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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Improving the carrier balance of light-emitting electrochemical cells based on ionic transition metal complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Recently, solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have attracted much research interest since they have the advantages of a simple device structure, a low operation voltage and compatibility with air-stable electrodes. These properties enable LECs to be cost-effective, versatile and power-efficient organic light-emitting sources. However, it is generally not easy to modify the molecular structure to achieve balanced carrier mobilities without altering the photoluminescence quantum yield of the iTMC. Furthermore, the carrier balance and the consequent device efficiency of single-layered LECs would not be easy to optimize since no carrier injection and transport layers can be used. In this perspective, some reported techniques to improve carrier balance of LECs based on iTMCs are described and reviewed. The importance and impact of these studies are highlighted. The effects on device lifetime and turn-on time because of employing these techniques to improve the carrier balance are also discussed. This perspective concludes that even with electrochemically doped layers, improving the carrier balance of LECs would be required for realizing efficient electroluminescent emission from simple-structure organic light-emitting sources.
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Surgical Treatment of Incidental Gallbladder Cancer Discovered During or Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The optimal surgical management of patients with incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and their long-term survival remains unclear.
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Analysis of all-optical temporal integrator employing phased-shifted DFB-SOA.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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All-optical temporal integrator using phase-shifted distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) is investigated. The influences of system parameters on its energy transmittance and integration error are explored in detail. The numerical analysis shows that, enhanced energy transmittance and integration time window can be simultaneously achieved by increased injected current in the vicinity of lasing threshold. We find that the range of input pulse-width with lower integration error is highly sensitive to the injected optical power, due to gain saturation and induced detuning deviation mechanism. The initial frequency detuning should also be carefully chosen to suppress the integration deviation with ideal waveform output.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The sites of extranodal involvement are the stronger predictor than the number of extranodal sites in the Rituximab era.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Abstract National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-International Prognostic Index (IPI) is an enhanced prognostic tool and it identified some specific extranodal sites as a poor prognostic factor. We were interested in this issue and retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital. In the univarate analysis, ? 2 extranodal involved sites had no significant prognostic relevance (p=0.108) and extranodal involvement of lung/pleura, liver, lower urinary tract or bone marrow was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, some specific extranodal sites had stronger predictive value for poor prognosis [relative risk 3.654, 95% confidence interval 1.514-8.815, p=0.004] than that of numbers of extranodal involvement. This finding suggested that the specific extranodal involved sites have a great prognostic value in the R era.
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Post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage: risk factors, managements and outcomes.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Post-pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication. This retrospective study analyzed the risk factors, managements and outcomes of the patients with PPH.
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Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies to Manage Post-Pancreaticoduodenectomy Hemorrhage.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To explore the causes, diagnosis and treatment of post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhages (PPHs).
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In Situ Synthesis of MOF Membranes on ZnAl-CO3 LDH Buffer Layer-Modified Substrates.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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We develop here a urea hydrolysis method to in situ prepare asymmetric ZnAl-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) buffer layers with various stable equilibrium morphology on porous Al2O3 substrates. In particular it is found that well-intergrown ZIF-8 membranes can be directly synthesized on the ZnAl-CO3 LDH buffer layer-modified substrates, owing to the specific metal-imidazole interaction between ZnAl-CO3 LDHs and ZIF-8. Other Zn-based MOF membranes, like ZIF-7 and ZIF-90, can also be synthesized with this method. Our finding demonstrates that LDH buffer layer represents a new concept for substrate modification.
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A high-field magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using an oven-controlled crystal oscillator as the local oscillator of its radio frequency transceiver.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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A home-made high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrometer with multiple receiving channels is described. The radio frequency (RF) transceiver of the spectrometer consists of digital intermediate frequency (IF) circuits and corresponding mixing circuits. A direct digital synthesis device is employed to generate the IF pulse; the IF signal from a down-conversion circuit is sampled and followed by digital quadrature detection. Both the IF generation and the IF sampling use a 50 MHz clock. An oven-controlled crystal oscillator, which has outstanding spectral purity and a compact circuit, is used as the local oscillator of the RF transceiver. A digital signal processor works as the pulse programmer of the spectrometer, as a result, 32 control lines can be generated simultaneously while an event is triggered. Field programmable gate array devices are utilized as the auxiliary controllers of the IF generation, IF receiving, and gradient control. High performance, including 1 ?s time resolution of the soft pulse, 1 MHz receiving bandwidth, and 1 ?s time resolution of the gradient waveform, is achieved. High-quality images on a 1.5 T MRI system using the spectrometer are obtained.
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[Transient hepatic venous occlusion induced liver hemodynamic change and reperfusion injury in rats].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To observe the hemodynamic change and reperfusion injury cause by transient hepatic venous occlusion and transient hepatic inflow occlusion in rats.
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Extrahepatic cyst excision and partial hepatectomy for Todani type IV-A cysts.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Extrahepatic cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is not satisfactory in many patients with complex Todani type IV-A choledochal cysts.
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Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 1a (nr2f1a) is required for vascular development in zebrafish.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Genetic regulators and signaling pathways are important for the formation of blood vessels. Transcription factors controlling vein identity, intersegmental vessels (ISV) growth and caudal vein plexus (CVP) formation in zebrafish are little understood as yet. Here, we show the importance of the nuclear receptor subfamily member 1A (nr2f1a) in zebrafish vascular development. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of nr2f1a is highly conserved among the vertebrates. Our in situ hybridization results showed nr2f1a mRNA is expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm at 18 somite stage and in vessels at 24-30 hpf, suggesting its roles in vasculization. Consistent with this morpholino-based knockdown of nr2fla impaired ISV growth and failed to develop fenestrated vascular structure in CVP, suggesting that nr2f1a has important roles in controlling ISV and CVP growth. Consequently, nr2f1a morphants showed pericardial edema and circulation defects. We further demonstrated reduced ISV cells and decreased CVP endothelial cells sprouting in nr2f1a morphants, indicating the growth impairment of ISV and CVP is due to a decrease of cell proliferation and migration, but not results from cell death in endothelial cells after morpholino knockdown. To test molecular mechanisms and signals that are associated with nr2f1a, we examined the expression of vascular markers. We found that a loss of nr2f1a results in a decreased expression of vein/ISV specific markers, flt4, mrc1, vascular markers stabilin and ephrinb2. This indicates the regulatory role of nr2f1a in controlling vascular development. We further showed that nr2f1a likely interact with Notch signaling by examining nr2f1a expression in rbpsuh morphants and DAPT-treatment embryos. Together, we show nr2f1a plays a critical role for vascular development in zebrafish.
