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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[A population-based epidemiological survey of neonatal respiratory failure in Huai'an City of Jiangsu Province, in 2010.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010.
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Association of selenoprotein S gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Chinese case-control study.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Previous studies showed that selenoprotein S (SELS) was associated with a range of inflammatory markers, and its gene expression was influenced by a polymorphism in the promoter region. The genetic basis of the ischemic stroke has now been largely determined, so the aim of the study was to examine the role of SELS genetic variants in the ischemic stroke risk in a Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study with 239 ischemic stroke patients and 240 controls. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SELS genes were analyzed for association with the risk of ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population. No evidence of ischemic stroke association was observed with the SNP rs34713741. Interestingly, the strongest evidence showed that SELS SNP rs4965814 was associated with ischemic stroke (P?
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WNT5A modulates cell cycle progression and contributes to the chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Although there are many studies on the mechanism of chemoresistance in cancers, studies on the relations between WNT5A and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer are rare. The present study was to examine the role of WNT5A in the regulation of cell cycle progression and in chemo-resistance in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines.
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Thymidine Phosphorylase Participates in Platelet Signaling and Promotes Thrombosis.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Rationale: Platelets contain abundant thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP), which is highly expressed in diseases with high risk of thrombosis, such as atherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Objective: Test the hypothesis that TYMP participates in platelet signaling and promotes thrombosis. Methods and Results: By using a ferric chloride (FeCl3) induced carotid artery injury thrombosis model, we found time to blood flow cessation was significantly prolonged in Tymp(-/-) and Tymp(+/-) mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Bone marrow transplantation and platelet transfusion studies demonstrated that platelet TYMP was responsible for the antithrombotic phenomenon in the TYMP deficient mice. Collagen-, collagen-related peptide (CRP)-, adenosine diphosphate- and/or thrombin-induced platelet aggregation were significantly attenuated in Tymp(+/-) and Tymp(-/-) platelets, and in WT or human platelets pretreated with TYMP inhibitor KIN59. Tymp deficiency also significantly decreased agonist-induced P-selectin expression. TYMP contains an N-terminal SH3 domain binding proline-rich motif and forms a complex with the tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fyn and Yes in platelets. TYMP-associated Lyn was inactive in resting platelets, and TYMP trapped and diminished active Lyn after collagen stimulation. Tymp/Lyn double haploinsufficiency diminished the antithrombotic phenotype of Tymp(+/-) mice. TYMP deletion or inhibition of TYMP with KIN59 dramatically increased PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and diminished CRP or collagen induced AKT phosphorylation. In vivo administration of KIN59 significantly inhibited FeCl3 induced carotid artery thrombosis without affecting hemostasis. Conclusions: TYMP participates in multiple platelet signaling pathways and regulates platelet activation and thrombosis. Targeting TYMP might be a novel anti-platelet and anti-thrombosis therapy.
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The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are ?-H2AX(p) - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2(n) ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7(p) /PAX2(n) /EZH2(p) and underwent ciliated (PAX2(n) /EZH2(n) /FOXJ1(p) ) and basal (Krt7(n) /EZH2(n) /Krt5(p) ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2(p) but became PAX2(n) in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2(n) SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1(n) and ?-catenin(mem) (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2(p) , ALDH1(p) , ?-catenin(nc) (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathmin(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and RUNX2(p) expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2(n) , ALDH1(n) , ?-catenin(mem) , but highly expressed EZH2(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and stathmin(p) . This study, for the first time, links PAX2(n) with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Revisit of the anatomy of the distal perforator of the descending genicular artery and clinical application of its perforator "propeller" flap in the reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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In this article,we revisited the anatomy of the distal perforator of the descending genicular artery (DGA) and report the clinical application of its perforator propeller flap in the reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee.
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[Identification of onset and offset of QRS complexes based on the characteristics of angle and amplitude].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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In order to quickly and accurately identify the onset and offset of the QRS complex in electrocardiogram (ECG) signal with different forms, a triple local transform method was employed in the present study to detect the suspected onset and offset points of QRS. The accurate onset and offset points of QRS complexes were selected according to the rules drawn by the trial process based on the characteristics of angle and amplitude constituted within these suspected points. The method makes full advantage of the angle and amplitude characteristics of the QRS complex, by which the results can be acquired with some simple arithmetic quickly, accurately and adaptively. The method was investigated with data from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and satisfactory results were obtained.
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[Stability analysis of reference gene based on real-time PCR in Artemisia annua under cadmium treatment].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a typical circular DNA with length of 13,089?bp (GenBank accession number: KM111296). The genome contains all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), an A + T-rich region, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. The A + T content of the mitochondrial genome is 84.5%. The AT-skew is positive (0.032) while the GC-skew is negative (-0.058). The gene arrangement is conserved in T. urticae, Panonychus citri and P. ulmi which are in the same family (Tetranychidae). The A + T-rich region is only 43?bp in length with high A + T content (97.7%). All the PCGs start with typical ATD codons. Eight PCGs have complete TAA stop codons, while five PCGs have an incomplete stop codon (T).
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Association Study Identifying a New Susceptibility Gene (AUTS2) for Schizophrenia.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and debilitating mental disorder, and the specific genetic factors that underlie the risk for SCZ remain elusive. The autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene has been reported to be associated with autism, suicide, alcohol consumption, and heroin dependence. We hypothesized that AUTS2 might be associated with SCZ. In the present study, three polymorphisms (rs6943555, rs7459368, and rs9886351) in the AUTS2 gene were genotyped in 410 patients with SCZ and 435 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and forced PCR-RFLP methods. We detected an association between SCZ and the rs6943555 genotype distribution (odds ratio (OR) = 1.363, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.848-2.191, p = 0.001). The association remained significant after adjusting for gender, and a significant effect (p = 0.001) was observed among the females. In the present study, rs6943555 was determined to be associated with female SCZ. Our results confirm previous reports which have suggested that rs6943555 might elucidate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and play an important role in its etiology.
