JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
E2F1 suppresses cardiac neovascularization by down-regulating VEGF and PlGF expression.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The E2F transcription factors are best characterized for their roles in cell-cycle regulation, cell growth, and cell death. Here we investigated the potential role of E2F1 in cardiac neovascularization.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate in Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 culture.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cCMP) and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cUMP) were isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 cell extracts by semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy against commercially available authentic samples. Concentrations of both intracellular and extracellular 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP were determined. Addition of 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP to P. fluorescens pfo-1 culture did not significantly affect the level of biofilm formation in static liquid cultures.
Related JoVE Video
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in canine definitive hosts.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance and is highly prevalent in northwest China. To effectively monitor its transmission, we developed a new rapid and cheap diagnostic assay, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify canine definitive hosts infected with E. multilocularis.
Related JoVE Video
Intranasal immunization protects against Acinetobacter baumannii-associated pneumonia in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important causative agent of healthcare associated infections. Hospital- and community-acquired pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation of A. baumannii infection worldwide and is often associated with high mortality. Most experimental vaccine studies to date have evaluated vaccines against systemic A. baumannii infections following systemic immunization. We recently demonstrated that a mouse model of respiratory A. baumannii infection using the strain LAC-4 results in disease progression that is similar to that observed in humans. Here we used this model in conjunction with an inactivated whole cell vaccine to evaluate the feasibility of developing protective mucosal vaccines against respiratory A. baumannii infection and to investigate the potential mechanism of protection of such vaccines. Our results showed that intranasal immunization with formalin-killed whole cells of the LAC-4 strain elicited mucosal and systemic antigen-specific immune responses, and protected mice against lethal intranasal or intraperitoneal challenges. Compared to naïve mice, immunized mice had significantly fewer bacteria in their lungs, and the pathogen was barely detectable in blood and spleens at 24h post challenge, indicating the ability of immunized mice to control extrapulmonary dissemination of the pathogen. Mechanistic studies using gene-deficient mice, neutropenic mice, or passive immunization showed that B cells and neutrophils, but not FcR?, played crucial roles in the protection against respiratory A. baumannii challenge of intranasally immunized mice whereas passive transfer of hyperimmune sera only prolonged the survival time of challenged mice by 48h. These results provide immunological insights for the rational design of novel mucosal vaccines to protect against respiratory A. baumannii infection and demonstrate the feasibility to develop such vaccines.
Related JoVE Video
Differential diagnosis of Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa (Anoplocephalidae) by PCR using markers in small ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA).
Acta Vet. Hung.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Moniezia benedeni and M. expansa are common ruminant tapeworms of worldwide distribution, causing gastrointestinal disorders and even death in sheep and goats. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction- (PCR-) based approach for precise species identification was developed and also applied to faecal DNA diagnosis of the tapeworm infection. Since nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) appears to be a useful target for species and/or strain markers, the 18S regions of the rDNA of M. benedeni and M. expansa were amplified and sequenced. The lengths and GC contents of the regions sequenced were 2476-2487 bp and 51.9-52.1% for M. benedeni and 2473 bp and 51.9-52.0% for M. expansa, respectively. Alignment and comparison of the 18S sequences of the two species showed 92.5-93.3% homology. No matches for the 18S regions of M. benedeni and M. expansa were found with other species by BLAST search, which made the 18S sequences appropriate markers for the design of distinctive primers for the two Moniezia species. Our 18S-based PCR could detect as low levels as 0.5 pg genomic DNA or the DNA extracted from 0.2 g faecal sample collected from the rectum of an M. expansa-infected goat. The results indicate that this PCR approach is a reliable alternative for the differential diagnosis of Moniezia species in faecal samples.
