3A aberrations in vitro revealed that SOCS3 worked downstream of Reg3A and modulated Reg3A-linked pro-tumor functions. siRNA-mediated SOCS3 knock-down in normal pancreatic epithelial cells and plasmid-transfected SOCS3 overexpression in PaC cells, respectively, resulted in the obvious promotion and inhibition of Reg3A-induced cell proliferation, thereby suggesting SOCS3 negatively regulating Reg3A-mediated PaC progression. In addition, our findings also revealed that JAK/STAT3/NF-?B appear involved in the effect of SOCS3-Reg3A interaction on pancreatic cell growth. In summary, SOCS3 inactivation by methylation was demonstrated to act in synergy with Reg3A overexpression to promote PaC cell growth and maybe the progress of inflammation-linked pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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Molecular identification of transcription factor Runx1 variants in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and their responses to immune stimuli.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The Runt-related transcription factor (Runx) family consists of three members, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 in mammals, which are involved in various biological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that Runx1 plays critical roles in the immunity of higher vertebrates. In fish, zebrafish and fugu Runx family members have been identified, and their chromosome location, promoter usage and expression patterns have been elucidated. However, their expression profiles in immune responses are still unknown. In this study, we identified grass carp five Runx1 (gcRunx1) variants (v1-5) possibly generated through alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing. The gcRunx1 v1-3 encodes the proteins possessing intact structural characteristics of Runx family, but the putative proteins of gcRunx1 v4-5 lack a transactivation domain, an inhibitory domain and a C-terminal pentapeptide motif (VWRPY). Tissue distribution assays revealed that gcRunx1 was preferentially expressed in some immune-related tissues including thymus and spleen, indicating its potential roles in teleost immunity. The changes of gcRunx1 expression to various immune stimuli was examined in periphery blood lymphocytes, showing that gcRunx1 v1-3 mRNA levels were increased after LPS, poly I:C and PHA treatment, whereas gcRunx1 v4-5 mRNA expression were stimulated only by LPS and PHA. Furthermore, in vivo studies confirmed that bacterial challenge enhanced gcRunx1 mRNA levels. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that gcRunx1 v4-5 mRNA expression was induced with a delayed kinetics compared with that of gcRunx1 v1-3. These findings not only provide the evidence for the involvement of gcRunx1 in immune response, but also reveal the inducible expression diversity of fish Runx1 splicing variants, thereby facilitating further elucidating the role of Runx1 in piscine immunity.
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Role of H2O2 dynamics in brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure and opening in Solanum lycopersicum.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, their roles in the regulation of stomatal opening or closure remain obscure. Here, the mechanism underlying BR-induced stomatal movements is studied. The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the stomatal apertures of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were measured by light microscopy using epidermal strips of wild type (WT), the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient notabilis (not) mutant, and plants silenced for SlBRI1, SlRBOH1 and SlGSH1. EBR induced stomatal opening within an appropriate range of concentrations, whereas high concentrations of EBR induced stomatal closure. EBR-induced stomatal movements were closely related to dynamic changes in H(2)O(2) and redox status in guard cells. The stomata of SlRBOH1-silenced plants showed a significant loss of sensitivity to EBR. However, ABA deficiency abolished EBR-induced stomatal closure but did not affect EBR-induced stomatal opening. Silencing of SlGSH1, the critical gene involved in glutathione biosynthesis, disrupted glutathione redox homeostasis and abolished EBR-induced stomatal opening. The results suggest that transient H(2)O(2) production is essential for poising the cellular redox status of glutathione, which plays an important role in BR-induced stomatal opening. However, a prolonged increase in H(2)O(2) facilitated ABA signalling and stomatal closure.
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Decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate and poor karyotypes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dysregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been found in various cancers. However, it is little known about the pattern of SFRP2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study was aimed to analyze the expression status of SFRP2 gene in AML patients and explore its clinical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The level of SFRP2 expression significantly decreased in AML compared to controls (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed that an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.871 (P<0.001) or 0.902 (P<0.001) in discriminating all patients or cytogenetically normal (CN) patients from controls, respectively. Low level of SFRP2 expression was found more frequently in cytogenetically intermediate and poor groups (72% and 62%, respectively) than in favorable group (42%) (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival between the groups with low SFRP2 and high expression (P>0.05). SFRP2 expression significantly increased after CR compared to initial diagnosis (P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate/poor karyotypes in AML patients and detection of SFRP2 expression may be helpful to the diagnosis and disease monitoring in CN-AML.