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Clinical characteristics and prognosis of 60 patients with midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Midventricular obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (MVOHCM) is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Knowledge regarding the diagnosis, morbidity and cardiovascular mortality is limited. In this study, we aimed to describe the long-term outcomes of patients with MVOHCM followed in a tertiary referral centre.Methods A retrospective study of 60 patients with MVOHCM diagnosed at FuWai Hospital was performed. Clinical features, mortality and cardiovascular morbidity were analysed.
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Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes.
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Therapeutic Hypothermia (Different Depths, Durations, and Rewarming Speeds) for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Meta-analysis.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Whether therapeutic hypothermia benefits patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the different depths, durations, and rewarming speeds of therapeutic hypothermia for AIS.
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Aortic bypass and orthotopic right renal autotransplantation for midaortic syndrome: a case report.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare vascular anomaly characterized by segmental narrowing of the distal descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. Renal or visceral arteries may also be affected to varying degrees. MAS is often associated with renovascular hypertension, and requires early intervention. When medical therapy and percutaneous interventions fail to control hypertension, surgical treatment is required. We report a case of MAS that failed to respond to bilateral renal artery stenting, but treated with aortic bypass and orthotopic right renal autotransplantation with good outcome.
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[Clinical analysis of two carotid endarterectomy procedures in treating carotid artery stenosis].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To analyze the effectiveness and costs of the eversion carotid endarterectomy(eCEA)and the carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty(pCEA)in treating carotid artery stenosis.
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Homoplastic evolution and host association of Eriophyoidea (Acari, Prostigmata) conflict with the morphological-based taxonomic system.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The superfamily Eriophyoidea is exceptionally diverse and its members are highly host-specific. Currently, the taxonomy of this group is based on morphology only. However, phylogenetic relationships in this group could be incorrect if the diagnostic morphological characters are homoplastic. Therefore, the phylogeny of 112 representative taxa of Eriophyoidea from China was determined using 18S, 28S D2-5 and D9-10 rRNA. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred through Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and then a number of clades or major clades were defined according to robust phylogenetic topologies combined with morphological comparison. Tests of monophyly showed that two of three families of Eriophyoidea as well as one subfamily and four tribes were not monophyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction (ACSR) showed that five diagnostic morphological characters evolved several times, confounding the current taxonomy. Additionally, reconstruction of the history of host plant colonization suggested host switching occurred in a limited range of host plants. The host association data made it possible to determine taxonomic relationships more accurately. These results show that by integrating morphological and molecular information and host plant choice, it is possible to obtain a more accurate taxonomy and a deeper phylogenetic understanding of Eriophyoidea.
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Enzymatic resolution of ibuprofen in an organic solvent under ultrasound irradiation.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Ultrasound has been successfully adopted to improve the biocatalytic properties of APE1547 (a novel esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1) in the resolution of ibuprofen. After optimizing the conditions (ultrasound power, 200 W; temperature, 35 °C), the best biocatalytic performance of APE1547 (enzyme activity, 5.39 µmol/H/mg; E value, 130.8) was obtained. Compared with the conventional reaction in an orbital shaker, the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced about 90-fold, and the enantioselectivity was enhanced about fourfold after an ultrasound. The results of scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that the activation effect of ultrasound on APE1547 originated mainly in the morphological change of the enzyme powder. Both lower particle size and conformational change of APE1547 under ultrasound might be helpful to enhance the enantioselectivity. In addition, APE1547 kept its best performance under the low-power ultrasound for at least five reaction cycles.
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The co-localization of HBx and COXIII upregulates COX-2 promoting HepG2 cell growth.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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HBx is a multifunctional regulator that interacts with host factors to contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, to explore the co-localization of HBx and COXIII in HepG2 cells and to investigate the molecular mechanism of HBx in HepG2 cell growth promotion, we first constructed a HepG2 cell line stably expressing the HBx gene in vitro by lentivirus vectors. In addition, we found that HBx co-localized with the inner mitochondrial protein, COXIII, in HepG2 cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It led to changes of mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, including upregulation of COXIII protein expression, increased cytochrome c oxidase activity and higher mitochondrial membrane potential. The upregulation of COX-2 caused by HBx through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promoted cell growth. Thus, we conclude that co-localization of HBx and COXIII leads to upregulation of COX-2 that promotes HepG2 cell growth. Such a mechanism provides deeper insights into the molecular mechanism of HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Effects of mild induced hypothermia on hippocampal connexin 43 and glutamate transporter 1 expression following traumatic brain injury in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of worldwide disability and mortality. Currently, the incidence and prevalence of TBI is markedly increasing and an effective therapy is lacking. Therapeutic hypothermia (32?35?C) has been reported to reduce intracranial pressure and induce putative neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mild induced hypothermia (MIH) on the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT?1) in the hippocampus following TBI in rats. A rat model of TBI was created using a modified weight?drop device, followed by 4 h of hypothermia (33?C) or normothermia (37?C). A wet?dry weight method was used to assess brain edema and spatial learning ability was evaluated using a Morris water maze. The levels of Cx43 and GLT?1 were detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis, respectively. The results demonstrated that MIH treatment improved TBI?induced brain edema and neurological function deficits. In addition, therapeutic MIH significantly downregulated Cx43 expression and upregulated the levels of GLT?1 in the hippocampus post?TBI. These findings suggested that treatment with MIH may provide a novel neuroprotective therapeutic strategy for TBI through reversing the increase in Cx43 protein and the decrease in GLT?1.