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Percutaneous transhepatic and endoscopic biliary drainage for malignant biliary tract obstruction: a meta-analysis.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Various malignant tumors can obstruct the extrahepatic biliary tract. Two major techniques for restoring bile flow in this circumstance are endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness and safety of the two techniques.
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Selection of the Surgical Approach for Reoperation of Adult Choledochal Cysts.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Our purpose was to evaluate the reasons for reoperations and outcomes in patients with choledochal cysts (CCs).
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[94 km Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors based on ultra-long fiber ring laser pumping].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A novel optical amplification configuration based on ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity was proposed and applied to Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing system, in order to extend the measurement distance significantly. The parameters used in the experiment were optimized, considering the main limitations of the setup, such as depletion, self-phase modulation (SPM) and pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. Through analyzing Brillouin gain spectrum, we demonstrated distributed sensing over 94 km of standard single-mode fiber with 3 meter spatial resolution and strain/temperature accuracy of 28 /1. 4 degree C.
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A temporary stent graft as a new shunt for juxtahepatic vena cava injury.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Juxtahepatic vena cava (JHC) injury is difficult to handle because of JHC injury's specific position and liver obstruction. The traditional shunt method initially appeared to be useful but ultimately failed. Simple and effective methods are needed to solve it.
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The defects of cholangiocyte primary cilia in patients with graft cholangiopathies.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To observe the morphologic changes in intrahepatic bile ducts and the defects of cholangiocyte primary cilia in patients with graft cholangiopathies.
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[Spectral characteristics of decomposition of incorporated straw in compound polluted arid loess].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The original loess from western China was used as soil sample, the spectral methods of scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) were used to investigate the characteristics of decomposed straw and formed humic acids in compound polluted arid loess. The SEM micrographs show the variation from dense to decomposed surface, and finally to damaged structure, and the EDS data reveal the phenomenon of element transfer. The newly-formed humic acids are of low aromaticity, helpful for increasing the activity of organic matters in loess. The FTIR spectra in the whole process are similar, indicating the complexity of transformation dynamics of humic acids. The molecular structure of humic acids becomes simpler, shown from 13C NMR spectra. The spectral methods are useful for humic acids identification in loess region in straw incorporation process.
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[Ex-situ remediation on co-contaminated arid loess in column with spectral methods].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The arid loess in northwestern China is one of the dominant soil types nationwide, the removal efficiency of Pb and chlorpyrifos in simulated co-contaminated loess was investigated by ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) in ex-situ column experiment, and methods of ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to reveal the remediation characteristics and mechanism. The results showed that the flow rate and pH value of EDTA are responsible for the reaction curves. In the experimental conditions, the removal rates of Pb and chlorpyrifos are more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and the bioavailability of heavy metals decreases greatly. The SEM micrographs indicate the dense and rough surface of loess, and unclear surface and enhanced dispersion of particles appear after the reaction. The EDS results explain the phenomenon of Pb removal and elemental loss. The move, disappearance and decrease of wave peaks, shown from FTIR spectra, are the effect of various chemical environment in loess, and the reaction is more appropriate for physisorbed pollutants removal. The achievements are acceptable for co-contaminated loess remediation by EDTA in ex-situ column, showing potential for future application.
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E2F1 regulates p53R2 gene expression in p53-deficient cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The p53R2 gene encoding a small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase has been identified as a p53-inducible gene. Although this gene is discovered as a target for p53 family proteins, the mechanism underlying p53R2 induction by DNA damage in p53-defiencient cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that transcription factor E2F1 regulates the p53R2 gene expression in p53-deficient cells. We found that p53R2 was a target for E2F1 in DNA damage response (DDR), because ectopic expression of E2F1 in HCT116-p53(-/-) cells resulted in the increase of p53R2 mRNA and protein expression, and silencing E2F1 diminished its basic expression. Combination of luciferase reporter assay with overexpression or knockdown of E2F1 revealed that E2F1 directly activates the p53R2 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed E2F1 directly bound to the site (TTTGGCGG) at position -684 to -677 of the promoter under E2F1 overexpression or adriamycin (ADR) exposure. Moreover, silencing p53R2 could enhance apoptotic cell death in both HCT116-p53(-/-) and HCT116-p53(+/+) compared to ADR exposure, indicating that p53R2 may protect cancer cell from ADR-induced apoptosis. Together, we have identified a new role of E2F1 in the regulation of p53R2 expression in DDR, and silencing p53R2 may sensitize cancer cells to ADR-induced apoptosis. Our data support the notion that p53R2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. The involvement of E2F1-dependent p53R2 activation in DDR will provide further insight into the induction of p53R2 in p53-deficient cells. These data also give us a deeper understanding of E2F1 role in DDR.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese surface soil: occurrence and distribution.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 157 concurrently collected soil samples in 2005 over China. Higher concentration of ?16PAHs was found in urban soil, followed by rural and background soil. The results indicated that PAHs in Chinese surface soil showed a primary distribution pattern, which was confirmed by the positive correlation with emission inventory. Based on the results of literature over the past 10 years (2004-2013) in China, the spatial distribution of PAHs in urban and rural soil was established. An obvious geographical distribution with PAH concentration was found, as higher in Eastern China and lower in Middle and Western China. Furthermore, PAH pollution in Chinese riverbank soil was summarized and showed higher levels, indicating their potential sources from polluted rivers. According to our knowledge, this is the first time to comprehensively study the PAH pollution status in Chinese surface soil on the national scale based on monitoring results.
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Efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis: a meta-analysis.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is commonly used to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but less is known regarding safety and efficacy of TACE in patients with HCC and portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TACE treatment on 1-year survival in patients with HCC and PVTT.
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Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is a rare distinct type of breast carcinoma. There are only some case reports on this topic published in the past. There is still little known on the optimal treatment outcomes, while a wide variety of treatments is proposed by several authors. In this study we searched the literature on NECB in PubMed to clarify its prognosis and possible optimal therapeutic strategies.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as the first-line treatment option in a patient with severe aplastic anemia without a matched related donor: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The outcomes of matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) remain controversial. The clinical outcome in patients that undergo transplantation following failed IST is typically poorer when compared with patients that initially underwent transplantation. Clinical treatment algorithms have been proposed to determine the management of such patients, and account for individual conditions, personal preferences and prognostic risk factors. The present study reports the promising outcome of a 22-year-old patient exhibiting SAA. The patient underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from an MUD using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen and low-dose total body irradiation as an alternative method to first-line IST. The patient achieved rapid bone marrow reconstitution and has been in complete remission for 32 months. The aim of the fludarabine-based conditioning regimen with PBSCT was to improve the patient's therapeutic outcome and provide a convenient treatment strategy. Furthermore, this regimen extends the application of HSCT to patients who are older or those that are without a matched related donor.