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RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production and subsequent activation of MPK1/2 play an important role in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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H2O2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important functions in plant stress responses, but their roles in acclimation response remain unclear. This study examined the functions of H2O2 and MPK1/2 in acclimation-induced cross-tolerance in tomato plants. Mild cold, paraquat, and drought as acclimation stimuli enhanced tolerance to more severe subsequent chilling, photooxidative, and drought stresses. Acclimation-induced cross-tolerance was associated with increased transcript levels of RBOH1 and stress- and defence-related genes, elevated apoplastic H2O2 accumulation, increased activity of NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione redox state, and activation of MPK1/2 in tomato. Virus-induced gene silencing of RBOH1, MPK1, and MPK2 or MPK1/2 all compromised acclimation-induced cross-tolerance and associated stress responses. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that acclimation-induced cross-tolerance is largely attributed to RBOH1-dependent H2O2 production at the apoplast, which may subsequently activate MPK1/2 to induce stress responses.
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PID1 (NYGGF4), a new growth-inhibitory gene in embryonal brain tumors and gliomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was first identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells.
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Cladribine with immediate rituximab for the treatment of patients with variant hairy cell leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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In contrast with the classic form, variant hairy cell leukemia (HCLv) responds poorly to single-agent purine analogs, expresses unmutated BRAF, has shorter overall survival, and lacks effective standard therapy. No treatment has achieved a high complete remission (CR) rate even in small series, and of 39 reported cases from six studies, overall response rate after cladribine was 44% with 8% CRs. Rituximab has been found to increase the sensitivity of malignant cells to cladribine, suggesting that combination with cladribine might improve response in HCLv. To test this hypothesis, patients with HCLv were treated with simultaneous cladribine and rituximab.
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[Preparation technology of total coumarins from Laportea bulbifera].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To investigate the preparation process of total coumarins from Laportea bulbifera.
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A multi-electrode array coupled with fiberoptic for deep-brain optical neuromodulation and electrical recording.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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In this paper we developed an integrated device comprised of a multi-electrode array coupled with optical fiber for deep-brain optical stimulation and electrical recording. We characterized the array device both electrically and optically, and conducted in vivo experiments on free moving rats for validation. This design of array device provides a viable tool for neuromodulation and neural signal acquisition in optogenetics and in other fields of neuroscience studies perspectively.
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The role of TLR4 in pathophysiology of antiphospholipid syndrome-associated thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the clinical features of recurrent thrombosis in the venous or arterial circulation and fetal losses. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), particularly against the phospholipid binding protein beta-2 glycoprotein I (?2GPI), play an important role in APS pathological mechanisms. aPL can activate intracellular signal transduction in a ?2GPI-dependent manner to induce inflammatory responses, and promote hypercoagulable state and recurrent spontaneous abortion when ?2GPI is associated with the cell surface receptor. In vivo and in vitro studies show that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is the high affinity receptor that connects ?2GPI to the target cells. However, ANXA2 is not a transmembrane protein and lacks an intracellular signal transduction pathway. Growing evidences suggest that the transmembrane protein toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) might act as an adaptor for intracellular signal transduction. This review focuses on the role of TLR4 and its signalling pathway in APS pathological mechanisms which will help us better understand the pathological processes of this syndrome.
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Bendamustine and rituximab in relapsed and refractory hairy cell leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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To determine tolerability and for the first time explore efficacy of bendamustine-rituximab (BR) in multiply relapsed/refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL), using two different dose levels of bendamustine.
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Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: Molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-? and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-?B signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of I?B? and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-?B pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response.
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Association between RAD51 gene polymorphism (-135G/C) and susceptibility of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Study results on the association between RAD51 gene -135G/C polymorphism and risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the association. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang databases to collect all relevant studies until January 2013. Meta-analysis was carried out using fixed/random model by Review Manager 5.1 and STATA10.0. A total of 10 eligible studies with 2,656 patients and 3,725 controls were included in meta-analysis. Significant association was detected between -135G/C polymorphism and increased MDS risk (CC?+?GC vs. GG: OR?=?1.46, 95 % CI?=?1.11-1.92; CC vs. GC?+?GG: OR?=?2.45, 95 % CI?=?1.23-4.89), while no association was observed for acute leukemia. Subgroup analysis by subtypes of acute leukemia and ethnicity showed no significant results either. Our meta-analysis indicated that the -135G/C polymorphism might be associated with increased susceptibility of MDS. However, lack of evidence supported association of this polymorphism with acute leukemia. Additional well-designed studies with larger samples are required to verify our results.