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Angiotensin II-regulated microRNA 483-3p directly targets multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Improper regulation of signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by angiotensin II (AngII) can lead to hypertension, vascular hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. The extent to which the homeostatic levels of the components of signaling networks are regulated through microRNAs (miRNA) modulated by AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) in VSMCs is not fully understood. Whether AT1R blockers used to treat vascular disorders modulate expression of miRNAs is also not known. To report differential miRNA expression following AT1R activation by AngII, we performed microarray analysis in 23 biological and technical replicates derived from humans, rats and mice. Profiling data revealed a robust regulation of miRNA expression by AngII through AT1R, but not the AngII type 2 receptor (AT2R). The AT1R-specific blockers, losartan and candesartan antagonized >90% of AT1R-regulated miRNAs and AngII-activated AT2R did not modulate their expression. We discovered VSMC-specific modulation of 22 miRNAs by AngII, and validated AT1R-mediated regulation of 17 of those miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We selected miR-483-3p as a novel representative candidate for further study because mRNAs of multiple components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) were predicted to contain the target sequence for this miRNA. MiR-483-3p inhibited the expression of luciferase reporters bearing 3'-UTRs of four different RAS genes and the inhibition was reversed by antagomir-483-3p. The AT1R-regulated expression levels of angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE-1) proteins in VSMCs are modulated specifically by miR-483-3p. Our study demonstrates that the AT1R-regulated miRNA expression fingerprint is conserved in VSMCs of humans and rodents. Furthermore, we identify the AT1R-regulated miR-483-3p as a potential negative regulator of steady-state levels of RAS components in VSMCs. Thus, miRNA-regulation by AngII to affect cellular signaling is a novel aspect of RAS biology, which may lead to discovery of potential candidate prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
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Plasma pharmacokinetics and lung distribution of tetrahydropalmatine after topical application of cold asthma recipe extract: Feishu (BL 13) versus Non-Feishu acupoint.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Acupoint application of cold asthma recipe (CAR) was a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) method, widely used as an alternative medicine for clinical prevention of the common winter diseases of asthma and bronchitis. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP) was a main active ingredient of CAR extract. The aim of this study is to compare plasma pharmacokinetics and lung distribution of THP between Feishu (FS) acupoint (BL 13) and Non-Feishu (NFS) acupoint application of CAR extract by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
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Phenolic composition, DNA damage protective activity and hepatoprotective effect of free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The phenolic composition of the free phenolic extract from Sphallerocarpus gracilis seeds was analyzed by HPLC-MS and predominant compounds were chlorogenic acid, di-caffeoylquinic acid glucoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The free phenolic extract was evaluated for DNA damage protective activity induced by ROO and OH radicals and hepatoprotective effect in vivo and in vitro. Results revealed that the free phenolic extract exhibited significant protective activity against both ROO and OH radical-induced DNA damage and the phenolic extract exerted more potent inhibitory activity against OH radical-induced damage than against that induced by ROO radicals. In vivo experimental results showed that the phenolic extract significantly prevented the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and hepatic malondialdehyde level caused by CCl4 in rats, and markedly increased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels. Histopathological examinations further confirmed that the phenolic extract could protect the liver from CCl4-induced damage. In vitro experimental results showed that the phenolic extract could reduce BRL hepatocyte apoptosis and damage induced by CCl4. These findings indicate that the S. gracilis seed could be developed as a medicinal herb for the therapy and prevention of hepatic injury.
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Dysphagia as the mere chief complaint of ruptured thoracic aneurysm in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Dysphagia as the first or only manifestation in thoracic aortic aneurysm is referred to as dysphagia aortica, which is usually associated with old age, women of short stature, hypertension, and kyphosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus may complicate with early aortic aneurysm onset. Dysphagia aortica in young women with lupus may be more common than many doctors realize and easily missed at the first presentation.
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Effect of acupuncture on inflammatory cytokines expression of spastic cerebral palsy rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To To investigate the effect of acupuncture on the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) content and muscular tension of spasticity cerebral palsy rat model.
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Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin?10 (rIL?10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid?expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL?transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen.
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Cryptic diversity in host-associated populations of Tetra pinnatifidae (Acari: Eriophyoidea): what do morphometric, mitochondrial and nuclear data reveal and conceal?
Bull. Entomol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Traditional morphology-based taxonomy of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) has been challenged by molecular-based technologies in the detection of cryptic species. However, the implications of such cryptic diversity appear to differ when methods based on different types of data are used. Here, samples of a host-associated eriophyoid mite species, Tetra pinnatifidae, collected from different host plants and localities are evaluated. The congruence of results based on morphometric (32 characters), mitochondrial (16S), and nuclear (28S) data were evaluated and showed a host-associated cryptic diversity dividing this morphospecies into several groups/clades that were morphometrically indistinguishable. In comparison, the 16S data confirmed cryptic speciation and intra-clade host-associated diversity, while 28S did not. In contrast, 28S data revealed potential gene flow between host-associated populations. High mitochondrial divergence, as well as low nuclear and morphological divergence indicated very recent stage of cryptic diversity of this eriophyoid mite.
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Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol.
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The ulnar palmar perforator flap: anatomical study and clinical application.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Defects sustained at the little finger and the ulnar aspect of the hand are common and pedicled perforator flaps have unique advantages in resurfacing it. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the anatomy of the septocutaneous perforator in the postero-medial aspect of the hand and present our clinical experience in using perforator flaps based on it.
