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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular Mechanism of Nicotine Degradation by a Newly Isolated Strain Ochrobactrum sp. SJY1.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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A newly isolated strain SJY1 identified as Ochrobactrum sp. utilizes nicotine as sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade nicotine via a variant of pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation related genes was obtained by gap-closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes designated as vppB, vppD, and vppE in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (NicA2, 38%; NOX, 38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than its isoenzyme (6HLNO, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is ?10 fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provides a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation.
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Virulence Determinants in the PB2 Gene 1 of a Mouse-Adapted H9N2 Virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The molecular basis of adaptation and pathogenicity of H9N2 influenza virus in mammals is largely unknown. Here we show that a mouse-adapted PB2 gene with a phenylalanine-to-leucine mutation (F404L) mainly contributes to the enhanced polymerase activity, replication, and pathogenicity of H9N2 in mice, and also increased the virulence of H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. Therefore, we defined a novel pathogenic determinant, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of influenza viruses in mammals.
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Automatic clustering and thickness measurement of anatomical variants of the human perirhinal cortex.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The entorhinal cortex (ERC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC) are subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that play important roles in episodic memory representations, as well as serving as a conduit between other neocortical areas and the hippocampus. They are also the sites where neuronal damage first occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability to automatically quantify the volume and thickness of the ERC and PRC is desirable because these localized measures can potentially serve as better imaging biomarkers for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, large anatomical variation in the PRC makes it a challenging area for analysis. In order to address this problem, we propose an automatic segmentation, clustering, and thickness measurement approach that explicitly accounts for anatomical variation. The approach is targeted to highly anisotropic (0.4x0.4x2.0mm3 ) T2-weighted MRI scans that are preferred by many authors for detailed imaging of the MTL, but which pose challenges for segmentation and shape analysis. After automatically labeling MTL substructures using multi-atlas segmentation, our method clusters subjects into groups based on the shape of the PRC, constructs unbiased population templates for each group, and uses the smooth surface representations obtained during template construction to extract regional thickness measurements in the space of each subject. The proposed thickness measures are evaluated in the context of discrimination between patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and normal controls (NC).
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[Study of the algorithm for inversion of low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation distribution].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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It is difficult to reflect the properties of samples from the signal directly collected by the low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer. People must obtain the relationship between the relaxation time and the original signal amplitude of every relaxation component by inversion algorithm. Consequently, the technology of T2 spectrum inversion is crucial to the application of NMR data. This study optimized the regularization factor selection method and presented the regularization algorithm for inversion of low field NMR relaxation distribution, which is based on the regularization theory of ill-posed inverse problem. The results of numerical simulation experiments by Matlab7.0 showed that this method could effectively analyze and process the NMR relaxation data.
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An open-source automated platform for three-dimensional visualization of subdural electrodes using CT-MRI coregistration.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Visualizing implanted subdural electrodes in three-dimensional (3D) space can greatly aid in planning, executing, and validating resection in epilepsy surgery. Coregistration software is available, but cost, complexity, insufficient accuracy, or validation limit adoption. We present a fully automated open-source application, based on a novel method using postimplant computerized tomography (CT) and postimplant magnetic resonance (MR) images, for accurately visualizing intracranial electrodes in 3D space.
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Brain-targeted delivery of trans-activating transcriptor-conjugated magnetic PLGA/lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Magnetic poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/lipid nanoparticles (MPLs) were fabricated from PLGA, L-?-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-amino (polyethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG-NH2), and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), and then conjugated to trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide. The TAT-MPLs were designed to target the brain by magnetic guidance and TAT conjugation. The drugs hesperidin (HES), naringin (NAR), and glutathione (GSH) were encapsulated in MPLs with drug loading capacity (>10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency (>90%). The therapeutic efficacy of the drug-loaded TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was compared with that of drug-loaded MPLs. The cells accumulated higher levels of TAT-MPLs than MPLs. In addition, the accumulation of QD-loaded fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TAT-MPLs in bEnd.3 cells was dose and time dependent. Our results show that TAT-conjugated MPLs may function as an effective drug delivery system that crosses the blood brain barrier to the brain.
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Automated volumetry and regional thickness analysis of hippocampal subfields and medial temporal cortical structures in mild cognitive impairment.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm(3) resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI [Yushkevich et al., 2010], our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797), and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest nonuniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Regional traumatic limb hypothermia attenuates distant hepatic and renal injury following blast limb trauma in rats.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Blast limb injury was reported to result in distant organ injury including the lungs, which can be attenuated with transient regional hypothermia (RH) to the injured limb. We aimed to further study hepatic and renal injuries following blast limb trauma and also to evaluate the protective effects of regional traumatic limb hypothermia on such injuries in rats.
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Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery versus Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Treatment of Renal Stones >2 cm: A Meta-Analysis.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of renal calculi >2 cm. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database about RIRS and PCNL for the treatment of renal stones. The retrieval time ended in December 2013. All clinical trials were retrieved and their included references investigated. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all included studies, and the eligible studies were included and analyzed using the RevMan 5.2 software. Results: Two randomized controlled trials and six clinical controlled trials were included, involving a total of 590 patients. Our meta-analysis showed that there were not significant differences in stone-free rate (relative risk [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.02, p = 0.11) and fever (RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.54-1.67, p = 0.85) between RIRS and PCNL. We found that hospital stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -2.10, 95% CI -3.08 to -1.11, p < 0.10) and bleeding (RR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.68, p = 0.01) were lower and operation time was longer (WMD = 19.11, 95% CI 7.83-30.39, p < 0.10) for RIRS. Conclusion: RIRS is a safe and effective procedure. It can successfully treat patients with stones >2 cm with a high stone-free rate and significantly reduce hospital stay without increasing complications. RIRS can be used as an alternative treatment to PCNL in selected cases with larger renal stones. However, further randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Relative accuracy evaluation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The quality of data plays an important role in business analysis and decision making, and data accuracy is an important aspect in data quality. Thus one necessary task for data quality management is to evaluate the accuracy of the data. And in order to solve the problem that the accuracy of the whole data set is low while a useful part may be high, it is also necessary to evaluate the accuracy of the query results, called relative accuracy. However, as far as we know, neither measure nor effective methods for the accuracy evaluation methods are proposed. Motivated by this, for relative accuracy evaluation, we propose a systematic method. We design a relative accuracy evaluation framework for relational databases based on a new metric to measure the accuracy using statistics. We apply the methods to evaluate the precision and recall of basic queries, which show the result's relative accuracy. We also propose the method to handle data update and to improve accuracy evaluation using functional dependencies. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed framework and algorithms.
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Red, green, blue (RGB) electrochromic fibers for the new smart color change fabrics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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These fibers are prepared using stainless steel wires (SSWs) as a substrate. Three kinds of electrochromic materials (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), poly(3-methylthiophene), and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)) are quickly deposited on the surface of the SSWs by electrochemical polymerization. A polymer gel electrolyte is then coated onto the electrochromic layer, and another finer stainless steel wire is twisted on, in succession. The obvious RGB colors and gradient color phenomenon from gray to dark blue are observed by the naked eye besides color changes from oxidized to reduced states. Moreover, these electrochromic fibers have very short response times (millisecond scale), excellent flexibility, and good structural stability even though the bending and folding occurred. They also can be implanted into fabrics to achieve more color combinations through regulating the voltages and parallel connection of different circuits.