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Ultra-long high-sensitivity ?-OTDR for high spatial resolution intrusion detection of pipelines.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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An ultra-long phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (?-OTDR) that can achieve high-sensitivity intrusion detection over 131.5km fiber with high spatial resolution of 8m is presented, which is the longest ?-OTDR reported to date, to the best of our knowledge. It is found that the combination of distributed Raman amplification with heterodyne detection can extend the sensing distance and enhances the sensitivity substantially, leading to the realization of ultra-long ?-OTDR with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the feasibility of applying such an ultra-long ?-OTDR to pipeline security monitoring is demonstrated and the features of intrusion signal can be extracted with improved SNR by using the wavelet detrending/denoising method proposed.
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Comparison of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and endoscopic biliary drainage in the management of malignant biliary tract obstruction: A meta-analysis.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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To compare percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) for management of malignant biliary tract obstruction (MBTO).
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E2F1-regulated DROSHA promotes miR-630 biosynthesis in cisplatin-exposed cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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DNA damage may regulate microRNA (miRNA) biosynthesis at the levels of miRNA transcription, processing and maturation. Although involvement of E2F1 in the regulation of miRNA gene activation in response to DNA damage has been documented, little is known about the role of E2F1 in miRNA processing. In this study we demonstrate that E2F1 enhances miR-630 biosynthesis under cisplatin (CIS) exposure through promoting DROSHA-mediated pri-miR-630 processing. Northern blot and RT-qPCR revealed that CIS exposure caused not only an increase in pri-miR-630 but also much more increase in pre-miR-630 and mature miR-630. The increases in pri-miR-630 and pre-miR-630 expression in unmatched proportion indicated that primary transcript processing was involved in CIS-stimulated miR-630 biosynthesis. Furthermore, combination of reporter enzyme assay with mutation and over-expression of E2F1 showed that induction of DROSHA promoted miR-630 expression, in which CIS-induced E2F1 activated DROSHA gene expression by recognizing and binding two E2F1 sites at the positions -214/-207 and -167/-160 of the DROSHA promoter. The increased binding of E2F1 to the DROSHA promoter in CIS-exposed cells was further evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Together, E2F1-regulated DROSHA promotes pri-miR-630 processing, thereby, contributes to CIS-stimulated miR-630 expression. The involvement of E2F1-dependent DROSHA activation in pri-miRNA processing under DNA damage stress will provide further insight into the regulation of miRNA biosynthesis. These data also give us a deeper understanding of E2F1 role in response to DNA damage.
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An effective and robust method for modeling multi-furcation liver vessel by using Gap Border Pairing.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Shape-based 3D surface reconstructing methods for liver vessels have difficulties to tackle with limited contrast of medical images and the intrinsic complexity of multi-furcation parts. In this paper, we propose an effective and robust technique, called Gap Border Pairing (GBPa), to reconstruct surface of liver vessels with complicated multi-furcations. The proposed method starts from a tree-like skeleton which is extracted from segmented liver vessel volumes and preprocessed as a number of simplified smooth branching lines. Secondly, for each center point of any branching line, an optimized elliptic cross-section ring (contour) is generated by optimizedly fitting its actual cross-section outline based on its tangent vector. Thirdly, a tubular surface mesh is generated for each branching line by weaving all of its adjacent rings. Then for every multi-furcation part, a transitional regular mesh is effectively and regularly reconstructed by using GBP. An initial model is generated after reconstructing all multi-furcation parts. Finally, the model is refined by using just one time subdivision and its topologies can be re-maintained by grouping its facets according to the skeleton, providing high-level editability. Our method can be automatically implemented in parallel if the segmented vessel volume and corresponding skeletons are provided. The experimental results show that GBP model is accurate enough in terms of the boundary deviations between segmented volume and the model.
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Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-?-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-?- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 ? expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.
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GenCLiP 2.0: a web server for functional clustering of genes and construction of molecular networks based on free terms.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Identifying biological functions and molecular networks in a gene list and how the genes may relate to various topics is of considerable value to biomedical researchers. Here, we present a web-based text-mining server, GenCLiP 2.0, which can analyze human genes with enriched keywords and molecular interactions. Compared with other similar tools, GenCLiP 2.0 offers two unique features: (i) analysis of gene functions with free terms (i.e. any terms in the literature) generated by literature mining or provided by the user and (ii) accurate identification and integration of comprehensive molecular interactions from Medline abstracts, to construct molecular networks and subnetworks related to the free terms.
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Prediction of gas/particle partition quotients of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in north temperate zone air: an empirical approach.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning process is an important factor governing the transport and fate of chemicals in the atmosphere. Based on a large dataset of more than 700 pairs of air samples in gaseous and particulate phases with a wide ambient temperature range of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C obtained from our Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program, Phase 2 (China-SAMP-II), we investigated G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) in Chinese air. We derived for the first time empirical equations to predict the values of slopes and intercepts for both subcooled-liquid-vapor-pressure (PL)-based and octanol-air-partition-coefficient (KOA)-based models as functions of temperature, and thus predicted partition quotient (KP) without assuming an equilibrium status and free of artifacts. These equations have been successfully applied to predict the values of KP for PBDEs in air of China and other countries in the north temperate zone (NTZ) and also at an Arctic site in East Greenland, and our results matched the monitoring data well at background, rural, urban, and suburban sites, but not at e-waste sites due to the unpredictable PBDE emissions at these sites. Our equations predicted that the ranges of slopes were 0.02-0.82 for logKP-logKOA plots and -0.82 to -0.02 for logKP-logPL plots at temperatures ranged of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C. Our new KOA-based equation was compared with the Harner-Bidleman equation that was derived at a condition of equilibrium, and the results indicated that our new equation has a better performance than the Harner-Bidleman equation in describing G/P partitioning behavior of PBDEs in air as functions of logKOA. We also found for the first time that the G/P partitioning of PBDE congeners would become saturated in the particulate phase respect to the gas phase if the ambient temperature is low enough. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and nonequilibrium status for PBDEs was also established using logKOA. The study presented in this paper provides a useful tool for environmental scientists in both monitoring and modeling research on G/P partitioning behavior for PBDEs in air.