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Assessment of atrial fibrillation and vulnerability in patients with wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim was to assess atrial fibrillation (AF) and vulnerability in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE).
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of six species of tetranychus provide insights into the phylogeny and evolution of spider mites.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many spider mites belonging to the genus Tetranychus are of agronomical importance. With limited morphological characters, Tetranychus mites are usually identified by a combination of morphological characteristics and molecular diagnostics. To clarify their molecular evolution and phylogeny, the mitochondrial genomes of the green and red forms of Tetranychus urticae as well as T. kanzawai, T. ludeni, T. malaysiensis, T. phaselus, T. pueraricola were sequenced and compared. The seven mitochondrial genomes are typical circular molecules of about 13,000 bp encoding and they are composed of the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. The order of the mitochondrial (mt) genes is the same as that in the mt genomes of Panonychus citri and P. ulmi, but very different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the mitochondrial genomes have high (?84%) A+T contents, negative GC-skews and positive AT-skews. The nucleotide sequence of the cox1 gene, which is commonly used as a taxon barcode and molecular marker, is more highly conserved than the nucleotide sequences of other mitochondrial genes in these seven species. Most tRNA genes in the seven genomes lose the D-arm and/or the T-arm. The functions of these tRNAs need to be evaluated. The mitochondrial genome of T. malaysiensis differs from the other six genomes in having a slightly smaller genome size, a slight difference in codon usage, and a variable loop in place of the T-arm of some tRNAs by a variable loop. A phylogenic analysis shows that T. malaysiensis first split from other Tetranychus species and that the clade of the family Tetranychoidea occupies a basal position in the Trombidiformes. The mt genomes of the green and red forms of T. urticae have limited divergence and short evolutionary distance.
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Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea) associated with Lauraceae in China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, three new species of eriophyoid mites in the family Eriophyidae associated with Phoebe hunanensis Hand.-Mazz. (Lauraceae), namely Gammaphytoptus striatilobus sp. n., Phyllocoptes setalsolenidion sp. n., and Dechela phoebe sp. n. are described and illustrated. All are vagrants causing no apparent damage to the same host plants.
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An alternative suite of universal primers for genotyping in multiplex PCR.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The universal primer three-primer approach can dramatically reduce the cost when genotyping the microsatellites. One former research reported four universal primers that can be used in singleplex and multiplex genotyping. In this study, we proposed an alternative suite of universal primers with four dyes for genotyping 8-12 loci in one single run. This multiplex method was tested on Tetranychus truncatus. Published microsatellite loci of T. kanzawai, Frankliniella occidentalis and Nilaparvata lugens were modified as needed and also tested. The robustness of the method was confirmed by comparing with singleplex using multiple fluorophores and genotyping two populations of T. truncatus. This method showed lower signal strength than the singleplex three-primer system, but it was still sufficient to determine the fragment length. The cost of such a project can be reduced dramatically when many loci of different species are involved. In this way, laboratories performing population genetic analyses or studying several different species may benefit from the use of this cost-effective protocol.
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Anticipation, anti-glaucoma drug treatment response and phenotype of a Chinese family with glaucoma caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin mutation.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To describe the anticipation and anti-glaucoma drugs response of a Chinese family with juvenile-onset open angle glaucoma (JOAG) caused by the Pro370Leu myocilin (MYOC) mutation.
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Pathological changes, TGF-?1 expression, and the effects of hepatocyte growth factor in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Abstract Several studies have shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates chronic renal failure, but its mechanism of action is unclear. This study was designed to test the delivery of HGF in the PCI-neo vector, using the 5/6 nephrectomized rat as a model for chronic renal failure, and to confirm that this protective function is associated with decreased protein expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1). Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Control (untreated), PCI-neo (vector control), 5/6 nephrectomy, and PCI-neo-HGF. Rats were sacrificed at both the fifth and ninth week after 5/6 nephrectomy. Kidney specimens were used for pathological examination (hematoxylin-eosin staining), and detection of TGF-?1 protein (Western blot and immunohistochemistry) expression. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and 24-h urinary protein excretion (UPE) were increased, renal interstitium was seriously injured, and TGF-?1 protein expression was elevated in 5/6 nephrectomized rats compared to control rats at either time point. Red blood cell and hemoglobin levels decreased in the ninth week after 5/6 nephrectomy. PCI-neo-HGF expression ameliorated the aforementioned changes and decreased TGF-?1 expression, not only in the fifth week, but also in the ninth week after surgery. The process of renal injury in the 5/6 nephrectomized rat was consistent with that of chronic renal failure. The increase in TGF-?1 expression was maintained after 5/6 nephrectomy. HGF relieved chronic renal failure, this protection was associated with down-regulation of TGF-?1 protein expression, and the protective effects were long-term and stable after 5/6 nephrectomy.
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[Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BEV) plus chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, mCRC].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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To assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BEV) plus chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
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[Efficacy analysis of two surgical procedures of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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To analyze the efficacy and safety of eversion carotid endarterectomy (eCEA) and carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty (pCEA) in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis.
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[Drug sensitivity analysis of Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium abscessus and evaluation of Etest for susceptibility testing].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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To study the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium(M.) chelonae and M.abscessus and to evaluate the clinical application of Etest(epsilometer test) for susceptibility testing.
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[Revascularization for lower limbs thromboangiitis obliterans-early and mid-term outcome report].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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To summarize the outcome of revascularization for lower limbs thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) and evaluate risk factors affected outcomes.