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Anti-?2GPI/?2GPI stimulates activation of THP-1 cells through TLR4/MD-2/MyD88 and NF-?B signaling pathways.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Our previous study demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could act as a co-receptor with annexin A2 (ANX2) mediating anti-?2-glycoprotein I/?2- glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI/?2GPI) -induced tissue factor (TF) expression in human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line THP-1. In the current study, we further explored the roles of TLR4 and its adaptors, MD-2 and MyD88, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), in anti-?2GPI/?2GPI-induced the activation of THP-1 cells, especially on the expression of some proinflammatory molecules. The results showed that treatment of THP-1 cells with anti-?2GPI (10?g/ml)/?2GPI (100?g/ml) complex could increase IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-8 (interleukin-8) as well as TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor alpha) expression (both mRNA and protein levels). These effects could be blocked by addition of TAK-242 (5?M), a blocker of signaling transduction mediated by the intracellular domain of TLR4, and also by NF-?B inhibitor PDTC (20?M). Overall, our results indicate that anti-?2GPI/?2GPI complex induced IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? expression involving TLR4/MD-2/MyD88 and NF-?B signaling pathways and this might be associated with pathological mechanisms of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).
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Predicting transmission of avian influenza A viruses from avian to human by using informative physicochemical properties.
Int J Data Min Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Some strains of avian influenza A virus (AIV) can directly transmit from their natural hosts to humans. These avian-to-human transmissions have continuously been reported to cause human deaths worldwide since 1997. Predicting whether AIV strains can transmit from avian to human is valuable for early warning of AIV strains with human pandemic potential. In this study, we constructed a computational model to predict avian-to-human transmission of AIV based on physicochemical properties. Initially, ninety signature positions in the inner protein sequences were extracted with the entropy method. These positions were then encoded with 531 physicochemical features. Subsequently, the optimal subset of these physicochemical features was mined with several feature selection methods. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) model named A2H was established to integrate the selected optimal features. The experimental results of cross-validation and an independent test show that A2H has the capability of predicting transmission of AIV from avian to human.
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NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism and cancer risk: update on current evidence.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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A number of studies have investigated the association between NBS1 Glu185Gln (rs1805794, E185Q) polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. Previous meta-analysis found a borderline significant impact of this polymorphism on cancer risk; however, the result might be relatively unreliable due to absence of numerous newly published studies. Thus, we conducted an updated meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase databases until April 9, 2013. The odds ratios were pooled by the fixed-effects/random-effects model in STATA 12.0 software. As a result, a total of 48 case-control studies with 17,159 cases and 22,002 controls were included. No significant association was detected between the Glu185Gln polymorphism and overall cancer risk. As to subgroup analysis by cancer site, the results showed that this polymorphism could increase the risk for leukemia and nasopharyngeal cancer. Notably, the Glu185Gln polymorphism was found to be related to increased risk for urinary system cancer, but decreased risk for digestive system cancer. No significant associations were obtained for other subgroup analyses such as ethnicity, sample size and smoking status. In conclusion, current evidence did not suggest that the NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism was associated with overall cancer risk, but this polymorphism might contribute to the risk for some specific cancer sites due to potential different mechanisms. More well-designed studies are imperative to identify the exact function of this polymorphism in carcinogenesis.
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Spontaneous formation of hierarchical wrinkles in Cr films deposited on silicone oil drops with constrained edges.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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We report on the spontaneous formation of hierarchical wrinkling patterns in Cr films deposited on silicone oil drops with constrained edges. The appearance of the wrinkling patterns is strongly dependent on the film thickness and the size of the silicone oil drop. Because the Cr film at the drop edge is constrained due to the strong adhesion between the film and the glass surface, the wrinkle wavelength merely depends on the distance starting from the drop edge. When the distance increases, the wavelength increases quickly first, and then it slows down gradually in compliance with a simple power law. The evolution of the wrinkle amplitude is similar to that of the wavelength, but it is also closely related to the film thickness and the oil drop size. Based on the fact that the silicone oil is polymerized to form an elastic layer during deposition, the formation and evolution of the hierarchical wrinkling patterns have been analyzed in detail.
