Gastroprotective effect of nymphayol isolated from Nymphaea stellata (Willd.) flowers: Contribution of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.
Gastric ulcer is an illness that affects a great number of people worldwide. The goal of the present research was to assess the anti-ulcerogenic activity of nymphayol (NYM), isolated from Nymphaea stellata, against an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Administration of ethanol elevates the levels of the ulcer index (UI) along with causing tremendous increases in lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and significant decreases in gastric mucus, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the NYM- (45mg/kg) pretreated animals showed considerable increases in antioxidants, gastric mucus, and PGE2 level and significant decreases in UI, lipid peroxidation, and MPO level. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) were increased and the level of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was decreased in ethanol-induced ulcerated animals, and these inequalities were amended by NYM pretreatment. Pro-apoptotic markers including caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were decreased and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic marker, was increased through NYM pretreatment, as compared with the ethanol-induced ulcer group. Pretreatment with indomethacin, SC560, rofecoxib, and N?-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) considerably prevented the ulcer protective activity of NYM (45mg/kg), indicating the involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in NYM-mediated gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulcer. These outcomes suggest that the gastroprotective effect of NYM might be mediated by adjustment of inflammatory mediators and apoptotic markers and increasing antioxidants.