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Effect of epidural analgesia with 0.075% ropivacaine versus 0.1% ropivacaine on the maternal temperature during labor: a randomized controlled study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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A wealth of evidence has indicated that labor epidural analgesia is associated with an increased risk of hyperthermia and overt clinical fever. Recently, evidence is emerging that the epidural analgesia-induced fever is associated with the types of the epidural analgesia and the variations in the epidural analgesia will affect the incidence of fever. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of epidural analgesia with 0.075% or 0.1% ropivacaine on the maternal temperature during labor.
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Wolbachia Play an Important Role in Affecting mtDNA Variation of Tetranychus truncatus (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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The prevalence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia and its effects on mitochondria variation were analyzed in seven natural populations of Tetranychus truncatus Ehara (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) in current study. Five Wolbachia strains (wtru1, wtru5, wtru7, wtru8, and wtru12) were detected based on the surface protein of Wolbachia (wsp) sequence data and the multiple locus sequences typing data, suggesting that multiple separate invasions have occurred. Part of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was sequenced from infected individuals revealing 10 different haplotypes. As predicted, the haplotype and nucleotide diversity were lower in infected individuals than that in uninfected individuals. Furthermore, phylogenetic and analysis of molecular variance analyses revealed that the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is not associated with geography. Rather, it is strongly concordant with infection status. These data support the hypothesis that Wolbachia infection can affect the genetic structure and diversity of the host mites.
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[New method to predict cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy by transcranial Doppler].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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To determine the diagnostic value for predicting cerebral hyperper-fusionsyndrome (CHS) by adding a transcranial Doppler (TCD) measurement at the end of the carotid endarterectomy (CEA) at the operating room.
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Altererythrobacter atlanticus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of the North Atlantic Rise.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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A Gram-negative, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated 26DY36(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the North Atlantic Rise. The isolate required NaCl and grew best with 2 % (w/v) sea salts at temperature of between 30 and 35 (o)C at pH 7.0. It formed yellow colonies, produced carotenoid-like pigments and did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. Strain 26DY36(T) was positive for hydrolysis of aesculin, gelatin, tyrosine and Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80, and negative for hydrolysis of casein, DNA and starch. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major polar lipid profile consisted of sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and two unidentified glycolipids. The principal fatty acids (>5 %) were C18:1?7c, C17:1?6c, C15:0 2OH and C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 59.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 26DY36(T) should be assigned to the genus Altererythrobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of Altererythrobacter species were in the range 92.7 - 96.5 %. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain 26DY36(T) represents a novel species of the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter atlanticus sp. nov. (type strain 26DY36(T) = CGMCC 1.12411(T) = JCM 18865(T)) is proposed.
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Management of focal atrial tachycardias originating from the atrial appendage with the combination of radiofrequency catheter ablation and minimally invasive atrial appendectomy.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) originating from the left and the right atrial appendage (AA) were the most difficult to eliminate.
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Roseivivax pacificus sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated 22DY03(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the East Pacific Rise. The isolate required NaCl and grew best with 3-7?% (w/v) sea salts at temperature of between 30 and 35 °C at pH 7.0. It formed non-pigmented colonies and produced exopolysaccharide, but did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. Strain 22DY03(T) was positive for hydrolysis of aesculin and Tween 20 and negative for hydrolysis of casein, DNA, gelatin, starch and Tween 40, 60 and 80. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and four unidentified polar lipids. The major fatty acids were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, C18?:?1?7c and 11-methyl C18?:?1?7c. The genomic DNA G+C content was 64.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 22DY03(T) should be assigned to the genus Roseivivax. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of species of the genus Roseivivax were in the range of 94.1-95.8?%. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that strain 22DY03(T) represents a novel species of the genus Roseivivax, for which the name Roseivivax pacificus sp. nov. (type strain 22DY03(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12410(T)?=?JCM 18866(T)) is proposed.
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The posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flap: Anatomical study and clinical application.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Defects sustained at the distal forearm are common and pedicled perforator flaps have unique advantages in resurfacing it. The purpose of this study is to reappraise the anatomy of the perforator in the posterolateral aspect of the mid-forearm and present our clinical experience on using perforator flaps based on it for reconstruction of defects in the distal forearm. Methods: This study was divided into anatomical study and clinical application. In the anatomical study, 30 preserved upper limbs were used. Clinically, 11 patients with defects at the forearm underwent reconstruction with the posterolateral mid-forearm perforator flaps. The defects, ranging from 4.5 × 2.5 cm to 10.5 × 4.5 cm, were located at the dorsal aspect of the distal forearm in 6 cases and at the volar aspect of the distal forearm in 5 cases.
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[Detection of pncA mutation associated with pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by high-resolution melting cure analysis].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To evaluate the application of a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis for rapid detection of pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis).
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[Research of different effects on activity of plant antioxidant enzymes].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Plant can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal physiological activity. However, ROS can increase dramatically by environmental stress. The increase may break the ROS balance in the plant. To control ROS levels in plants, an antioxidant system is needed to protect the cell. This paper introduced the types and functions of antioxidant enzymes, and studied the effects of plant and environmental factors on the activities of antioxidant enzymes. At last, the paper discussed the research hot fields of the effect of environmental stress on antioxidant enzymes, and gave the research strategies to the problems which happened in the studies.
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Electrical resistivity-based study of self-sensing properties for shape memory alloy-actuated artificial muscle.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO).