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Clinicopathological analysis and prognostic factors of 11 patients with primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the small intestine in a single institute.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the most common extranodal site of involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Primary GI NHL is frequently discussed in survival analyses. Primary intestinal NHL is significantly different from primary gastric NHL with regard to its clinical features, pathological subtype, treatment and prognosis. The small intestine is involved in lymphoma less often than the large intestine. The present study aimed to analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of primary NHL of the small intestine and its prognostic factors. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical data from 313 cases of NHL that occurred between 1995 and 2008 in the Tri-Service General Hospital (National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan). Among these cases, 11 cases of primary NHL of the small intestine were identified. A Cox model was used to perform the multivariate analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the survival analysis. From the 11 patients with primary NHL of the small intestine, seven patients were male (63.6%) and four patients were female (36.3%). Furthermore, nine patients (81.8%) were diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma, of which five (45.5%) were also diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). Abdominal pain and/or distention were present in six (54.5%) of the patients and jejunum involvement was also observed in six (54.5%) of the 11 patients. The mean overall survival (OS) time of the 11 patients was 27.2 months and the four-year survival rate was 36.3%. The mean OS time in the patients with jejunum involvement was shorter than in those without jejunum involvement (16.9 vs. 39.6 months), although this difference was not significant (P=0.657). Surgical treatment was performed on four of the six patients with jejunum involvement due to an acute abdomen or perforation-related peritonitis. The results of the present study indicate that DLBL is the most common subtype of primary lymphoma of the small intestine, and that the site involved in NHL may affect the potential for surgery in patients with intestinal lymphoma. Furthermore, patients with primary lymphoma of the small intestine have been found to have a poor outcome compared with those with lymphoma in other regions of the GI tract. In the present study, a similar trend was observed, however, the sizes of the subgroups of primary lymphoma of the small intestine were too small for individual analysis.
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Competitive Reaction Pathway for Site-Selective Conjugation of Raman Dyes to Hotspots on Gold Nanorods for Greatly Enhanced SERS Performance.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Common methods to prepare SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) probes rely on random conjugation of Raman dyes onto metal nanostructures, but most of the Raman dyes are not located at Raman-intense electromagnetic hotspots thus not contributing to SERS enhancement substantially. Herein, a competitive reaction between transverse gold overgrowth and dye conjugation is described to achieve site selective conjugation of Raman dyes to the hotspots (ends) on gold nanorods (GNRs). The preferential overgrowth on the nanorod side surface creates a barrier to prevent the Raman dyes from binding to the side surface except the ends of the GNRs, where the highest SERS enhancement factors are expected. The SERS enhancement observed from this special structure is dozens of times larger than that from conjugates synthesized by conventional methods. This simple and powerful strategy to prepare SERS probes can be extended to different anisotropic metal nanostructures with electromagnetic hotspots and has immense potential in in-depth SERS-based biological imaging and single-molecule detection.
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ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.
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Malignant bowel obstruction: A retrospective clinical analysis.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a disease with a poor prognosis, particularly in patients with advanced bowel or gynecological cancers. Multimodality teatments may be used to relieve the symptoms in patients with MBO; however, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal treatment and no strong evidence supporting the efficacy of any treatment in improving the quality of life (QOL) and prolonging survival. We conducted a search through our medical center database of cancer registries for MBO cases between January, 1995 and December, 2008 and analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and association between treatments and prognosis or QOL. The primary type of cancer causing MBO was found to be adenocarcinoma of colon. The overall survival time was found to be significantly higher among patients presenting with MBO as the initial symptom and improved QOL was achieved in patients who received surgical treatment. The mean survival time and the functional status of colorectal cancer patients receiving targeted therapy and chemotherapy were more satisfactory compared with those receiving surgery alone or conservative treatment. Furthermore, for end-stage cancer patients with MBO, hospice care was effective in reducing pain scores and relieving the symptoms of the disease.
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Preoperative differential diagnosis between intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma: a single-center experience.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To investigate preoperative differential diagnoses made between intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and intrahepatic biliary cystadenocarcinoma.
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Secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Chordomas are low- to intermediate-grade malignant tumors that recapitulate the notochord. Chordomas belong to the dysontogenetic bone tumors and appear primarily in the region of the axial skeleton. Chordomas are divided into conventional, chondroid, sarcomatoid and dedifferentiated subtypes. The different subtypes of chordoma have varied survival periods. According to the literature to date, secondary pulmonary and lymph-node metastases occur most frequently, followed by liver, bone and skin metastases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous report of one subtype of chordoma metastasizing or transforming into another subtype with a different histopathology. This study presents a 24-year-old man with secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arising from a primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum. The patient was alive at the end of November, 2009 and the survival time exceeded eight years. This is the first case of a patient with primary sarcomatoid chordoma of the sacrum with complete remission in whom a secondary pulmonary conventional chordoma arose from the primary cancer.
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Hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in the era of liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The aim of management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is to improve the prognosis of the patients by radical resection and preserve remnant liver function. Although liver transplantation is associated with a lower tumor recurrence rate, this benefit is counteracted by long-term complications. Therefore, hepatectomy could be the first choice of treatment in selected patients with HCC. However, the higher frequency of tumor recurrence and the lower rate of resectability after hepatectomy for HCC led to an unsatisfactory prognosis. New strategies are required to improve the long-term outcome of HCC after hepatectomy. In this paper, we introduce some strategies to increase the low rate of resectability and reduce the high rate of tumor recurrence. Some aggressive treatments for tumor recurrence to extend long-term survival are also involved. We believe that hepatectomy combined with other therapies, such as portal vein embolization, transarterial chemoembolization, radioembolization, antiviral treatment, radiofrequency ablation and salvage transplantation, is a promising treatment modality for HCC and may improve survival greatly.
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Portal inflow preservation during portal diversion in small-for-size syndrome.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To investigate the impact of portal inflow on liver remnants in a stable pig model of small-for-size syndrome.
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"One-off" complete radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in a "high-risk location" adjacent to the major bile duct and hepatic blood vessel.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective, minimally invasive treatment option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) located in high-risk areas or for patients with poor hepatic functional reserve. However, for tumors adjacent to major bile ducts and hepatic blood vessels, complete ablation is difficult to achieve for fear of causing a postoperative bile leak, bilioma or bile duct stenosis. Therefore, RFA is often combined with multiple alcohol injections to eliminate residual tumor tissues in adjacent bile duct or blood vessels; however, the injections directly affect the efficacy and prognosis of RFA. This study reports three successful "one-off" cases of complete ablation of HCCs adjacent to major bile ducts and blood vessels in neighboring hepatic segments or hepatic lobes, highlighting both the efficacy and safety of RFA for HCC tumors in these high-risk locations.
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Comparative survival analysis of adjuvant therapy with iodine-131-labeled lipiodol to hepatic resection of primary hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Adjuvant therapies play an important role in delaying the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with resectable tumor. Among the available options, use of radionuclides is an effective strategy. This meta-analysis aims to examine the evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy with intra-arterial iodine-131-labeled lipiodol ((131)I-lipiodol) to hepatic resection of HCC.