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Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides activate the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway to promote chondrocyte proliferation.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides (ABPS) are the active components of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (AB), which has been extensively used in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Our previous study provided evidence that ABPS regulated the G1/S transition to promote chondrocyte proliferation. However, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ABPS on the Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway in chondrocytes. Chondrocytes, obtained from the knee cartilage of Sprague-Dawley rats, were identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. ABPS upregulated the expression of Wnt-4, Frizzled-2, ?-catenin and cyclin D1, and downregulated the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK-3?), as shown by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Using immunofluorescence, we also found that ABPS induced ?-catenin nuclear translocation. Importantly, the expression of ?-catenin and cyclin D1 was partly inhibited by Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), an inhibitor of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. In addition, we found that ABPS increased the expression of type II collagen in chondrocytes. These results suggest that ABPS promote chondrocyte proliferation by activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
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Genome Sequence of a Newly Isolated Nicotine-Degrading Bacterium, Ochrobactrum sp. SJY1.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Ochrobactrum sp. SJY1 uses nicotine as the sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The genome of SJY1 was sequenced in order to provide insights into its mechanism of nicotine degradation. Physiological characteristics and genome analysis indicate that strain SJY1 might have a different nicotine degradation pathway from the pyridine or pyrrolidine pathway.
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Isolation, structural analysis, and expression characteristics of the maize (Zea mays L.) hexokinase gene family.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Hexokinases (HXKs, EC 2.7.1.1) play important roles in metabolism, glucose (Glc) signaling, and phosphorylation of Glc and fructose and are ubiquitous in all organisms. Despite their physiological importance, the maize HXK (ZmHXK) genes have not been analyzed systematically. We isolated and characterized nine members of the ZmHXK gene family which were distributed on 3 of the 10 maize chromosomes. A multiple sequence alignment and motif analysis revealed that the maize ZmHXK proteins share three conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ZmHXK family can be divided into four subfamilies. We identified putative cis-elements in the ZmHXK promoter sequences potentially involved in phytohormone and abiotic stress responses, sugar repression, light and circadian rhythm regulation, Ca(2+) responses, seed development and germination, and CO2-responsive transcriptional activation. To study the functions of maize HXK isoforms, we characterized the expression of the ZmHXK5 and ZmHXK6 genes, which are evolutionarily related to the OsHXK5 and OsHXK6 genes from rice. Analysis of tissue-specific expression patterns using quantitative real time-PCR showed that ZmHXK5 was highly expressed in tassels, while ZmHXK6 was expressed in both tassels and leaves. ZmHXK5 and ZmHXK6 expression levels were upregulated by phytohormones and by abiotic stress.
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[Detection of bladder cancer by narrow band imaging cystoscopy: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To evaluate the value of narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy in detection of bladder cancer.
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Molecular mechanism of the airborne transmissibility of H9N2 avian influenza A viruses in chickens.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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H9N2 avian influenza virus has been prevalent in poultry in many parts of the world since the 1990s and occasionally crosses the host barrier, transmitting to mammals, including humans. In recent years, these viruses have contributed genes to H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses, threatening public health. To explore the molecular mechanism for the airborne transmission of H9N2 virus, we compared two genetically close strains isolated from chickens in 2001, A/chicken/Shanghai/7/2001(SH7) and A/chicken/Shanghai/14/2001 (SH14). SH7 is airborne transmissible between chickens, whereas SH14 is not. We used reverse genetics and gene swapping to derive recombinant SH7 (rSH7), rSH14, and a panel of reassortant viruses. Among the reassortant viruses, we identified segments HA and PA as governing the airborne transmission among chickens. In addition, the NP and NS genes also contributed to a lesser extent. Furthermore, the mutational analyses showed the transmissibility phenotype predominantly mapped to the HA and PA genes, with HA-K363 and PA-L672 being important for airborne transmissibility among chickens. In addition, the viral infectivity and acid stability are related to the airborne transmissibility. Importantly, airborne transmission studies of 18 arbitrarily chosen H9N2 viruses from our collections confirmed the importance of both 363K in HA and 672L in PA in determining their levels of transmissibility. Our finding elucidates the genetic contributions to H9N2 transmissibility in chickens and highlights the importance of their prevalence in poultry.
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Stabilization of Liquid Foams through the Synergistic Action of Particles and an Immiscible Liquid.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Liquid foams are familiar from beer, frothed milk, or bubble baths; foams in general also play important roles in oil recovery, lightweight packaging, and insulation. Here a new class of foams is reported, obtained by frothing a suspension of colloidal particles in the presence of a small amount of an immiscible secondary liquid. A unique aspect of these foams, termed capillary foams, is the particle-mediated spreading of the minority liquid around the gas bubbles. The resulting mixed particle/liquid coating can stabilize bubbles against coalescence even when the particles alone cannot. The coated bubbles are further immobilized by entrapment in a network of excess particles connected by bridges of the minority liquid. Capillary foams were prepared with a diverse set of particle/liquid combinations to demonstrate the generality of the phenomenon. The observed foam stability correlates with the particle affinity for the liquid interface formed by spreading the minority liquid at the bubble surface.
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Genome Sequence of Sporolactobacillus terrae DSM 11697, the Type Strain of the Species.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Sporolactobacillus terrae DSM 11697 is the type strain of S. terrae. Here, we present a 3.2-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. As S. terrae is one of the important lactic acid bacteria, the genome sequence may provide insights into the molecular mechanism for its further microbial investigation.
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[Short- or long-outcome of early tirofiban in ST-segment elevated acute myocardial infarction undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To explore the optimal timing of tirofiban early treatment in ST-segment elevated acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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A randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy for the treatment of morbid obesity in China: a 5-year outcome.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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No randomized comparative trials have presented long-term outcomes for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of these two procedures.
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Combination Therapy With Sorafenib and Radiofrequency Ablation for BCLC Stage 0-B1 Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy using Sorafenib and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with curative intent for all detectable lesions in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage 0-B1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS:One hundred and twenty-eight patients with HCC from 12 centers were enrolled in this retrospective study; 64 patients who received Sorafenib plus RFA (Sorafenib-RFA) were compared with a control group treated with RFA alone. The two patient groups were selected with a predefined criterion and matched in terms of their clinical and tumor characteristics at baseline. The primary end point of the study was the incidence of post-RFA HCC recurrence. Secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and treatment toxicity.RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 134.1 weeks, 49 patients died and 79 survived. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative incidences of post-RFA recurrence were 40.5%, 62.9%, and 74.5%, respectively, in the Sorafenib-RFA group, and 62.8%, 85.4%, and 92.7%, respectively, in the RFA group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-year OS rates were 85.6%, 64.0%, 58.7%, and 50.3%, respectively, in the Sorafenib-RFA group, and 80.7%, 47.2%, 30.9%, and 30.9%, respectively, in the RFA group. Thus, the Sorafenib-RFA group exhibited better survival than the RFA alone group.CONCLUSIONS:Combined therapy with Sorafenib-RFA was associated with a lower incidence of post-RFA recurrence and better OS than RFA alone in patients with BCLC Stage 0-B1 HCC. Although these findings suggest that Sorafenib and RFA is safe and effective for the treatment of early HCC, prospective and randomized controlled trials are needed to validate them.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 18 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.343.