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Triple versus dual antiplatelet therapy for coronary heart disease patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A meta-analysis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Previous studies have suggested that cilostazol-based triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT) may be more effective than conventional dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) at improving the clinical outcomes of patients with CHD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, individually published results are inconclusive. The present meta-analysis evaluated controlled clinical studies to compare the clinical outcomes between TAT and DAT in patients with CHD undergoing PCI. Ten controlled clinical studies were included, with a total of 7,670 patients with CHD undergoing PCI. The total number included 3,925 patients treated with DAT (aspirin and clopidogrel) and 3745 patients treated with TAT (addition of cilostazol to DAT). The crude odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with either the fixed or random effects model. The meta-analysis results indicated that patients in the TAT group had a significantly lower rate of restenosis compared with that of the DAT group (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77; P<0.001). The rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) in the TAT group were significantly lower compared with those in the DAT group (MACE: OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.56-0.85, P<0.001; TLR: OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P=0.008). However, no significant differences between the TAT and DAT groups in terms of mortality rate, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization and stent thrombosis were observed. In conclusion, the results of the present meta-analysis indicated that the efficacy and safety of cilostazol-based TAT therapy is greater than that of conventional DAT therapy for patients with CHD undergoing PCI.
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Addition of haptoglobin to RBCs storage, a new strategy to improve quality of stored RBCs and transfusion.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is an effective therapy in surgery and critical care. Comparing to fresh RBCs, the therapeutic effect of stored RBCs is greatly limited because of its loss of NO during storage, which leads to vasodilatation dysfunction upon transfusion. So far, there is no effective solution to this problem. Here, we summarize the protective effects of Haptoglobin (Hp) in RBCs storage and transfusion, by using data extracted from literature review. Because Free Hemoglobin (FHb) is the major factor responsible for rapid NO loss during storage, addition of FHb-sequestering protein Haptoglobin will prevent the loss of NO and improve the quality of stored RBCs.
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Plant-soil feedbacks and soil sickness: from mechanisms to application in agriculture.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Negative plant-soil feedbacks play an important role in soil sickness, which is one of the factors limiting the sustainable development of intensive agriculture. Various factors, such as the buildup of pests in the soil, disorder in physico-chemical soil properties, autotoxicity, and other unknown factors may contribute to soil sickness. A range of autotoxins have been identified, and these exhibit their allelopathic potential by influencing cell division, water and ion uptake, dark respiration, ATP synthesis, redox homeostasis, gene expression, and defense responses. Meanwhile, there are great interspecific and intraspecific differences in the uptake and accumulation of autotoxins, which contribute to the specific differences in growth in response to different autotoxins. Importantly, the autotoxins also influence soil microbes and vice versa, leading to an increased or decreased degree of soil sickness. In many cases, autotoxins may enhance soilborne diseases by predisposing the roots to infection by soilborne pathogens through a direct biochemical and physiological effect. Some approaches, such as screening for low autotoxic potential and disease-resistant genotypes, proper rotation and intercropping, proper soil and plant residue management, adoption of resistant plant species as rootstocks, introduction of beneficial microbes, physical removal of phytotoxins, and soil sterilization, are proposed. We discuss the challenges that we are facing and possible approaches to these.
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Brassinosteroid alleviates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity in tomato.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants often found in the atmosphere. Phytoremediation of airborne PCBs is an emerging new concept to minimize potential human exposure. However, effects of atmospheric PCBs on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defence system are poorly understood area. Brassinosteroids have been reported to alleviate different abiotic stresses including organic pollutants-induced stress. Hence, we studied the effects of PCBs and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on biomass accumulation, photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in tomato plants. PCBs (0.4, 2.0 and 10 ?g/l) mist spray significantly decreased dry weight, photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents in a dose dependent manner. Both stomatal and non-stomatal factors were involved in PCBs-induced photosynthetic inhibition. Likewise, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (?(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient were increasingly decreased by various levels of PCBs, suggesting an induction of photoinhibition. Increased accumulation of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) accompanied with high lipid peroxidation confirmed occurrence of oxidative stress upon PCBs exposure. Meanwhile, antioxidant enzymes activity was decreased following exposure to PCBs. Foliar application of EBR (100 nM) increased biomass, photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll contents and alleviated photoinhibition by enhancing Fv/Fm, ?(PSII) and qP. EBR significantly decreased harmful ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation through the induction of antioxidant enzymes activity. Our results suggest a protective role of EBR against PCBs stress which may strengthen phytoremediation approaches by enhancing plant tolerance.