Related JoVE Video
Contrasting roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in cardiac neovascularization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insufficient neovascularization, characterized by poor endothelial cell (EC) growth, contributes to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease and limits cardiac tissue preservation and regeneration. The E2F family of transcription factors are critical regulators of the genes responsible for cell-cycle progression and growth; however, the specific roles of individual E2Fs in ECs are not well understood. Here we investigated the roles of E2F2 and E2F3 in EC growth, angiogenesis, and their functional impact on myocardial infarction (MI). An endothelial-specific E2F3-deficient mouse strain VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) was generated, and MI was surgically induced in VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) and E2F2-null (E2F2 KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates, VE-Cre; E2F3(+/+) and E2F2 WT, respectively. The cardiac function, infarct size, and vascular density were significantly better in E2F2 KO mice and significantly worse in VE-Cre; E2F3(fl/fl) mice than in their WT littermates. The loss of E2F2 expression was associated with an increase in the proliferation of ECs both in vivo and in vitro, while the loss of E2F3 expression led to declines in EC proliferation. Thus, E2F3 promotes while E2F2 suppresses ischemic cardiac repair through corresponding changes in EC proliferation; and differential targeting of specific E2F members may provide a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptome analysis in chicken cecal epithelia upon infection by Eimeria tenella in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chickens. However, our understanding on how chickens respond to coccidian infection is highly limited at both molecular and cellular levels. The present study employed the Affymetrix chicken genome array and performed transcriptome analysis on chicken cecal epithelia in response to infection for 4.5 days in vivo by the cecal-specific species E. tenella. By Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), we have identified 7,099 probe sets with q-values at <0.05, in which 4,033 and 3,066 genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in response to parasite infection. The reliability of the microarray data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR of 20 genes with varied fold changes in expression (i.e., correlation coefficient between microarray and qRT-PCR datasets: R (2)?=?0.8773, p<0.0001). Gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway mapping and manual annotations of regulated genes indicated that up-regulated genes were mainly involved in immunity/defense, responses to various stimuli, apoptosis/cell death and differentiation, signal transduction and extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas down-regulated genes were mainly encoding general metabolic enzymes, membrane components, and some transporters. Chickens mustered complex cecal eipthelia molecular and immunological responses in response to E. tenella infection, which included pathways involved in cytokine production and interactions, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and intestinal IgA production. In response to the pathogenesis and damage caused by infection, chicken cecal epithelia reduced general metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, and mitochondrial functions.
Related JoVE Video
A simple and highly selective receptor for iodide in aqueous solution.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We synthesized a simple fluorescent receptor 3 bearing two boronic acid groups as recognition sites. The recognition behaviour of receptor 3 towards various anions was evaluated in THF/H(2)O (1:1, v/v) solution. Receptor 3 showed high selectivity for iodide among a series of anions. Fluorescence spectroscopy and computational calculations revealed that the electrostatic interaction played a crucial role in its high selectivity for iodide.
Related JoVE Video
c-di-GMP protects against intranasal Acinetobacter baumannii infection in mice by chemokine induction and enhanced neutrophil recruitment.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of both community-associated and nosocomial infections worldwide. A. baumannii rapidly develops resistance to multiple antibiotics; as a result, infections by this pathogen have become increasingly difficult to treat. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), a bacterial second messenger and immunomodulator, in the host defense against A. baumannii infection in a mouse model of intranasal infection. Our results showed that 50 ?g of c-di-GMP administered 18 h prior to infection provided the best protection against intranasal infection with A. baumannii. Mechanistically, administration of c-di-GMP induced the production of chemokines KC, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-2 and RANTES, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment in the lung. Moreover, depletion of neutrophils abolished the protective role of c-di-GMP. Taken together, our data suggest that c-di-GMP confers resistance against intranasal A. baumannii infection in mice through a neutrophil-dependent mechanism and that c-di-GMP should be further explored as an immunomodulator for the treatment of A. baumannii infection.
Related JoVE Video
Further optimization of detritylation in solid-phase oligodeoxyribonucleotide synthesis.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various conditions for optimum detritylation (i.e., the removal of 5-O-trityl protecting groups) during solid-phase synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides were investigated. Di- and tri-chloroacetic acids of variable concentrations were used to study the removal of the 4,4-dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) group. It was found that the DMTr group could be completely removed under much milder acidic conditions than what are currently used for automated solid-phase synthesis. The 2,7-dimethylpixyl (DMPx) is proposed as an alternative and more readily removable group for the protection of the 5-OH functions both in solid- and solution-phase synthesis. The improved detritylation conditions are expected to minimize the waste and offer a protocol for incorporation of acid sensitive building-blocks in oligonucleotides.
Related JoVE Video
Oligonucleotide labeling using BODIPY phosphoramidite.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
4,4-Difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) derivatives were prepared and their photochemical properties were characterized. One such analogue, 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(5-hydroxypentyl)-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene was transformed into the corresponding phosphoramidite and incorporated into oligodeoxyribonucleotides as a fluorescent reporter group.