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All-nanoparticle self-assembly ZnO/TiO? heterojunction thin films with remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical activity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The multilaminated ZnO/TiO2 heterojunction films were successfully deposited on conductive substrates including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass and flexible indium tin oxide coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) via the layer-by-layer (LBL) self assembly method from the oxide colloids without using any polyelectrolytes. The positively charged ZnO nanoparticles and the negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles were directly used as the components in the consecutive deposition process to prepare the heterojunction thin films by varying the thicknesses. Moreover, the crystal growth of both oxides could be efficiently inhibited by the good connection between ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles even after calcination at 500 °C, especially for ZnO which was able to keep the crystallite size under 25 nm. The as-prepared films were used as the working electrodes in the three-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Because the well-contacted nanoscale heterojunctions were formed during the LBL self-assembling process, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle films deposited on both substrates showed remarkably enhanced photoelectrochemical properties compared to that of the well-established TiO2 LBL thin films with similar thicknesses. The photocurrent response collected from the ZnO/TiO2 electrode on the FTO glass substrate was about five times higher than that collected from the TiO2 electrode. Owing to the absence of the insulating layer of dried polyelectrolytes, the ZnO/TiO2 all-nanoparticle heterojunction films were expected to be used in the photoelectrochemical device before calcination.
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Duhuo Jisheng decoction treatment inhibits the sodium nitroprussiate?induced apoptosis of chondrocytes through the mitochondrial?dependent signaling pathway.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Chondrocyte apoptosis activated by the mitochondrial?dependent signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritis. Duhuo Jisheng decoction (DHJSD), a herbal formula from traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for treating osteoarthritis (OA). However, the molecular mechanisms behind the therapeutic effect of DHJSD remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of DHJSD on the mitochondrial?dependent signaling pathway in sodium nitroprussiate (SNP)?induced chondrocyte apoptosis were investigated. Chondrocytes, from the knee articular cartilage of Sprague Dawley rats, were identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes, stimulated with or without SNP to induce apoptosis, were treated by DHJSD for various concentrations and times. The viability of SNP?induced chondrocytes treated with DHJSD was enhanced compared to SNP?induced chondrocytes in a dose? and time?dependent manner, as assessed by the MTT assay. The apoptosis of SNP?induced chondrocytes treated by DHJSD was significantly decreased compared to SNP?induced chondrocyte, as shown by 4',6-diamidino?2?phenylindole and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) of SNP?induced chondrocytes treated by DHJSD was significantly decreased compared to SNP?induced chondrocyte, as shown by JC?1 staining. To understand the mechanism, the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, B?cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2), caspase?9 and caspase?3 were detected by reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In SNP?induced chondrocyte treated by DHJSD, the Bcl?2 expression was increased, whereas the expression of Bax, caspase?9 and caspase?3 was decreased compared to SNP?induced chondrocyte. Taken together, these results indicated that DHJSD inhibits the apoptosis of SNP?induced chondrocyte by the mitochondrial?dependent apoptotic pathway, and this may partly explain its therapeutic efficacy for OA.
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Overexpression of Shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Our previous study reported that inactivation of Shox2 led to dysplasia and ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and that replacing Shox2 with human Shox partially rescued the phenotype with a prematurely worn out articular disc. However, the mechanisms of Shox2 activity in TMJ development remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the molecular and cellular basis for the congenital dysplasia of TMJ in Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop Shox2 mice. We found that condyle and glenoid fossa dysplasia occurs primarily in the second week after the birth. The dysplastic TMJ of Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop Shox2 mice exhibits a loss of Collagen type I, Collagen type II, Ihh and Gli2. In situ zymography and immunohistochemistry further demonstrate an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP9 and MMP13, accompanied by a significantly increased cell apoptosis. In addition, the cell proliferation and expressions of Sox9, Runx2 and Ihh are no different in the embryonic TMJ between the wild type and mutant mice. Our results show that overexpression of Shox2 leads to the loss of extracellular matrix and the increase of cell apoptosis in TMJ dysplasia by up-regulating MMPs and down-regulating the Ihh signaling pathway.
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X1-homologous genes family as central components in biotic and abiotic stresses response in maize (Zea mays L.).
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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X1-homologous genes (XHS) encode plant specific proteins containing three basic domains (XH, XS, zf-XS). In spite of their physiological importance, systematic analyses of ZmXHS genes have not yet been explored. In this study, we isolated and characterized ten ZmXHS genes in a whole-of-genome analysis of the maize genome. A total of ten members of this family were identified in maize genome. The ten ZmXHS genes were distributed on seven maize chromosomes. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed that most ZmXHS proteins share all the three conserved domains. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress responsive, phytohormone, pollen-specific and quantitative, seed development and germination, light and circadian rhythms regulation, Ca(2+)-responsive, root hair cell-specific, and CO(2)-responsive transcriptional activation were observed in the promoters of ZmXHS genes. Yeast hybrid assay revealed that the XH domain of ZmXHS5 was necessary for interaction with itself and ZmXHS2. Microarray data showed that the ZmXHS genes had tissue-specific expression patterns in the maize developmental steps and biotic stresses response. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results indicated that, except ZmXHS9, the other nine ZmXHS genes were induced in the seedling leaves by at least one of the four abiotic stresses applied.
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Highly conductive, flexible, and compressible all-graphene passive electronic skin for sensing human touch.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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A facile and passive multiply flexible thin-film sensor is demonstrated based on thermoelectric effects in graphene. The sensor is highly conductive, free-standing, flexible, and elastic. It senses heat and cold, and measures heated/cooled areas; it also discerns human touch from other pressures, locates human touch, and measures pressure levels. All of these sensing abilities are demonstrated without any internal/external power supply.
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Effects of Electroacupuncture on Facial Nerve Function and HSV-1 DNA Quantity in HSV-1 Induced Facial Nerve Palsy Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Acupuncture is a common and effective therapeutic method to treat facial nerve palsy (FNP). However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture on symptoms and content of HSV-1 DNA in FNP mice. Mice were randomized into four groups, an electroacupuncture treatment group, saline group, model animal group, and blank control group. Electroacupuncture was applied at Jiache (ST6) and Hegu (LI4) in electroacupuncture group once daily for 14 days, while electroacupuncture was not applied in model animal group. In electroacupuncture group, mice recovered more rapidly and HSV-1 DNA content also decreased more rapidly, compared with model animal group. We conclude that electroacupuncture is effective to alleviate symptoms and promote the reduction of HSV-1 in FNP.