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The treatment outcome of multiple myeloma patients ineligible for hematopoietic transplantation-a single institutional experience in Taiwan.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and results in complications. In Taiwan, melphalan and several novel agents are used to treat myeloma patients who are not candidate for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MM patients who were ineligible for HSCT at our institution from October 2000 until November 2012. A total of 101 MM patients were reviewed. The median age was 71.0 years, and median overall survival (OS) was 22.0 months. Most of patients were diagnosed as IgG-type myeloma (55.4 %). The initial presentations included anemia (89.1 %), skeletal events (49.5 %), severe renal insufficiency (30.7 %), and hypercalcemia (28.7 %). With regard to the frontline therapy, thalidomide/steroid was the most common. Infection was the leading cause of death and adverse effects. Treatment with bortezomib, almost in the second- or third-line setting, was associated with longer median OS (35.5 months) and the median time to progression (TTP) (6.0 months). Bortezomib treatment, chemotherapy, International Staging System (ISS) stage I, and better performance status significantly correlated with survival benefit. In the bortezomib-treated subgroup, better treatment response caused excellent median OS (67.7 months) and also significantly delayed TTP. Therefore, this current analysis concluded a median OS of 22 months in myeloma patients ineligible for HSCT at our institution during the past 10 years. The use of bortezomib with better treatment response also achieved significantly better median OS and TTP.
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Graft cholangiopathy: etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategies.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Graft cholangiopathy has been recognized as a significant cause of morbidity, graft loss, and even mortality in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of this review is to analyze the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies of graft cholangiopathy after liver transplantation.
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MicroRNA-30c serves as an independent biochemical recurrence predictor and potential tumor suppressor for prostate cancer.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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MicroRNA-30c (miR-30c) acts as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter in various human malignancies. However, the involvement of miR-30c in prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular function and the clinical significance of miR-30c in PCa. Expression levels of miR-30c in PCa tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Additionally, the associations of miR-30c expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in PCa patients were analyzed. The potential role of miR-30c in tumorigenesis of PCa cells was further evaluated by in vitro cell assays. MiR-30c was significantly down-regulated in PCa tissues and cells compared with the corresponding controls (P<0.05). In addition, the downregulation of miR-30c in PCa tissues was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (P=0.009), advanced pathological stage (P=0.016) and biochemical recurrence (P=0.034). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the reduced expression of miR-30c was correlated with shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival (P=0.023). The multivariate analysis also identified miR-30c as an independent prognostic predictor for biochemical recurrence-free survival in patients with PCa. Furthermore, the enforced expression of miR-30c suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of PCa cells in vitro. Our data indicated the involvement of miR-30c in PCa progression and suggested its potential role as an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in PCa. On cellular level, miR-30c may function as a tumor suppressor for PCa cells by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
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Osthole suppresses the migratory ability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells via inhibition of focal adhesion kinase-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary and malignant tumor occurring in the adult central nervous system. GBM often invades surrounding regions of the brain during its early stages, making successful treatment difficult. Osthole, an active constituent isolated from the dried C. monnieri fruit, has been shown to suppress tumor migration and invasion. However, the effects of osthole in human GBM are largely unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the metastasis of cancer cells. Results from this study show that osthole can not only induce cell death but also inhibit phosphorylation of FAK in human GBM cells. Results from this study show that incubating GBM cells with osthole reduces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression and cell motility, as assessed by cell transwell and wound healing assays. This study also provides evidence supporting the potential of osthole in reducing FAK activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility in human GBM cells.
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MicroRNA-224 inhibits progression of human prostate cancer by downregulating TRIB1.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Our previous microarray data showed that microRNA-224 (miR-224) was downregulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues compared with adjacent benign tissues. However, the underlying mechanisms by which miR-224 is involved in PCa remain unclear. In this study, we identified TRIB1 as a target gene of miR-224. Forced expression of miR-224 suppressed PCa cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and promoted cell apoptosis by downregulating TRIB1. Moreover, the expression level of miR-224 in PCa tissues was negatively correlated with that of TRIB1. miR-224 downregulation was frequently found in PCa tissues with metastasis, higher PSA level and clinical stage, whereas TRIB1 upregulation was significantly associated with metastasis. Both miR-224 downregulation and TRIB1 upregulation were significantly associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival of patients with PCa. In conclusion, these findings reveal that the aberrant expression of miR-224 and TRIB1 may promote PCa progression and have potentials to serve as novel biomarkers for PCa prognosis.
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Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase promotes the tumorigenic phenotype in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating STAT3.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Previously known as a first-response protein upon viral infection and other stress signals, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR, also termed EIF2AK2) has been found to be differentially expressed in multiple types of tumor, including hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that PKR may be involved in tumor initiation and development. However, whether and how PKR promotes or suppresses the development of hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial. In the present study, PKR expression was investigated using qPCR and western blot analysis, which revealed that PKR expression was upregulated in liver tumor tissues, when compared to that of adjacent normal tissues, which were obtained from four primary liver cancer patients. Furthermore, in vitro cellular assays revealed that PKR exerts a key role in maintaining the proliferation and migration of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Mouse models with xenograft transplantations also confirmed a tumorigenic role of PKR in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, a transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), was revealed to mediate the tumor-promoting function of PKR in HepG2 cells, as shown by in vitro cellular proliferation and migration assays. In conclusion, the results suggested a tumorigenic role of PKR in liver cancer and a detailed mechanism involving an oncogenic transcription factor, STAT3, is described. Therefore, PKR may present a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of liver cancer.
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CXCR6 deficiency attenuates pressure overload-induced monocytes migration and cardiac fibrosis through downregulating TNF-?-dependent MMP9 pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An immerging role of TNF-? in collagen synthesis and cardiac fibrosis implies the significance of TNF-? production in the development of myocardial remodeling. Our previous study showed a reduction of TNF-? and attenuated cardiac remodeling in CXCR6 knockout (KO) mice after ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the potential mechanism of TNF-?-mediated cardiac fibrosis with pressure overload has not been well elucidated. In the present study, we aim to investigate the role of CXCR6 in TNF-? release and myocardial remodeling in response to pressure overload. Pressure overload was performed by constriction of transverse aorta (TAC) surgery on CXCR6 KO mice and C57 wild-type (WT) counterparts. At 6 weeks after TAC, cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiography, cardiac TNF-? release and its type I receptor (TNFRI), were detected by ELISA and western blot, collagen genes Col1a1 (type I) and Col3a1 (type III) were examined by real-time PCR. Compared with CXCR6 WT mice, CXCR6 KO mice exhibited less cardiac dysfunction, reduced expression of TNFRI, Col1a1 and Col3a. In vitro, we confirmed that CXCR6 deficiency led to reduced homing and infiltration of CD11b(+) monocytes, which contributed to attenuated TNF-? release in myocardium. Furthermore, TNFRI antagonist pretreatment blocked AT1 receptor signaling and NOX4 expression, reduced collagen synthesis, and blunted the activity of MMP9 in CXCR6 WT mice after TAC, but these were not observed in CXCR6 KO mice. In the present work, we propose a mechanism that CXCR6 is essential for pressure overload-mediated myocardial recruitment of monocytes, which contributes to cardiac fibrosis through TNF-?-dependent MMP9 activation and collagen synthesis.