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The complete mitochondrial genomes of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus: conserved genome rearrangement in Delphacidae and discovery of new characteristics of atp8 and tRNA genes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Nilaparvata lugens (the brown planthopper, BPH) and Laodelphax striatellus (the small brown planthopper, SBPH) are two of the most important pests of rice. Up to now, there was only one mitochondrial genome of rice planthopper has been sequenced and very few dependable information of mitochondria could be used for research on population genetics, phylogeographics and phylogenetic evolution of these pests. To get more valuable information from the mitochondria, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of BPH and SBPH. These two planthoppers were infected with two different functional Wolbachia (intracellular endosymbiont) strains (wLug and wStri). Since both mitochondria and Wolbachia are transmitted by cytoplasmic inheritance and it was difficult to separate them when purified the Wolbachia particles, concomitantly sequencing the genome of Wolbachia using next generation sequencing method, we also got nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of these two rice planthoppers. After gap closing, we present high quality and reliable complete mitochondrial genomes of these two planthoppers.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three predominant rice planthoppers.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most destructive pests of rice crops in many Asian countries. Using long-PCR and shotgun library methods, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes (mt-genomes) of two WBPH individuals. Total lengths of the mt-genome of the two WBPH individuals were 16,612 bp and 16,654 bp with an identical AT content of 76.19%. Among the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), only nad5 used an atypical initiation codon GTG. Most of the tRNA genes had the typical cloverleaf secondary structure except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arms in two trnS genes and the T?C arm of trnG gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Similar to the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), some extraordinary features were observed in the WBPH mt-genome. These include similar gene rearrangement pattern, unusually short length of the atp8 gene and variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) structure in control region. Interestingly, the same tandem repeat unit with stable secondary structure appeared in two different planthoppers, WBPH and SBPH, which belong to two different genera of the Delphacidae. This peculiar feature provides a direct evidence for the close relationship between the two planthoppers and updates our understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of mitochondrial control region. Comparison with two other predominant rice planthoppers (BPH and SBPH) revealed that different PCGs of mitochondria exhibit different evolutionary patterns.
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Toward a mental arithmetic process in risky choices.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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Mainstream theories about decision-making under risk suggest that risky decisions are made by choosing the option that offers the highest mathematical expectation. The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying risky choice by contrasting a preferential choice task with an expected value choice task. The ERP data revealed that (1) the computational difficulty, which would be expected to influence a compensatory process, affected the slow wave only when participants were forced to choose the option with the highest expectation; and that (2) the difference in the minimum outcome dimension between two options, which would be expected to be influential in a heuristic process, affected the P300 and slow wave when participants were asked to choose the preferred option. Our findings provide neural evidence that preferential choice is not based on an expectation computation and thus raised the question of whether expectation theories can provide an adequate description of individual risky decisions.
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Host-symbiont interactions in spider mite Tetranychus truncates doubly infected with Wolbachia and Cardinium.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Inherited bacteria Wolbachia, and more recently Cardinium, have received a great deal of attention for their ability to manipulate the reproduction and fitness of their host species. Wolbachia and Cardinium have been found to co-infect the same host species. In this study, both Wolbachia and Cardinium were found to manipulate host reproduction through cytoplasmic incompatibility and to affect the male-biased sex-ratio in the doubly infected spider mite Tetranychus truncates Ehara. We also investigated effects of double infection with Wolbachia and Cardinium on host fecundity and longevity. Results indicated that Wolbachia and Cardinium increased the fecundity of doubly infected females, although no infection effect on host longevity was observed. Our most important finding was that the mating of uninfected mites facilitated the proliferation of Wolbachia and Cardinium in double-infected mites. We discuss the results observed with respect to the spread of bacterial infection in natural populations and the evolution of the endosymbiont-T. truncates symbiosis.
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A comparison of different dilute solution explosions pretreatment for conversion of distillers grains into ethanol.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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In order to improve the efficiency of distillers grains converting to ethanol, 13 dilute solution explosions were evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried at 105°C. Using a 1.1 mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion temperature set at 160°C (pressure at 1.9 MPa), the residence time at 10 min, and the dried distillers grains-to-water ratio at 1:2 (w/w), the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 86%, 89%, and 84% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol yield was 25.3 g/100 g distillers grains dry matter. Moreover, the eight other reagent solution explosions improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, and of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and the residual contents of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid decreased to an acceptable concentration range after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of volatile solutions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield. This study offers a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials with higher starch and hemicelluloses contents as raw materials for converting biomass to bioethanol.
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Altered diurnal variation and localization of clock proteins in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomy rats.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To investigate the localization and diurnal variation of clock proteins (BMAL1, PER2) and clock output protein (DBP) in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomy rats (STNx).
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Long period fiber grating transverse load effect-based sensor for the omnidirectional monitoring of rebar corrosion in concrete.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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From the angle of sensitivity of the long period fiber grating (LPFG) resonant transmission spectrum, we demonstrate the sensitivity of LPFG resonance peak amplitude changing with transverse loads. The design of a resonant peak modulation-based LPFG rebar corrosion sensor is described by combining the spectral characteristics of LPFG with the expansion state monitoring of rebar corrosion. LPFG spectrum curves corresponding with different rebar corrosion status of the environment under test are captured by the monitoring technique of LPFG transmission spectra, and the relationship between the resonance peak amplitude change and the state of rebar corrosion is obtained, that is, the variation of LPFG resonance peak amplitude increases with the intensifying of the degree of rebar corrosion. The experimental results numerically show that the sensor response has good regularity for a wide range of travel.