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A nonpathogenic duck-origin H9N2 influenza A virus adapts to high pathogenicity in mice.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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H9N2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in wild birds and poultry in Eurasian countries and have repeatedly infected mammals, including pigs and humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To understand the adaptation of H9N2 influenza viruses to mammals, we serially passaged a nonpathogenic duck-origin H9N2 influenza virus, A/duck/Jiangsu/1/2008 (DK1), in mouse lungs. Increased virulence was detectable after five sequential passages, and a highly pathogenic mouse-adapted strain (DK1-MA) with a 50% mouse lethal dose of 10(2.37) 50% egg infectious dose was obtained after 18 passages. DK1-MA grew faster and reached significantly higher titers than DK1 in mouse lungs and could sporadically spread to other organs. Moreover, DK1-MA induced a greater magnitude of pulmonary edema and higher levels of inflammatory cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids than DK1 did. Genomic sequence alignment revealed eight amino acid substitutions (HA-L80F, HA-N193D, NA-A27T, PB2-F404L, PA-D3V, PA-S225R, NP-V105M, M1-A166V) in six viral proteins of DK1-MA compared with DK1 virus. Except for HA-L80F, the other seven substitutions were all located in known functional regions involved in interaction of viral proteins or interaction between the virus and host factors. Taken together, our results suggest that multiple amino acid substitutions may be involved in the adaptation of H9N2 avian influenza virus to mice, resulting in lethal infection, enhanced viral replication, severe pulmonary edema, and excessive inflammatory cellular infiltration in lungs. These observations provide helpful insights into the pathogenic potential of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that could pose threats to human health in the future.
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Cholera toxin B subunit acts as a potent systemic adjuvant for HIV-1 DNA vaccination intramuscularly in mice.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was investigated as a classical mucosal adjuvant that can increase vaccine immunogenicity. In this study, we found out the in vitro efficacy of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in activating mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) through Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. In vitro RNA and transcriptional level profiling arrays revealed that CTB guides high levels of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Based on the robustness of these profiling results, we examined the induction of HIV Env-specific immunity by CTB co-inoculated with HIV Env DNA vaccine intramuscularly in vivo. CTB enhanced HIV-Env specific cellular immune responses in Env-specific IFN-? ELISPOT, compared with DNA vaccine alone. Moreover, CTB induced high levels of Env specific humoral response and promoted antibody maturation after the third round of vaccination. This combination immunization strategy induced a Th2-type bias response which is indicative of a high ratio of IgG1/IgG2a. This study reports that CTB as a classical mucosal adjuvant could enhance HIV-1 DNA-based vaccine immunogenicity intramuscularly; therefore, these findings suggest that CTB could serve as an effective candidate adjuvant for DNA vaccination.
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H?S attenuates cognitive deficits through Akt1/JNK3 signaling pathway in ischemic stroke.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation which is more sensitive to ischemic stimulation and easily injured will cause severe learning and memory impairment. Therefore, inhibiting hippocampal neuron injuries is the main contributor for learning and memory impairment during cerebral ischemia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a new type of neurotransmitter that regulates the nervous, circulatory and immune systems as well as various adverse factors that can reduce cerebral vascular or brain parenchyma injury. During an ischemic stroke, H2S inhibits hippocampal neuronal damage, reducing learning and memory impairment. However, this molecular mechanism has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we established four-vessel occlusion model in rats with cerebral ischemia. We found that NaHS (28 mmol/kg, intraperitoneally, for 7 days before ischemia), donor of H2S, significantly shortened the distance and time of loading onto the hidden platform in the positioning navigation process, decreased the latency in the space exploration process when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed during ischemic stroke in rats. NaHS also significantly shortened latency and reduced the number of errors in the platform diving experiment. The survival rate of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the phosphorylation of Akt in the neurons were increased, the phosphorylation ASK1 and JNK3 were inhibited by NaHS. After an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, 10 ?L, 100 nmol in 25% DMSO in PBS), the above effects of NaHS were attenuated. These findings suggest that H2S may improve the survival rate of hippocampal neurons and reduce the impairment of learning and memory by increasing the phosphorylation of Akt, inhibiting the phosphorylation of ASK1 and JNK3 in rats with induced ischemic stroke.
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Effectiveness study of moxibustion on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Dysmenorrhea is a prevalent problem in menstruating women. As a nonpharmacologic and free of relevant side effects intervention, moxibustion is considered as a safe treatment and has long been recommended for dysmenorrhea in China. However, the exact effects of moxibustion in PD have not been fully understood. Therefore we designed this random clinical trial aiming to (1) investigate whether moxibustion is safe and effective for pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea when compared to conventional pain-killers and (2) assess the acceptability and side effects associated with moxibustion. The results of this trial will contribute to a better understanding of the different effects of moxibustion in pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea when compared to conventional pharmacologic pain treatment.
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Transient regional hypothermia applied to a traumatic limb attenuates distant lung injury following blast limb trauma.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Explosive traumatic injury to an extremity may lead to both local and distant organ injury. Regional traumatic tissue hypothermia has been reported to offer systemic protection; here we investigated the protective effects of regional limb hypothermia on local tissue trauma and the lungs. Furthermore, the optimal duration of regional traumatic limb hypothermic treatment was also evaluated.
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Highly strong and elastic graphene fibres prepared from universal graphene oxide precursors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Graphene fibres are continuously prepared from universal graphene oxide precursors by a novel hydrogel-assisted spinning method. With assistance of a rolling process, meters of ribbon-like GFs, or GRs with improved conductivity, tensile strength, and a long-range ordered compact layer structure are successfully obtained. Furthermore, we refined our spinning process to obtained elastic GRs with a mixing microstructure and exceptional elasticity, which may provide a platform for electronic skins and wearable electronics, sensors, and energy devices.
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Identification of the typical miRNAs and target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs that were differentially expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by comparing normal and cancer tissue samples and to analyze the correlation of the target genes and HCC. The gene expression profile of GSE31383 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 19 samples, 9 normal and 10 from HCC tissue samples. The differentially?expressed miRNAs were identified with packages in R language and further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Firstly, the verified targets of miRNAs were integrated in two miRNA databases: miRecords and miRTarBase, and the targets of the differentially?expressed miRNAs were obtained. The software STRING was then used to construct the interaction network of target genes. Finally, a functional enrichment analysis of the genes in the interaction network was conducted using the software Gestalt. Typical miR?224 and miR?214 were identified by comparing normal and cancer samples, each of which obtained 14 and 8 target genes, respectively. The functional enrichment analysis of the targets in the two groups highlighted the intracellular signaling cascade. In conclusion, the featured miRNAs (the upregulated miRNA?224 and downregulated miRNA?214) and their target genes are significant in the occurrence and development of HCC, which is likely to be significant for the identification of therapeutic targets and biomarkers to aid in the treatment of HCC.
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Amelioration of insulin resistance in rat cells by Astragalus polysaccharides and associated mechanisms.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the function of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in ameliorating insulin resistance (IR) in rat cells and to elucidate the associated mechanisms. Fully differentiated, induced 3T3-L1 rat adipocytes were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. The intervention groups were incubated in media containing 0.001, 0.1 and 10 ?g/?l APS, respectively, for 48 h. Following treatment, levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and adiponectin secreted by the cultured adipocytes were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of adiponectin secreted by the 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the moderate-concentration intervention group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), whereas levels of adiponectin secreted by the 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the low- and high-concentration intervention groups were decreased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05 and P>0.05, respectively). Levels of IL-6 secreted by the 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the three intervention groups were lower than those in the control group (P>0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.05 for the low- moderate- and high-concentration intervention groups, respectively), and demonstrated APS dose-dependence. The results indicate that APS are capable of increasing adiponectin secretion and reducing IL-6 secretion by 3T3-L1 rat adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These findings may identify a potential mechanism for ameliorating IR using APS.