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Decreased expression of myosin light chain MYL9 in stroma predicts malignant progression and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of myosin light chain (MYL9) downregulation with tumor progression and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). MYL9 protein expression in human PCa and non-cancerous prostate tissues was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, which was validated by microarray-based Taylor data at mRNA level. Then, the associations of MYL9 expression with clinicopathological features and clinical outcome of PCa patients were statistically analyzed. Both Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses found that MYL9 expression was significantly decreased (both P < 0.001) in PCa tissues compared with those in non-cancerous prostate tissues. In addition, MYL9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of stromal cells of prostate tissues, and the decreased expression of MYL9 in PCa tissues was significantly correlated with the older age of patients (P = 0.011), the higher Gleason score (P < 0.001), the advanced pathological stage (P = 0.002), the presence of metastasis (P < 0.001) and PSA failure (P = 0.001). Furthermore, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the downregulation of MYL9 was an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (P = 0.026 and P = 0.009, respectively) and biochemical recurrence-free survival (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Our data strongly confirmed for the first time that the decreased expression of MYL9 may play an important role in tumor progression of PCa. More importantly, the downregulation of MYL9 may efficiently predict both overall and biochemical recurrence-free survivals in PCa patients.
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[Assessment of hepatic reserve function of cirrhosis liver using dynamic SPECT (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin scintigraphy].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic SPECT (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy on the assessment of reserve function of cirrhosis liver.
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Rose-bengal-conjugated gold nanorods for in vivo photodynamic and photothermal oral cancer therapies.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated with rose bengal (RB) molecules exhibit efficient singlet oxygen generation when illuminated by 532 nm green light and high photothermal efficiency under 810 nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. In vitro experiments show that reactive oxygen species generated by green light and hyperthermia produced by NIR light constitute two different mechanisms for cancer cell death. The RB-GNRs also exhibit improved photodynamic efficacy by enhancing the uptake of RB by cancer cells. In vivo experiments are conducted on hamster cheek pouches to resemble the human oral cancer conditions more accurately to assess the therapeutic effectiveness. Compared to the single photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photothermal therapy (PTT), the RB-GNRs with combined PDT-PTT capabilities provide better therapeutic effects against oral cancer and have large potential in cancer treatment.
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[Study on the co-adsorption mechanism of Pb (II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess in northwestern China].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The co-adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on arid loess were investigated with batch adsorption procedures, and the co-adsorption mechanism was studied with approaches of SEM, FT-IR, XRD and theoretical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess fit better the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity of q(m) is 12.5 and 0.64 mg x g(-1) for Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos on loess, respectively, and the reaction could be illustrated with pseudo-second order kinetic equation. The SEM micrograph of loess surface varies little after the adsorption process of Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos, and certain wave peaks of FTIR spectra red-shift, disappears or intensity-decrease, with the XRD pattern and theoretical analysis, the adsorption mechanism is described as follows: the adsorption of Pb (II) on arid loess is the chemical-effect of coordination-complexation and Van der Waals force; the physical-adsorption on chlorpyrifos involves the interception function, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals force, and chemical adsorption effect to some extent. The organic matter in arid loess plays an important role in Pb(II) and chlorpyrifos adsorption.
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Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.
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Distributed Raman amplification using ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity: characteristics and sensing application.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) based on ultra-long fiber laser (UL-FL) pumping with a ring cavity is promising for repeaterless transmission and sensing. In this work, the characteristics (including gain, nonlinear impairment and noise figure) for forward and backward pumping of the ring-cavity based DRA scheme are fully investigated. Furthermore, as a typical application of the proposed configuration, ultra-long-distance distributed sensing with Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) over 142.2 km fiber with 5m spatial resolution and ± 1.5 °C temperature uncertainty is achieved, without any repeater. The key point for the significant performance improvement is the system could offer both of uniform gain distribution and considerably suppressed pump-probe relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer, by optimized design of system structure and parameters.
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[Effect of straw incorporation on three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of dissolved organic matter in arid loess].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum was used to investigate the fluorescence characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) before and after straw incorporation in arid loess, and the variation of humification degree and Pb(II) speciation were illustrated. The results showed that the fluorescence peaks of loess appears at the regions of lambda(ex/em) = 240-270/280-340 and lambda(ex/em) = 325/450, referred as UV fulvic-like fluorescence, and visible fulvic-like and humic-like fluorescence, respectively. After straw incorporation for 60 days, the intensity of UV fulvic-like fluorescence peaks increases, and novel humic-like fluorescence peaks appears around the region of lambda(ex/em) = 250/440 and lambda(ex/em) = 320-350/350-400. The longer time of straw incorporation would accelerate the humification degree of loess and decrease the bioactivity of Pb(II). The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum is appropriate for characterization identification of DOM in arid loess before and after straw incorporation.