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Urea Transporter UT-B Deletion Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Mouse Bladder Urothelium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Previous studies found that urea transporter UT-B is abundantly expressed in bladder urothelium. However, the dynamic role of UT-B in bladder urothelial cells remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physiological roles of UT-B in bladder urothelium using UT-B knockout mouse model and T24 cell line.
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The role of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the induction of plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in the basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Plant RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RDR1) is an important element of the RNA silencing pathway in the plant defense against viruses. RDR1 expression can be elicited by viral infection and salicylic acid (SA), but the mechanisms of signaling during this process remains undefined. The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in RDR1 induction in the compatible interactions between Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) and Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. TMV inoculation onto the lower leaves of N. tabacum induced the rapid accumulation of H2O2 and NO followed by the increased accumulation of RDR1 transcripts in the non-inoculated upper leaves. Pretreatment with exogenous H2O2 and NO on upper leaf led to increased RDR1 expression and systemic TMV resistance. Conversely, dimethylthiourea (an H2O2 scavenger) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (an NO scavenger) partly blocked TMV- and SA-induced RDR1 expression and increased TMV susceptibility, whereas pretreatment with exogenous H2O2 and NO failed to diminish TMV infection in N. benthamiana plants with naturally occurring RDR1 loss-of-function. Furthermore, in N. tabacum and A. thaliana, TMV-induced H2O2 accumulation was NO-dependent, whereas NO generation was not affected by H2O2. These results suggest that, in response to TMV infection, H2O2 acts downstream of NO to mediate induction of RDR1, which plays a critical role in strengthening RNA silencing to restrict systemic viral infection.
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Heating pad for the bleeding: external warming during hemorrhage improves survival.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Hypothermia is common during hemorrhagic shock. To warm the victims or not has been controversial. This study aims to investigate the effect of warming during the initial time of hemorrhage on body temperature, blood pressure, and survival in rat hemorrhagic shock models.
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[Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of cold-adapted bacteria producing beta-galactosidase from permafrost sediments of the bottom layer of the Glacier No. 1 in the Tianshan Mountains].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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The purpose of this research is to isolate cold-adapted bacteria producing beta-galactosidase from permafrost sediments of the bottom layer of the Glacier No. 1 in the Tianshan Mountains, China. Physiological test and phylogenetic analysis were undertaken to expand our knowledge on diversity of psycrotrophic and psycrophlic bacteria.
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[The activation of TRIF-dependent signaling pathway in THP-1 cells induced by ?? GPI/anti-?? GPI antibodies complex].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To observe whether the TIR-domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF) is activated in THP-1 cells treated with ?? GPI/anti-?? GPI complex and investigate the roles of TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).
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Identification of true EST alignments for recognising transcribed regions.
Int J Data Min Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Transcribed regions can be determined by aligning Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with genome sequences. The kernel of this strategy is to effectively distinguish true EST alignments from spurious ones. In this study, three measures including Direction Check, Identity Check and Terminal Check were introduced to more effectively eliminate spurious EST alignments. On the basis of these introduced measures and other widely used measures, a computational tool, named ESTCleanser, has been developed to identify true EST alignments for obtaining reliable transcribed regions. The performance of ESTCleanser has been evaluated on the well-annotated human ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions using human ESTs in the dbEST database. The evaluation results show that the accuracy of ESTCleanser at exon and intron levels is more remarkably enhanced than that of UCSC-spliced EST alignments. This work would be helpful to EST-based researches on finding new genes, complementing genome annotation, recognising alternative splicing events and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), etc.
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[Protecting action of acupuncture-drug compound anesthesia with different frequency electroacupuncture on stress reaction in pneumonectomy].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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To observe the protective effect of acupuncture-drug compound anesthesia with different frequency electroacupuncture on stress reaction in pneumonectomy and to explore potential mechanisms.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.