Related JoVE Video
Recent advances in the development of novel mucosal adjuvants and antigen delivery systems.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mucosal infections and associated diseases remain a major socio-economic burden to society. Since parenteral immunizations fail to induce efficient protective immunity at mucosal surfaces, mucosal immunization is a logical approach to prevent and treat mucosally-initiated infections. All currently approved human mucosal vaccines are based on attenuated or killed whole pathogen cells but this strategy does pose safety concerns. Therefore, substantial effort is being invested to develop safe and effective mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems for mucosal vaccines. Encouragingly, some of these have progressed to advanced preclinical and clinical studies. This review discusses the promising preclinical research and the potential applications of several novel mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems: an archaeal lipid mucosal vaccine adjuvant and delivery (AMVAD) system, 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and detoxified bacterial AB(5) toxins. The potential and challenges in targeting M cells for mucosal vaccination are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
3,5-Cyclic diguanylic acid: a small nucleotide that makes big impacts.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3,5-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a naturally occurring small cyclic dinucleotide found in bacteria. There has been a recent surge of interest in the two-component signalling networks involving this molecule. This tutorial review introduces the biosynthesis of c-di-GMP, particularly the conserved domain features involved in its enzymatic synthesis and degradation, cellular functions and phenotypes regulated by c-di-GMP through c-di-GMP-binding proteins. The chemical synthesis and structural studies of c-di-GMP are also summarized. Two potential applications of c-di-GMP, i.e. bacterial biofilm formation and immunostimulation, are surveyed. Recent observations on c-di-GMP-binding riboswitches are also introduced.
Related JoVE Video
The potential of 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) as an effective vaccine adjuvant.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3, 5-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of bacterial motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell communication, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation and virulence. The recent finding that c-di-GMP can act as a danger signal on eukaryotic cells has prompted the study of the immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties of c-di-GMP in an effort to determine whether c-di-GMP might be further developed as a potential vaccine adjuvant. In this review, we discussed the recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the immunostimulatory properties of c-di-GMP and the progress that has been made in the preclinical development of c-di-GMP as a potential vaccine adjuvant for systemic and mucosal vaccination.
Related JoVE Video
3,5-Cyclic diguanylic acid elicits mucosal immunity against bacterial infection.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3,5-Cyclic diguanylic acid (cdiGMP) is emerging as a universal bacterial second messenger in regulating bacterial growth on surfaces. It has been recently shown that cdiGMP stimulates innate immunity and enhances antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. We herein report that intranasal (i.n.) administration with cdiGMP induces an acute but transient inflammatory response and activation of dendritic cells in the lungs. Moreover, i.n. immunization of mice with pneumococcal surface adhesion A (PsaA) in conjunction with cdiGMP elicited strong antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA antibody responses at multiple mucosal surfaces. More importantly, the immunized mice showed significantly reduced nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization. These results, for the first time, provide direct evidence for the induction of protection against mucosal bacterial infections by cdiGMP as an adjuvant.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and characterization of mannosylated oligoribonucleotides.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oligoribonucleotide (RNA)-carbohydrate conjugates bearing mono- and divalent mannosides were readily obtained using 3,4-diethoxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione as the linking agent in the presence of trace amount of triethylamine. The glycoconjugates were purified by HPLC and characterized by electrospray mass spectroscopy.
Related JoVE Video
Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain ?4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium ?4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain ?4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium ?4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyers patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium ?4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium.
Related JoVE Video
The nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a source of phylogenetic information in the genus Taenia.
Parasitol. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most species of the genus Taenia are of considerable medical and veterinary significance. In this study, complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from seven members of genus Taenia [Taenia multiceps, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, Taenia solium, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia taeniaeformis] and a phylogeny inferred using these sequences. Most of the variable sites fall within the variable regions, V1-V5. We show that sequences from the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene have considerable promise as sources of phylogenetic information within the genus Taenia. Furthermore, given that almost all the variable sites lie within defined variable portions of that gene, it will be appropriate and economical to sequence only those regions for additional species of Taenia.
Related JoVE Video
Observation of two N2-isobutyrylguanine tautomers by NMR spectroscopy.
Magn Reson Chem
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N(2)-isobutyrylguanine was prepared by treatment of guanine with isobutyryl chloride. Two tautomers, 1,7-dihydro-2-(isobutyroyl)amino-6H-purin-6-one and 1,9-dihydro-2-(isobutyroyl)amino-6H-purin-6-one, were identified in almost 1:1 ratio in dichloromethane-dimethyl sulfoxide (1:1?v/v) by NMR spectroscopy. By using the selective-inversion experiments, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy for activation were determined. This work represents the first report of guanine tautomers observed directly by NMR spectroscopy.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.
Acta Trop.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (?69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.