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polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air across China: levels, compositions, and gas-particle partitioning.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Air samples were concurrently collected using high volume air samplers for 24 h every week from September 2008 to August 2009 at 15 sites (11 urban, 1 suburban, and 3 background/rural) across China. Twelve polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-17, -28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, and -209) were measured. Total PBDE concentrations (?12PBDEs) in air (gas + particle phases) were in the range of 11.0-838 pg m(-3) with a mean of 232 ± 72 (mean ± SE) pg m(-3). The site with the highest concentration was Guangzhou (838 ± 126 pg m(-3)), followed by Beijing (781 ± 107 pg m(-3)). Significant positive correlations were found between PBDEs levels and urban population (R = 0.69, P < 0.05) and gross industrial output values (R = 0.87, P < 0.001) as well. BDE-209 was the dominating congener with the contribution of 64 ± 23% to ?12PBDEs, followed by BDE-47(8 ± 8%) and -99(6 ± 5%) at all urban and suburban sites. At background/rural sites, however, BDE-47 was the dominating congener, followed by BDE-99, together accounting for 52 ± 21% of ?12PBDEs, while BDE-209 was only 11 ± 2%. It was found that PBDEs at the 15 sites showed a primary distribution and fractionation pattern. This study produced more than 700 pairs of air samples in gaseous and particulate phases with a wide temperature range of ?60 °C, providing a good opportunity to investigate gas-particle partitioning for individual PBDE congeners. The results of gas-particle partitioning analysis for PBDEs using both subcooled-liquid-vapor pressure (PL)-based and octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA)-based models indicated that PBDEs in air at all sampling sites had not reached equilibrium because the slope values (mO) in the KOA-based equation and the opposite slope values (mP) in the PL-based equation at all 15 sampling sites were less than 1. It also found that both mO and -mP were significantly and positively correlated with the annual average temperatures of sampling sites and also significantly and negatively correlated with the mole masses of PBDE congeners, indicating a general trend that the higher the temperature at the sampling site and the lower the mole mass of the PBDE congeners are, the closer to the equilibrium the congeners approach and vice versa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the correlations of the slope values for both the KOA-based and PL-based equations with temperatures at sampling sites and mole masses for individual PBDE congeners.
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Scalable synthesis of urchin- and flowerlike hierarchical NiO microspheres and their electrochemical property for lithium storage.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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A nickel salt-urea-H2O ternary system has been developed for the large-scale synthesis of hierarchical ?-Ni(OH)2 microspheres, the solid precursor for the subsequent topotactic transition to NiO upon calcination. In this facile synthetic system, hierarchical structure is self-assembled under the cooperative direction of urea and anions in nickel salts. Thus, simply tuning the Ni salts leads to the selective construction of urchin and flowerlike hierarchical ?-Ni(OH)2 and NiO microspheres consisting of radial 1D nanowires and 2D nanoplates, respectively. The obtained NiO microspheres possessing accessible nanopores, excellent structural stability and large surface area up to 130 m(2)/g show promising electrochemical performance in anodic lithium storage for lithium-ion battery.
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Comprehensive application of modern technologies in precise liver resection.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Liver surgery has gone through the phases of wedge liver resection, regular resection of hepatic lobes, irregular and local resection, extracorporeal hepatectomy, hemi-extracorporeal hepatectomy and Da Vinci surgical system-assisted hepatectomy. Taking advantage of modern technologies, liver surgery is stepping into an age of precise liver resection. This review aimed to analyze the comprehensive application of modern technologies in precise liver resection.
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Hypermethylation of two CpG sites upstream of CASP8AP2 promoter influences gene expression and treatment outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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DNA hypermethylation of Caspase 8 associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2) and its role in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unclear. We analyzed methylation status of CpG sites upstream of CASP8AP2 gene in 86 children with ALL by bisulfite sequencing and quantitative PCR. Methylation percentage of two CpG sites at positions of -1189 and -1176 was inversely correlated with mRNA expression (Spearman correlation: -0.333, P=0.002). High methylation was associated with the existence of minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 78 (P=0.035), The patients in high methylation group had a poor treatment outcome. The combination of methylation level and MRD at day 33 might improve current risk stratification.
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p53 Suppresses E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression upon DNA damage by forming p53-E2F1-DNA complex.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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E2F1 is implicated in transcriptional activation of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), but yet the mechanism is not fully understood. PLK1 suppression plays an important checkpoint role in response to DNA damage. Suppression of the PLK1 gene by binding of p53 to upstream p53RE2 element in the promoter has been recently revealed. Here we report another mechanism, in which p53 interacts with E2F1 to form p53-E2F1-DNA complex repressing E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression. PLK1 was downregulated in cisplatin exposed HCT116p53(+/+) but not HCT116p53(-/-) cells, indicating p53-suppressed PLK1 upon DNA damage. Co-transfection and reporter enzyme assays revealed that p53 suppressed but E2F1 promoted PLK1 gene activation. 5-Deletion and substitution mutations showed multiple positive cis-elements residing in the PLK1 promoter, of which at least two E2F1 sites at positions -75/-68 and -40/-32 were required for the full activity of the promoter. Combination of 5-deletion and substitution mutations with over-expression of p53 showed that suppression of the PLK1 gene by p53 was E2F1-dependent: mutation of the E2F1 site at position -75/-68 partially abrogated suppression activity of p53; mutation of E2F1 site at position -40/-32 released from p53 suppression of PLK1 gene completely. Co-immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that DNA damage promoted p53-E2F1 interaction, thereby creating a p53-E2F1 complex assembly on the PLK1 promoter in vitro. The in vivo formation of p53-E2F1-PLK1 promoter complex upon DNA damage was further evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and re-ChIP. In addition, we showed that suppression of PLK1 by p53 promoted apoptosis. Our data suggest that p53 may interact with E2F1 to form p53-E2F1-DNA complex suppressing E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression. The model of p53 action on E2F1-activated PLK1 gene may explain at least partly how p53 as a suppressor regulates the downstream effects of E2F1 in cellular stresses including DNA damage stress.
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E2F1-mediated DNA damage is implicated in 8-Cl-adenosine-induced chromosome missegregation and apoptosis in human lung cancer H1299 cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Although E2F1-mediated DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and tetraploid have been extensively studied, the role of E2F1 in mitotic catastrophe is still unknown. We have previously shown that 8-chloro-adenosine (8-Cl-Ado) induces DNA DSBs and aberrant mitosis in human lung cancer cells, followed by delayed apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that E2F1-mediated DNA damage is implicated in 8-Cl-Ado-induced chromosome missegregation and apoptosis in lung cancer H1299 cells. We showed that E2F1 was accumulated upon 8-Cl-Ado-induced DNA DSBs. Induction of E2F1 by 8-Cl-Ado caused DNA damage in cycling cells including M cells. In contrast, silencing of E2F1 expression decreased 8-Cl-Ado-induced DNA DSBs, particularly eliminated E2F1-mediated mitotic DNA damage. Over-expression of E2F1 and/or 8-Cl-Ado exposure resulted in aberrant mitotic spindles and chromosome segregation errors. Furthermore, over-expression of E2F1 expression enhanced 8-Cl-Ado-induced apoptosis. Together, our data indicate that E2F1-mediated DNA damage, in particular mitotic DNA damage, is an important fraction of 8-Cl-Ado-induced DNA damage, which is implicated in 8-Cl-Ado-induced mitotic catastrophe and delayed apoptosis. Induction of E2F1 by 8-Cl-Ado may contribute at least partly to the drug-inhibited proliferation of cancer cells.