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Long-term follow-up of children conceived through assisted reproductive technology.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Children conceived via assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are nowadays a substantial proportion of the population. It is important to follow up these children and evaluate whether they have elevated health risks compared to naturally conceived (NC) children. In recent years there has been a lot of work in this field. This review will summarize what is known about the health of ART-conceived children, encompassing neonatal outcomes, birth defects, growth and gonadal developments, physical health, neurological and neurodevelopmental outcomes, psychosocial developments, risk for cancer, and epigenetic abnormalities. Most of the children conceived after ART are normal. However, there is increasing evidence that ART-conceived children are at higher risk of poor perinatal outcome, birth defects, and epigenetic disorders, and the mechanism(s) leading to these changes have not been elucidated. Continuous follow-up of children after ART is of great importance as they progress through adolescence into adulthood, and new ART techniques are constantly being introduced.
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Detecting and (Not) Dealing with Plagiarism in an Engineering Paper: Beyond CrossCheck-A Case Study.
Sci Eng Ethics
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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In papers in areas such as engineering and the physical sciences, figures, tables and formulae are the basic elements to communicate the authors core ideas, workings and results. As a computational text-matching tool, CrossCheck cannot work on these non-textual elements to detect plagiarism. Consequently, when comparing engineering or physical sciences papers, CrossCheck may return a low similarity index even when plagiarism has in fact taken place. A case of demonstrated plagiarism involving engineering papers with a low similarity index is discussed, and editors experiences and suggestions are given on how to tackle this problem. The case shows a lack of understanding of plagiarism by some authors or editors, and illustrates the difficulty of getting some editors and publishers to take appropriate action. Consequently, authors, journal editors, and reviewers, as well as research institutions all are duty-bound not only to recognize the differences between ethical and unethical behavior in order to protect a healthy research environment, and also to maintain consistent ethical publishing standards.
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Modified deep iliac circumflex osteocutaneous flap for extremity reconstruction: anatomical study and clinical application.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The classic deep iliac circumflex osteocutaneous flap with iliac crest has been one of the most commonly used flaps for mandibular reconstruction since its advent. However, the unnecessary bulk of the obligatory muscle cuff limited its widespread use. The authors describe in this article the use of a modified deep iliac circumflex osteocutaneous flap with reduced bulk and great mobility between the skin and the bone components.
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Fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with overt hyperthyroidism and euthyroid congenital hypothyroidism.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Abstract Aim: To investigate the influence of overt hyperthyroidism and euthyroid congenital hypothyroidism on fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Methods: A total of 30 untreated overt hyperthyroidism patients, 17 euthyroid congenital hypothyroidism children, and age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Levels of GLP-1, insulin, glucose, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were measured and evaluated. Results: Fasting GLP-1, blood glucose, insulin, and HOMR-IR levels were higher in patients with overt hyperthyroidism than in controls (p=0.030, p=0.008, p=0.004, p=0.037, respectively). These parameters in euthyroid hypothyroidism were similar to the controls. In euthyroid congenital hypothyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism patients, serum GLP-1 levels were not correlated with thyroid hormone, blood glucose, insulin, and HOMR-IR. Conclusions: Fasting GLP-1 levels in the peripheral circulation were significantly increased in overt hyperthyroidism, however, they were no different in euthyroid congenital hypothyroidism.
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Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T)?=CGMCC 1.12174(T)?=?JCM 18450(T)) is proposed.
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Antidiarrheal properties of different extracts of Chinese herbal medicine formula Bao-Xie-Ning.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Bao-Xie-Ning (BXN), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formula composed of Fructus Evodiae, Flos Caryophylli and Cortex Cinnamomi, and used for the treatment of infant diarrheal illness, was subject to systematic assessment for its putative multiple pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacological antidiarrheal mechanisms.
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New and highly efficient column chromatographic extraction and simple purification of camptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes pittosporoides.
Phytochem Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Camptothecin, a widely used natural anti-cancer drug, is difficult to extract and purify effectively from plants.
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[Efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherpy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, and to analyze the relevant factors of recurrent death of gastric cancer after adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Rapid development of 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Tetranychus truncatus by transferring from Tetranychus urticae.
Exp. Appl. Acarol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Tetranychus truncatus Ehara is a phytophagous spider mite that is now one of the most important pests of agricultural and economic crops in East and Southeast Asia. However, population genetics and other studies of T. truncatus have been impeded by the lack of microsatellite markers, which are expensive and time-consuming to identify. Previous studies indicated a high potential of cross-amplification of microsatellites in Tetranychus species, meaning that the microsatellite flanking sequences are sufficiently homologous among Tetranychus species that the primers for one species may work in another species. Here, we tested 205 primer pairs designed from the whole genome sequence of Tetranychus urticae Koch, a sister species of T. truncatus, for microsatellite markers in three populations of T. truncatus in China (N = 94). About half (102) of these primer pairs yielded the desired PCR products, 36 of which revealed polymorphism in T. truncatus. Each of the 36 markers harbored between 2 and 23 alleles, with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.589 (0.119-0.922 range). The mean observed and expected heterozygosity across loci and the three populations were 0.468 and 0.628, respectively. Of the 36 primer pairs, 22 also worked in Tetranychus piercei, but only a few of them worked in T. ludeni and T. phaselus. Cross-amplification is thus a cost-effective way to develop microsatellite markers, which can be of great value in population genetics studies.
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Enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen under microwave irradiation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen has been successfully carried out in an organic solvent catalyzed by recombinant APE 1547 (a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1). Here we used microwave irradiation (MW) as the mode of heating to improve the enzyme performance. Under the optimum conditions, the enzyme activity of APE 1547 was 4.16 ?mol/mg/h and the enantioselectivity (E value) was 52.9. Compared with conventional heating, the enzyme activity and the enantioselectivity were increased about 21.9-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. The results also indicated that APE 1547 can maintain 95% of its activity even after being used five times, suggesting that the enzyme is stable under low power MW conditions.
