Lapatinib is an oral, small-molecule, reversible inhibitor of both epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) tyrosine kinases. In March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved lapatinib for use in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of women with HER2-overexpressing, advanced or metastatic breast cancer. This review discusses the available information of lapatinib in Chinese breast cancer patients, focusing on its effectiveness and clinical application against advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In pivotal phase III trials, a combination of lapatinib and capecitabine significantly decreased the risk of disease progression compared to capecitabine alone in women with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Other trials were used to evaluate lapatinib in combination with hormone therapy, in combination with trastuzumab, and as an adjunct to adjuvant therapy for early-stage disease. Preclinical data have revealed that lapatinib is active in trastuzumab-resistant cell lines as well as synergistic with trastuzumab. In clinical trials, lapatinib has not been associated with serious or symptomatic cardiotoxicity. Further, it can cross the blood-brain barrier and may therefore have a role in preventing cancer progression in the central nervous system. Thus, lapatinib warrants further evaluation in HER2-positive metastatic and early-stage breast cancer patients.
Several recent reports described an apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) process in yeast in response to different environmental challenges. In this study, hyperosmotic stress caused by high NaCl concentration in culture medium induced cell death in the haploid yeast Torulopsis glabrata. Propidium iodide (PI) and PI/rhodamine-123 (Rh123) dual staining with flow cytometry showed that high salinity decreased intact cells by 16.5 %, increased necrotic cells by nearly twofold, and altered fermentative parameters appreciably. Morphological and biochemical indicators of apoptosis were apparent, specifically a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner to the outer side of the plasma membrane, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and involvement of caspase all while plasma membrane integrity was maintained. Additionally, it was found that overexpression of YCA1 drastically stimulated cell death, indicating that activation of metacaspase might lead to cell death. However, T. glabrata growth under hyperosmotic stress was enhanced when FIS1, HOG1, and GPD2 were overexpressed, or when exogenous proline or glutathione (GSH) were added into the cultures, both of which could repress caspase-3 activity. Thus, in these concrete cases of overexpression of anti-apoptotic or anti-necrotic factors and pharmacological manipulations, it decreased T. glabrata cell death that might help to achieve higher fermentative efficiency.
Micro-RNAs regulate gene expression by directly binding to the target mRNAs. The goal of the study was to examine the expression profiling of miRNAs in human failing hearts and identify the key miRNAs that regulate molecular signalling networks and thus contribute to this pathological process. The levels of miRNAs and expressed genes were analysed in myocardial biopsy samples from patients with end-stage heart failure (n = 14) and those from normal heart samples (n = 8). Four networks were built including the Gene regulatory network, Signal-Network, miRNA-GO-Network and miRNA-Gene-Network. According to the fold change in the network and probability values in the microarray cohort, RT-PCR was performed to measure the expression of five of the 72 differentially regulated miRNAs. miR-340 achieved statistically significant. miR-340 was identified for the first time in cardiac pathophysiological condition. We overexpressed miR-340 in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to identify whether miR-340 plays a determining role in the progression of heart failure. ANP, BNP and caspase-3 were significantly elevated in the miR-340 transfected cells compared with controls (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of overexpressing miR-340 cardiomyocytes (1952.22 ± 106.59) was greater (P < 0.0001) than controls (1059.99 ± 45.59) documented by Laser Confocal Microscopy. The changes of cellular structure and the volume were statistical significance. Our study provided a comprehensive miRNA expression profiling in the end-stage heart failure and identified miR-340 as a key miRNA contributing to the occurrence and progression of heart failure. Our discoveries provide novel therapeutic targets for patients with heart failure.
In order to extract copper metal from the waste dump of Dexing copper mine and resolve the environmental problems caused by acidic water and heavy metals, a dump bioleaching plant was designed based on a series of experimental investigations. The investigation shown that the low-grade of the dump, refractoriness of chalcopyrite, leakage of pad, small Acidithiobacillus population and low dump permeability are the main factors that contribute to the challenges faced by the plant. Stability of the high and steep slope of the dump is the other hidden danger to which much attention is not paid. To evaluate the potential unstability of the dump, the leaching process, ore surface erosion, particle size, chemical elements and mechanical properties of the waste rock in DCM were investigated through experiment in this paper.
Chemotherapy is an important component in the treatment paradigm for breast cancers. However, the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents frequently results in the subsequent recurrence and metastasis. Identification of molecular markers to predict treatment outcome is therefore warranted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can predict clinical outcome in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
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