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An unusual repressor controls the expression of a crucial nicotine-degrading gene cluster in Pseudomonas putida S16.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Transcriptional factors that contain helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding domains are widespread in bacteria for regulating gene expression on demand, and function as homodimers that bind a palindromic DNA segment. Here, we show that an HTH-containing transcriptional regulator, NicR2, in Pseudomonas putida?S16 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of a crucial gene cluster (nic2) in nicotine degradation, and NicR2 binds DNA in a manner different from most other DNA-binding proteins that use HTHs for recognition. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting indicate that NicR2 directly interacts with a 28?bp inverted repeat (IR) in the nic2 promoter region. Using EMSA with synthetic DNA fragments, we found that both NicR2 dimer and tetramer can bind to the half-site of the IR. This is confirmed independently by biolayer interferometry and cross-linking experiments. Our results indicate that two NicR2 dimers bind to the IR cooperatively through protein-protein interactions, with each dimer binding the half-site of the IR. Thus, NicR2 appears to be an unusual regulator, which uses HTH for recognition and displays the binding characteristics of some regulators that use ?-sheets. The transcriptional regulation of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas highlights a new level of complexity in prokaryotic transcriptional regulation.
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Mannan binding lectin attenuates double-stranded RNA-mediated TLR3 activation and innate immunity.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Mannan binding lectin (MBL) functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) which is able to initiate complement activation. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized attribute of MBL as a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein capable of modifying Toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation. MBL interacts with poly(I:C) and suppresses poly(I:C)-induced activation of TLR3 pathways and subsequent cytokine production. In addition, MBL binds to TLR3 directly. Surprisingly, disrupting the interaction between MBL and complement receptor 1 (CR1) or restraining the traffic of MBL to phagosome reversed the MBL limited TLR3 activation. We demonstrate the importance of MBL guided ligands intracellular localization, emphasizing the significance of understanding the dynamics of TLR agonists complexed with MBL or other PRMs inside the cell in immune defense.
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Genome Sequence of Martelella sp. Strain AD-3, a Moderately Halophilic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Martelella sp. strain AD-3, enriched from a petroleum-contaminated site with high salinity, can efficiently degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report the 4.75-Mb genome sequence of strain AD-3 with its genetic feature of helping to remediate environmental organic pollutants.
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Green strategy from waste to value-added-chemical production: efficient biosynthesis of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine by an engineered biocatalyst.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Value-added intermediates produced by microorganisms during the catabolism of N-heterocycles are potential building blocks for agrochemical synthesis and pharmaceutical production. 6-Hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP), an intermediate in nicotine degradation, is an important precursor for the synthesis of drugs and compounds with biological activities. In the present study, we show that an engineered biocatalyst, Pseudomonas putida P-HSP, efficiently produced HSP from the renewable raw material of tobacco-waste that contains a high concentration of nicotine. The genetically constructed strain P-HSP realized a high accumulation of HSP, and HSP production was 3.7-fold higher than the non-engineered strain S16. Under optimal conditions, HSP was produced at high concentrations of 6.8 g l(-1) and 16.3 g l(-1) from tobacco-waste and nicotine, respectively. This work demonstrates a green strategy to block the catabolic pathway of N-heterocycles, which is a promising approach for the mutasynthesis of valuable compounds.
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IL-10-producing regulatory B cells induced by IL-33 (Breg(IL-33)) effectively attenuate mucosal inflammatory responses in the gut.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Regulatory B cells (Breg) have attracted increasing attention for their roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a recently identified IL-1 family member, which leads a double-life with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. We report here that peritoneal injection of IL-33 exacerbated inflammatory bowel disease in IL-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice, whereas IL-33-treated IL-10-sufficient (wild type) mice were protected from the disease induction. A phenotypically unconventional subset(s) (CD19(+)CD25(+)CD1d(hi)IgM(hi)CD5(-)CD23(-)Tim-1(-)) of IL-10 producing Breg-like cells (Breg(IL-33)) was identified responsible for the protection. We demonstrated further that Breg(IL-33) isolated from these mice could suppress immune effector cell expansion and functions and, upon adoptive transfer, effectively blocked the development of spontaneous colitis in IL-10(-/-) mice. Our findings indicate an essential protective role, hence therapeutic potential, of Breg(IL-33) against mucosal inflammatory disorders in the gut.
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Identification of key genes in the response to Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica Pullorum, and poly(I:C) in chicken spleen and caecum.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and Salmonella enterica Pullorum (S. pullorum) are regarded as a threat to poultry production. This study's aim is to characterize the expression profiles in response to three different challenges and to identify infection-related genes in the chicken spleen and caecum. Groups of the Chinese chicken breed Langshan were challenged with either S. Enteritidis, S. pullorum, or poly(I:C). The concentrations of cytokines and antibodies and the Salmonella colonization level of the caecum and liver were detected in each group at 7 days postinfection. Expression microarray experiments were conducted using mRNA isolated from both spleen and caecum. Crucial differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with immunity were identified. Four DEGs were identified in spleen of all three challenge groups (RBM16, FAH, SOX5, and RBM9) and different four genes in caecum (SOUL, FCN2, ANLN, and ACSL1). Expression profiles were clearly different among the three challenged groups. Genes enriched in the spleen of birds infected with S. pullorum were enriched in lymphocyte proliferation related pathways, but the enriched genes in the caecum of the same group were primarily enriched in innate immunity or antibacterial responses. The DEGs that appear across all three challenge groups might represent global response factors for different pathogens.
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Structural insights into the specific recognition of N-heterocycle biodenitrogenation-derived substrates by microbial amide hydrolases.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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N-heterocyclic compounds from industrial wastes, including nicotine, are environmental pollutants or toxicants responsible for a variety of health problems. Microbial biodegradation is an attractive strategy for the removal of N-heterocyclic pollutants, during which carbon-nitrogen bonds in N-heterocycles are converted to amide bonds and subsequently severed by amide hydrolases. Previous studies have failed to clarify the molecular mechanism through which amide hydrolases selectively recognize diverse amide substrates and complete the biodenitrogenation process. In this study, structural, computational and enzymatic analyses showed how the N-formylmaleamate deformylase Nfo and the maleamate amidase Ami, two pivotal amide hydrolases in the nicotine catabolic pathway of Pseudomonas putida S16, specifically recognize their respective substrates. In addition, comparison of the ?-?-? groups of amidases, which include Ami, pinpointed several subgroup-characteristic residues differentiating the two classes of amide substrates as containing either carboxylate groups or aromatic rings. Furthermore, this study reveals the molecular mechanism through which the specially tailored active sites of deformylases and amidases selectively recognize their unique substrates. Our work thus provides a thorough elucidation of the molecular mechanism through which amide hydrolases accomplish substrate-specific recognition in the microbial N-heterocycles biodenitrogenation pathway.