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Random-lasing-based distributed fiber-optic amplification.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The gain and noise characteristics of distributed Raman amplification (DRA) based on random fiber laser (RFL) (including forward and backward random laser pumping) have been experimentally investigated through comparison with conventional bi-directional 1st-order and 2nd-order pumping. The results show that, the forward random laser pumping exhibits larger averaged gain and gain fluctuation while the backward random laser pumping has lower averaged gain and nonlinear impairment under the same signal input power and on-off gain. The effective noise figure (ENF) of the forward random laser pumping is lower than that of the bi-directional 1st-order pumping by ~2.3 dB, and lower than that of bi-directional 2nd-order pumping by ~1.3 dB at transparency transmission, respectively. The results also show that the spectra and power of RFL are uniquely insensitive to environmental temperature variation, unlike all the other lasers. Therefore, random-lasing-based distributed fiber-optic amplification could offer low-noise and stable DRA for long-distance transmission.
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Silica-coated and annealed CdS nanowires with enhanced photoluminescence.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The CdS/SiO(2) core/shell nanowires (NWs) with controlled shell thickness were successfully synthesized and subsequently heat-treated at 500 °C. The influences of silica shell coating and annealing processes on their optical properties have been investigated. Compared with original CdS NWs, the annealed CdS/SiO(2) NWs exhibited an enhanced band-edge emission with slowed photoluminescence lifetime, while the intensity of defect emission decreased. The results were ascribed to the surface passivation and recrystallization by shell coating and annealing. We believe our finding would help improving the optical properties of semiconductor NWs, and facilitate its applications in various realms, such as nanoscale emitter, sensor, and photoelectric device.
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Aggressive hepatectomy for the curative treatment of bilobar involvement of type IV-A bile duct cyst.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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To analyze the risk and benefit of aggressive hepatectomy for the curative treatment of bilobar bile duct cysts (BDCs) of type IV-A.
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Dual liver transplantation.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Reperfusion is the key strategy in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care, and it is time-dependent. Shortening the time from symptom to reperfusion and choosing the optimal reperfusion strategy for STEMI patients are great challenges in practice. We need to improve upon the problems of low reperfusion rate, non-standardized treatment, and economic burden in STEMI care. This article briefly reviews the current status of reperfusion strategy in STEMI care, and also introduces what we will do to bridge the gap between the guidelines and implementation in the clinical setting through the upcoming China STEMI early reperfusion program.
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Acute hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency complicated by Ginkgo biloba.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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We report on a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency who developed acute hemolytic anemia after having received an injection of Ginkgo biloba for dementia prophylaxis without medical advice. She suddenly developed general malaise, generalized yellowish skin color, and tea-colored urine. Intravenous fluid infusion and cessation of G. biloba quickly relieved her clinical symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of G. biloba-induced acute hemolytic anemia in vivo.
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Global analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs of prostate cancer in Chinese patients.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Our recent study showed the global physiological function of the differentially expressed genes of prostate cancer in Chinese patients was different from that of other non-Chinese populations. microRNA are estimated to regulate the expression of greater than 60% of all protein-coding genes. To further investigate the global association between the transcript abundance of miRNAs and their target mRNAs in Chinese patients, we used microRNA microarray approach combined with bioinformatics and clinical-pathological assay to investigate the miRNA profile and evaluate the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers in Chinese patients.
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Resistin protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in dopaminergic-like MES23.5 cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Resistin is originally reported as an adipose tissue-specific hormone and is thought to represent a link between obesity and insulin-resistant diabetes. Adipokines exert energy-regulation and has been reported to have neuroprotective effect like leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin. However, the role of resistin in neuroprotective effect has not been explored. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), one of the most investigated Parkinsons disease neurotoxins, is widely used to study mechanisms of cell death in dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, our results show that treatment of resistin protects 6-OHDA-induced cell death in dopaminergic-like MES23.5 cells. Resistin also antagonizes 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and Hochest 33342 staining. Furthermore, treatment of resistin also dramatically reduces 6-OHDA-mediated ROS production and mitochondria transmembrane potential dissipation. Moreover, expression of 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic markers, such as Bcl-2 degradation, Bax expression, PARP degradation and caspase 3 activity increase, are all attenuated by resistin treatment. Our results also show that resistin induces up-regulation of heat shock protein (Hsp) 32 (heme oxygenase-1, HO-1) and Hsc (heat shock cognate) 70. The protective effect of resistin on 6-OHDA-induced cell death is abolished by HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HSP inhibitor KNK437. These results suggest the neuroprotective effects of resistin against 6-OHDA-induced cell death with the underlying mechanisms of inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, we suggest that resistin may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease.
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Bimodal optical diagnostics of oral cancer based on Rose Bengal conjugated gold nanorod platform.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Early detection of cancer often requires time consuming protocols and expensive instrumentation. To address these limitations, a Rose Bengal conjugated gold nanorod (RB-GNR) platform is developed for optical detection of cancer cells. The GNRs are modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and conjugated with RB molecules to produce RB-GNRs which exhibit strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, good stability in aqueous solution, low cytotoxicity, and high specificity to oral cancer cells. The label-free sensing assay utilizes RB-GNRs as the sensing probe and by monitoring the aggregation-induced red-shift in the NIR absorption wavelength, specific and quantitative analysis of the oral cancer cell lysate is accomplished down to a detection limit of 2000 cells/mL. By employing the RB-GNRs as an imaging probe, an imaging assay is established on a home-made NIR absorption imaging system. Based on the NIR absorption by the RB-GNRs specifically conjugated with the oral cancer cells, multi-channel, rapid and quantitative detection of oral cancer cells is demonstrated. The high sensitivity and specificity of the RB-GNR platform as demonstrated by the two complementary assays provide non-invasive optical diagnostics of oral cancer cells enabling convenient screening and monitoring.
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Dual-emitting nanocomposites derived from rare-earth compound nanotubes for ratiometric fluorescence sensing applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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A new class of ratiometric fluorescence sensors composed of rare-earth (RE) compound nanotubes is described. Polyethylenimine-coated yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF NTs) that were synthesized hydrothermally exhibit highly efficient fluorescence when doped with RE ions. The polyethylenimine on the NTs facilitates the incorporation of phosphors such as quantum dots or organic dyes onto the NT surface to produce dual-emitting nanocomposites which are excellent ratiometric fluorescence sensors. The phosphor layer and underlying tubes in the nanocomposites act as the indicator and reference probes, respectively. This ratiometric fluorescence method which can be applied to the detection of heavy metals in solutions, temperature sensing, and pH sensing boasts high sensitivity and selectivity as well as better accuracy than traditional intensity-based fluorescence methods.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.