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Syntheses and structures of a series of uranyl phosphonates and sulfonates: an insight into their correlations and discrepancies.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Six uranyl phosphonates and sulfonates have been hydrothermally synthesized, namely, (H2tib)[(UO2)3(PO3C6H5)4]·2H2O (UPhP-1), Zn(pi)2(UO2)(PO3C6H5)2 (UPhP-2), Zn(dib)(UO2)(PO3C6H5)2·2H2O (UPhP-3), (HTEA)[(UO2)(5-SP)] (USP-1), (Hdib)2[(UO2)2(OH)(O)(5-SP)] (USP-2), and Zn(phen)3(UO2)2(3-SP)2 (USP-3) (tib = 1,3,5-tri(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, pi = 1-phenyl-1H-imidazole, dib = 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, TEA = triethylamine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 5-SP = 5-sulfoisophthalic acid, and 3-SP = 3-sulfoisophthalic acid). UPhP-1 has been determined to be a layered structure constructed by UO7 pentagonal bipyramids, UO6 octahedra, and phenylphosphonates. Protonated tib plays a role in balancing the negative charge and holding its structure together. UPhP-2 is made up of UO6 octahedra, ZnO2N2 tetrahedra and PO3C tetrahedra in phenylphosphonates, forming a 1D assembly, which is stabilized by chelate phen ligand. Further connection of such chainlike structure via dib yields a 2D layered architecture of UPhP-3. Although sulfonate group possesses similar tetrahedral structure as the phosphonate group, a unidentated coordination mode is only found in this work. UO7 pentagonal bipyramids are linked by 5-SP to form the layered assembly of USP-1. USP-2 also consists of the same sulfonate ligand, but features tetranulear uranyl clusters. Similarly, protonated TEA and dib molecules enable stabilization of their structures, respectively. Formed by dinuclear uranyl cluster and 3-SP ligand, USP-3 appears as a 1D arrangement, in which Zn(phen)3 acts as the counterion to compensate the negative charge. All of these compounds have been characterized by IR and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Their characteristic emissions have been attributed as transition properties of uranyl cations.
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Diversity of Wolbachia in natural populations of spider mites (genus Tetranychus): evidence for complex infection history and disequilibrium distribution.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods and cause reproductive disorders in host. Within several Tetranychus species, Wolbachia have been detected and shown to affect their reproduction. However, little is known about their transmission and distribution patterns in natural populations of Tetranychus species. Here, we used multilocus sequence typing to confirm Wolbachia infection status and examined the relationship between Wolbachia infection status and host phylogeny, mitochondrial diversity, and geographical range in five Tetranychus species (Tetranychus truncatus, Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychus pueraricola, Tetranychus phaselus, and Tetranychus kanzawai) from 21 populations in China. The prevalence of Wolbachia within the five Tetranychus species ranged from 31.4 to 100 %, and the strains were remarkably diverse. Together, these observations indicate that Wolbachia was introduced to these populations on multiple separate occasions. As in other arthropods, the same Tetranychus species can accommodate very different strains, and identical Wolbachia occasionally infect different species. These observations suggest that Wolbachia are transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Horizontally, transmission is probably mediated by the host plants. The distribution patterns of Wolbachia were quite different among populations of the same species, suggesting that the dynamics of Wolbachia in nature may be affected by ecological and other factors.
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Multiple infections with Cardinium and two strains of Wolbachia in the spider mite Tetranychus phaselus Ehara: revealing new forces driving the spread of Wolbachia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) has been proposed as a major mechanism by which certain strains of Wolbachia to invade and persist in host populations. However, mechanisms that underlie the invasion and persistence of non-CI strains are less well understood. Here, we established a spider mite Tetranychus phaselus population multiply infected by Cardinium as well as two distinct lineages of Wolbachia, designated wCon and wOri, to study the forces driving the spread of the non-CI strain of Wolbachia wOri. Interestingly, we found that wOri provided a longevity advantage to its female hosts under ideal conditions, making wOri stay longer in this population, and then being transmitted to more offspring. Furthermore, the lifespan of uninfected females was reduced when mated with multiple-infected males. As a result, the uninfected population is attenuated by the multiple-infected males. Thus, we infer that the host age effects of multiple infection may represent sufficient forces driving the spread of wOri through the host population.
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Notch ?-Secretase Inhibitor Dibenzazepine Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in ApoE Knockout Mice by Multiple Mechanisms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening aortic disease in the elderly. Activation of Notch1 pathway plays a critical role in the development of AAA, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms by which Notch1 activation regulates angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAA formation and evaluated the therapeutic potential of a new Notch ?-secretase inhibitor, dibenzazepine (DBZ), for the treatment of AAA. Apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo E(-/-)) mice infused for 4 weeks with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, IP) using osmotic mini-pumps were received an intraperitoneal injection of either vehicle or 1 mg/kg/d DBZ. Notch1 signaling was activated in AAA tissue from both Ang II-infused Apo E(-/-) mice and human undergoing AAA repair in vivo, with increased expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and its target gene Hes1, and this effect was effectively blocked by DBZ. Moreover, infusion of Ang II markedly increased the incidence and severity of AAA in Apo E(-/-) mice. In contrast, inhibition of Notch activation by DBZ prevented AAA formation in vivo. Furthermore, DBZ markedly prevented Ang II-stimulated accumulation of macrophages and CD4(+) T cells, and ERK-mediated angiogenesis, simultaneously reversed Th2 response, in vivo. In conclusion, these findings provide new insight into the multiple mechanisms of Notch signaling involved in AAA formation and suggest that ?-secretase inhibitor DBZ might be a novel therapeutic drug for treating AAAS.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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