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Tougu Xiaotong capsule promotes chondrocyte autophagy by regulating the Atg12/LC3 conjugation systems.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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We have previously reported that Tougu Xiaotong capsule (TXC) inhibits tidemark replication and cartilage degradation by regulating chondrocyte autophagy in vivo. Autophagy, a cell protective mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, has been shown to be a constitutively active and protective process for chondrocyte survival. However, it remains unclear whether TXC promotes chondrocyte autophagy by regulating the autophagy-related (Atg)12/microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conjugation systems. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of TXC on primary chondrocytes treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2). We found that CoCl2 induced a decrease in chondrocyte viability and the autophagosome formation of chondrocytes, indicating that CoCl2 induced autophagic death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To determine the effects of TXC on CoCl2-exposed chondrocytes, we assessed cell viability by MTT assay. Our results revealed that TXC enhanced the viability of CoCl2-exposed chondrocytes. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the enhancing effects of TXC on CoCl2-exposed chondrocytes, the expression of Atg genes was assessed in chondrocytes exposed to CoCl2 and treated with or without TXC. The results revealed that the expression of beclin 1, Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, Atg12 and LC3 II/LC3 I in the chondrocytes treated with TXC increased, compared to that in the untreated chondrocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis indicated that treated chondrocytes contained more autophagosomes than the untreated cells, suggesting that TXC increased the formation of autophagosomes in the chondrocytes to clear the CoCl2-induced autophagic death. Therefore, these data suggest that TXC is a potential therapeutic agent for the reduction of cartilage degradation that occurs in osteoarthritis.
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Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension.
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Physiological and biochemical characterization of a novel nicotine-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas geniculata N1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Management of solid wastes with high nicotine content, such as those accumulated during tobacco manufacturing, poses a major challenge, which can be addressed by using bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. In this study, a new species of Pseudomonas geniculata, namely strain N1, which is capable of efficiently degrading nicotine, was isolated and identified. The optimal growth conditions for strain N1 are a temperature of 30°C, and a pH 6.5, at a rotation rate of 120 rpm min(-1) with 1 g l(-1) nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Myosmine, cotinine, 6-hydroxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, and 6-hydroxy-pseudooxynicotine were detected as the five intermediates through gas chromatography-mass and liquid chromatography-mass analyses. The identified metabolites were different from those generated by Pseudomonas putida strains. The analysis also highlighted the bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation by different Pseudomonas strains.
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RITA inhibits growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis.
Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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RBP-J-interacting and tubulin-associated (RITA) is a novel RBP-J-interacting protein that downregulates Notch-mediated transcription. The current study focuses on the antitumor effect of RITA in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and aims to explore its molecular mechanism. Thirty paired HCC and adjacent non-tumoral liver samples were analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RITA overexpression was induced by transfection of a pcDNA3.1-Flag-RITA plasmid into HepG2 cells. RITA knockdown was achieved by siRNA transfection. mRNA and protein expression of target genes were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay and flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate that adjacent nontumoral liver samples exhibited increased RITA expression compared to HCC tissues (p < 0.05); RITA levels were associated with tumor differentiation status. Overexpression of RITA suppressed cell proliferation and promoted early apoptosis, while its silencing promoted cell growth dramatically (p < 0.05). RITA overexpression upregulated p53 and reduced cyclin E levels, whereas silencing of RITA had the opposite effect on p53 and cyclin E expression. Our in vitro results represent the first evidence that RITA might suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in HCCs, and may be a potent antitumoral agent for HCC treatment that deserves further exploration.
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Genome Sequence of Dyella ginsengisoli Strain LA-4, an Efficient Degrader of Aromatic Compounds.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Dyella ginsengisoli strain LA-4 can efficiently degrade environmental pollutants such as biphenyl and azo dyes. Here, we present a 4.55-Mb draft genome sequence of strain LA-4, which may provide further insights into the molecular mechanism in environmental pollution remediation.
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Size-tunable TiO2 nanorod microspheres synthesised via a one-pot solvothermal method and used as the scattering layer for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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TiO2 microspheres assembled by single crystalline rutile TiO2 nanorods were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment at 180 °C based on an aqueous-organic mixture solution containing n-hexane, distilled water, titanium n-butoxide and hydrochloric acid. The spheres had a radiative structure from the center, and their diameters were controlled in the range from 1 to 5 ?m by adjusting the volume of the reactant water. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that all the as-prepared microspheres had relatively high specific surface areas of about 50 m(2) g(-1). The 1 ?m sized TiO2 nanorod microspheres were fabricated as a scattering overlayer in DSSCs, leading to a remarkable improvement in the power conversion efficiency: 8.22% of the bi-layer DSSCs versus 7.00% for the reference cell made of a single-layer film prepared from nanocrystalline TiO2. Such improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced light harvesting and dye loading brought by the effective scattering centers.
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Systematic unraveling of the unsolved pathway of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas putida play important roles in the mineralization of organic wastes and toxic compounds. To comprehensively and accurately elucidate key processes of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas putida, we measured differential protein abundance levels with MS-based spectral counting in P. putida S16 grown on nicotine or glycerol, a non-repressive carbon source. In silico analyses highlighted significant clustering of proteins involved in a functional pathway in nicotine degradation. The transcriptional regulation of differentially expressed genes was analyzed by using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We observed the following key results: (i) The proteomes, containing 1,292 observed proteins, provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. These proteins could be assigned to the functional groups of transport, detoxification, and amino acid metabolism. There were significant differences in the cytosolic protein patterns of cells growing in a nicotine medium and those in a glycerol medium. (ii) The key step in the conversion of 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine was catalyzed by a multi-enzyme reaction consisting of a molybdopeterin binding oxidase (spmA), molybdopterin dehydrogenase (spmB), and a (2Fe-2S)-binding ferredoxin (spmC) with molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor. (iii) The gene of a novel nicotine oxidoreductase (nicA2) was cloned, and the recombinant protein was characterized. The proteins and functional pathway identified in the current study represent attractive targets for degradation of environmental toxic compounds.
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Enhanced power output of an electrospun PVDF/MWCNTs-based nanogenerator by tuning its conductivity.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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PVDF nanofibre-based piezoelectric nanogenerators are directly prepared via electrospinning without any post-poling treatment. The effect of the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the fibre diameter, mechanical properties, ?-phase composition, surface and volume conductivities, output voltage and output power are investigated. Increased surface conductivity of the poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibre mats, which plays an important role in the enhancement of output power, is first found by the addition of an appropriate amount of MWCNTs. The maximum generated piezo-voltage exhibited by PVDF nanofibre mats in the presence of 5 wt% MWCNTs is as high as 6 V, while the average capacitor charging power is 81.8 nW, increases of 200% and 44.8%, respectively, compared with bare PVDF nanofibre mats.
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A strong and stretchable self-healing film with self-activated pressure sensitivity for potential artificial skin applications.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Artificial skin, which mimics the functions of natural skin, will be very important in the future for robots used by humans in daily life. However, combining skins pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing properties in a man-made material remains a challenging task. Here, we show that graphene and polymers can be integrated into a thin film which mimics both the mechanical self-healing and pressure sensitivity behavior of natural skin without any external power supply. Its ultimate strain and tensile strength are even two and ten times larger than the corresponding values of human skin, respectively. It also demonstrates highly stable sensitivity to a very light touch (0.02 kPa), even in bending or stretching states.
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Iron(II)-dependent dioxygenase and N-formylamide deformylase catalyze the reactions from 5-hydroxy-2-pyridone to maleamate.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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5-Hydroxy-2-pyridone (2,5-DHP) is a central metabolic intermediate in catabolism of many pyridine derivatives, and has been suggested as a potential carcinogen. 2,5-DHP is frequently transformed to N-formylmaleamic acid (NFM) by a 2,5-DHP dioxygenase. Three hypotheses were formerly discussed for conversion of 2,5-DHP to maleamate. Based on enzymatic reactions of dioxygenase (Hpo) and N-formylamide deformylase (Nfo), we demonstrated that the dioxygenase does not catalyze the hydrolysis of NFM but rather that this activity is brought about by a separate deformylase. We report that the deformylase acts both on NFM and its trans-isomer, N-formylfumaramic acid (NFF), but the catalytic efficiency of Nfo for NFM is about 1,400 times greater than that for NFF. In addition, we uncover catalytic and structural characteristics of the new family that the Hpo belongs to, and support a potential 2-His-1-carboxylate motif (HX52HXD) by three-dimensional modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. This study provides a better understanding of 2,5-DHP catabolism.
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The PA and HA gene-mediated high viral load and intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza virus in mallard ducks.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Most highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses cause only mild clinical signs in ducks, serving as an important natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. However, we isolated two H5N1 viruses that are genetically similar but differ greatly in virulence in ducks. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is low pathogenic. To determine the genetic basis for the high virulence of CK10 in ducks, we generated a series of single-gene reassortants between CK10 and GS10 and tested their virulence in ducks. Expression of the CK10 PA or hemagglutinin (HA) gene in the GS10 context resulted in increased virulence and virus replication. Conversely, inclusion of the GS10 PA or HA gene in the CK10 background attenuated the virulence and virus replication. Moreover, the PA gene had a greater contribution. We further determined that residues 101G and 237E in the PA gene contribute to the high virulence of CK10. Mutations at these two positions produced changes in virulence, virus replication, and polymerase activity of CK10 or GS10. Position 237 plays a greater role in determining these phenotypes. Moreover, the K237E mutation in the GS10 PA gene increased PA nuclear accumulation. Mutant GS10 viruses carrying the CK10 HA gene or the PA101G or PA237E mutation induced an enhanced innate immune response. A sustained innate response was detected in the brain rather than in the lung and spleen. Our results suggest that the PA and HA gene-mediated high virus replication and the intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high virulence of H5N1 virus in ducks.
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Genome Sequence of Clostridium diolis Strain DSM 15410, a Promising Natural Producer of 1,3-Propanediol.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Clostridium diolis strain DSM 15410 is considered one of the best natural producers of 1,3-propanediol because of its appreciable substrate-tolerant ability, yield, and productivity. Here, we present a 5.85-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. We have annotated the coding sequences responsible for glycerol utilization and 1,3-propanediol fermentation.
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PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure.
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P16(INK4A) as a surrogate biomarker for human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma: Consideration of some aspects.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) frequently show different clinical and pathological features, which tend to be younger age, better performance status, less tobacco and alcohol consumption, more poorly differentiated histopathology, but usually with better treatment response and prognosis compared with HPV-negative OPSCCs. In tumor tissue, HPV infection is closely correlated with p16(INK4A) expression, which has been suggested to be a surrogate biomarker of HPV infection. However, there is diversity of sensitivity and specificity about p16(INK4A) in surrogate detection of HPV status. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge and note some aspects for consideration concerning p16(INK4A) as a surrogate biomarker for HPV-associated OPSCC.
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Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides upregulate Wnt/?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides (BCBPs), extracted from Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth., which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), are the bioactive constituents of Bauhinia championi (Benth.) rattan. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects on OA are poorly understood. The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the proliferation of chondrocytes. In the present study, the effects of BCBPs on Wnt/?-catenin signaling in chondrocytes were investigated. BCBPs were obtained by hot-water extraction and identified by the modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Chondrocytes were isolated from the knees of Sprague?Dawley rats and identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes were treated with or without BCBPs for 48 h. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of Wnt-4, ?-catenin, Frizzled-2, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, cyclin D1 and collagen II were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. We found that the BCBPs contained at least seven monosaccharides, including D-mannose, rhamnose, D-(+) glucuronic acid, D-(+) galacturonic acid, D-glucose, galactose and arabinose. The cell viability of the chondrocytes treated with 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml BCBPs was significantly higher than that of the chondroctyes in the control group (treated with 0 µg/ml BCBPs). Furthermore, compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt-4, ?-catenin, Frizzled-2 and cyclin D1 in the BCBP-treated groups markedly increased, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of GSK-3? significantly decreased. Of note, the dose of 100 µg/ml BCBPs was more effective than the dose of 50 µg/ml BCBPs and 200 µg/ml BCBPs. In addition, we found that treatment with BCBPs upregulated the protein levels of collagen II in the chondrocytes. These results indicate that BCBPs upregulate Wnt/?-catenin signaling, thus promoting chondrocyte proliferation.
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Governmental policies drive the LUCC trajectories in the Jianghan Plain.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The prosperity of farmers is closely tied to governmental policies. The Jianghan Plain is an important region for commodity grains, cotton and edible oil for China. The trajectories of land use and land cover change (LUCC) of the study area from 1995 to 2010 were studied based on the LUCC database of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The LUCC was characterised by a continuous decrease of arable land and continuous increase of waters and construction land. The LUCC was obviously concurrent with the implementation of related national policies. The transition to construction land was ever well controlled by Notice regarding the further strengthening of land management and arable land protection promulgated in 1997. However, it flourished again with the Rise of Central China Strategy taking effect since 2006. The transition of construction land to others reflects an uncommon trend, which must be strengthened with the strict implementation of the overall plan, which imposes a limited acreage quota of construction land to each district. The policies were quite contradictory to the transition of waters. LUCC related to waters is most active, which was driven by both natural forces and national policies. Just after the devastating flood of 1998, the state council of China put forward the Green Policy to govern the major rivers. As to the study area, it is mainly to push over dykes to let flood through and return farmland to lakes. In 2004, the Grain Direct Subsidy Policy was implemented, which, along with the surge in the price of rice, resulted in a strengthening trend of conversion of ponds to paddy fields.
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An electrochemiluminescence sensor for adrenaline assay based on the tyrosinase/SiC/chitosan modified electrode.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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An electrochemiluminescence sensor for adrenaline based on a tyrosinase/SiC/chitosan film modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated, and the proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and excellent biocompatibility.
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Structurally colored carbon fibers with controlled optical properties prepared by a fast and continuous electrophoretic deposition method.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Structurally colored fiber was fabricated by an electrophoretic deposition method under a circinate electric field. These fibers exhibit structural color, based on the external field-assembly of charged PMMA microspheres on the surface of the electroconductive carbon fiber, with reflectance spectra stretch-tunable in the 430-608 nm, which are determined by the lattice constants of the photonic crystals. Also, the influence of applied voltage, deposition time and electroconductivity on the number of deposited layers and efficiency were studied. In addition, we further developed a horizontal and continuous process to fabricate a long range structurally colored fiber. And the method is a drastic acceleration in comparison with the gravity sedimentation technique that needs weeks or even months, and it would be fast and facile for the further study of structural color on the surface of the fiber. The process may be used to simulate the conventional fiber coloration process. Such elastically tuned structurally colored fibers are of interest for many applications.
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Radiation-induced bystander effect: Early process and rapid assessment.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved.
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Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after ?-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor ?1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.
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Genome-wide identification of allele-specific effects on gene expression for single and multiple individuals.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The analysis of allele-specific gene expression (ASE) is essential for the mapping of genetic variants that affect gene regulation, and for the identification of alleles that modify disease risk. Although RNA sequencing offers the opportunity to measure expression at allele levels, the availability of powerful statistical methods for mapping ASE in single or multiple individuals is limited. We developed a maximum likelihood model to characterize ASE in the human genome. Approximately 17% of genes displayed an allele-specific effect on gene expression in a single individual. Simulations using our model gave a better performance and improved robustness when compared with the binomial test, with different coverage levels, allelic expression fractions and random noise. In addition, our method can identify ASE in multiple individuals, with enhanced performance. This is helpful in understanding the mechanism of genetic regulation leading to expression changes, alternative splicing variants and even disease susceptibility.
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Bone formation in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from elderly patients with osteoporosis: a preliminary study.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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We have explored the osteogenic potency of adipose-derived stem cells from osteoporotic patients (opASCs). opASCs were osteogenically induced in vitro with collagen I hydrogel or in culture plate. Detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and cell mineralisation, and quantitative RT-PCR of collagen I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein were undertaken. Proliferation and morphology studies were also performed. After 14 days, opASCs-collagen I hydrogel composite was implanted into nude mice for 4 weeks prior to radiographic and histological analysis. Staining of ALPase and cell mineralisation was strongly positive in opASCs. Fibroblast-like opASCs induced with collagen I hydrogel were evenly distributed and proliferated at a higher rate than in culture plates, showing similar growth curves for both genders. Expression of ALPase activity, cell mineralisation and osteogenic specific genes were higher in opASCs with collagen I hydrogel (male samples had better osteogenicity than female samples) than in culture plates. After implantation for 4 weeks, radiopaque area signifying new bone tissue was observed in opASCs-collagen I hydrogel composite, with no donor gender differences. Thus opASCs with collagen I hydrogel have adequate osteogenic potency and offer new possibilities for osteoporosis-related bone tissue engineering in male and female patients.
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The mechanism of neurogenic pulmonary edema in epilepsy.
J Physiol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is found in many epilepsy patients at autopsy. It is a life-threatening complication, known for almost 100 years, but its etiopathogenesis is still not completely understood. In this study, we used the tremor rat (TRM: tm/tm) as an animal model of epilepsy to investigate the potential mechanisms of NPE under epileptic conditions. We performed reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography assay, H&E and Masson staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blot experiments to determine the role of seizures in NPE. We found the level of catecholamine was higher in TRM rats. Also the occurrence of alveolar cell apoptosis was increased. Moreover, pulmonary vascular remodeling including the deposition of collagen and medial thickening was also found in TRM rats. Further study showed that cell apoptosis was mediated by increasing Bax, decreasing Bcl-2, and activating caspase-3. In addition, the protein level of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) was found to be decreased while phosphorylated JNK and phosphorylated p38 were upregulated in TRM rats. Thus, these findings suggest that pulmonary vascular remodeling and alveolar cell apoptosis might be involved in epilepsy-induced NPE and that the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway was involved.
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Prevalence of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in one live bird market in Eastern China from 2002-2011.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the perpetuation of avian influenza virus (AIV) has been well studied worldwide; however, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence of different AIV subtypes in LBMs in Eastern China. In this study, long-term surveillance was conducted to investigate the prevalence of AIV in chickens, ducks, and geese in an LBM in Yangzhou city, Jiangsu province, Eastern China, between July 2002 and May 2011. The study used primary virus isolation and subtype-specific reverse-transcription-PCR. In total, 23 different HA-NA subtype combinations were detected, mainly in domestic ducks. This result suggests that domestic ducks play a more important role in LBMs in Eastern China.
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Duhuo Jisheng Decoction promotes chondrocyte proliferation through accelerated G1/S transition in osteoarthritis.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Duhuo Jisheng Decoction (DHJSD), a well known traditional Chinese folk medicine, is used for eliminating stagnation, removing blood stasis, promoting blood circulation and alleviating pain; it is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the molecular mechanisms behind the therapeutic effects of OA remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of DHJSD on the morphology of articular cartilage and the G1/S cell cycle progression in chondrocytes, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. A total of 27 two?month?old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (no papain-induced OA; received an equivalent amount of saline only), the model group (papain-induced OA; received an equivalent amount of saline only) and the DHJSD group [papain-induced OA; received a clinical oral dose of DHJSD (9.3 g/kg/day)]. After 8 consecutive weeks of treatment, the morphological changes in articular cartilage were observed under an optical microscope and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and p16 were measured by RT?PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Treatment with DHJSD significantly improved the arrangement of collagen fibers in the articular cartilage, as well as its structure and reduced cell degeneration compared with the model group. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and Rb in the DHJSD?treated group were significantly increased compared with those in the model group, whereas p16 expression was significantly downregulated. Taken together, these results indicate that DHJSD treatment promotes chondrocyte proliferation by promoting the G1/S checkpoint transition in the cell cycle and by upregulating the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and Rb and downregulating the expression of p16 and this may, in part, explain its clinical efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
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Hierarchical NiO microflake films with high coloration efficiency, cyclic stability and low power consumption for applications in a complementary electrochromic device.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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We have demonstrated that thin films of hierarchical NiO microflakes assembled from nanoleaves can be grown directly on FTO-coated glass substrates using a facile and template-free hydrothermal technique. This hierarchical structure holds the advantages of both nanometre-sized building blocks and microsized assemblies. Thus, the films exhibit highly enhanced electrochromic performances and cyclic stability due to their high surface area and good electrochemical stability. Moreover, a complementary electrochromic device combining the hierarchical NiO microflake film with a self-weaving WO3 nanoflake film is fabricated to further improve the electrochromic performance. As a result, the complementary electrochromic device shows a high optical modulation (73.2% at 550 nm), large coloration efficiency (146.9 cm(2) C(-1) at 550 nm by applying a low coloration voltage of -1.0 V) and fast switching responses with a coloring time of 1.8 s and a bleaching time of 3.2 s. It is also observed that there is no significant degradation of the electrochromic properties after 2000 continuous coloration/bleaching cycles, making it attractive for practical applications.
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Magnetic field induced formation of visually structural colored fiber in micro-space.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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A new type of photonic crystal structural colored fiber was prepared by assembling superparamagnetic chains on the surface of a flexible fiber in a magnetic field under photopolymerization. In this system, fixed structural colors (blue, green, and red) were generated instantaneously. The fiber with multi-stopband can also be prepared by carefully controlling the size of the magnetic spheres in each photopolymerization procedure. This method would be fast and facile for the further study of structural color on the surface of the fiber, and the process may be used to simulate the conventional fiber coloration process.
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