The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness.
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of mortality amongst the HIV/AIDS population, and is known for frequently causing life-threatening relapse. To investigate the potential contribution of in-host microevolution to persistence and relapse we have analyzed two serial isolates obtained from an AIDS patient who suffered an initial and relapse episode of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Despite being identical by multilocus sequence typing, the isolates differ phenotypically, exhibiting changes in key virulence factors, nutrient acquisition, metabolic profiles and ability to disseminate in an animal model. Whole genome sequencing uncovered a clonal relationship, with only a few unique differences. Of these, two key changes are expected to explain the phenotypic differences observed in the relapse isolate: loss of a predicted AT-rich interaction domain protein, and changes in copy number of the left and right arms of chromosome 12. Gene deletion of the predicted transcriptional regulator produced changes in melanin, capsule, carbon source utilization and dissemination in the host, consistent with the phenotype of the relapse isolate. In addition, the deletion mutant displayed altered virulence in the murine model. The observed differences suggest the relapse isolate evolved subsequent to penetration of the central nervous system and may have gained dominance following the administration of antifungal therapy. These data reveal the first molecular insights into how the Cryptococcus neoformans genome changes during infection of humans and the manner in which microevolution progresses in this deadly fungal pathogen.
Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone with important roles in growth and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the metabolism of a human subject with severe GH deficiency (GHD) due to a PIT-1 gene mutation and the metabolic effects of GH therapy using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics. NMR-based metabonomics is a platform that allows the metabolic profile of biological fluids such as urine to be recorded, and any alterations in the profile modulated by GH can potentially be detected.
The physical, endocrine, and metabolic responses of livestock to road transport have been evaluated by conventional hematological and biochemistry parameters for more than 20 years. However, these measures are relatively insensitive to subtle metabolic adaptations. We applied NMR-based metabonomics to assess system-wide metabolic responses as expressed in urine and serum of a large cohort of animals (n = 80) subjected to 12 and 48 h road transport. The profiling of (1)H NMR spectra revealed that the transported animals experienced altered gut and energy metabolism, muscle catabolism, and possibly a renal response. The animals transported for 48 h exhibited a deeper metabolic response to the transport event and a complex and expanded metabolic trajectory over the 72 h recovery period. Intriguingly, excretion of acyl glycines and a dicarboxylic acid was observed after transport and during recovery, implicating peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation as a metabolic response to transport-induced stress.
The 53-amino-acid trypsin inhibitor 1 from Nicotiana alata (T1) belongs to the potato type II family also known as the PinII family of proteinase inhibitors, one of the major families of canonical proteinase inhibitors. T1 contains four disulfide bonds, two of which (C4-C41 and C8-C37) stabilize the reactive-site loop. To investigate the influence of these two disulfide bonds on the structure and function of potato II inhibitors, we constructed two variants of T1, C4A/C41A-T1 and C8A/C37A-T1, in which these two disulfide bonds were individually removed and replaced by alanine residues. Trypsin inhibition assays show that wild-type T1 has a K(i) of <5 nM, C4A/C41A-T1 has a weaker K(i) of approximately 350 nM, and the potency of the C8A/C37A variant is further decreased to a K(i) of approximately 1.8 microM. To assess the influence of the disulfide bonds on the structure of T1, we determined the structure and dynamics of both disulfide variants by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of C4A/C41A-T1 and the amplitude of intrinsic flexibility in the reactive-site loop resemble that of the wild-type protein closely, despite the lack of the C4-C41 disulfide bond, whereas the timescale of motions is markedly decreased. The rescue of the structure despite loss of a disulfide bond is due to a previously unrecognized network of interactions, which stabilizes the structure of the reactive-site loop in the region of the missing disulfide bond, while allowing intrinsic motions on a fast (picosecond-nanosecond) timescale. In contrast, no comparable interactions are present around the C8-C37 disulfide bond. Consequently, the reactive-site loop becomes disordered and highly flexible in the structure of C8A/C37A-T1, making it unable to bind to trypsin. Thus, the reactive-site loop of T1 is stabilized differently by the C8-C37 and C4-C41 disulfide bonds. The C8-C37 disulfide bond is essential for the inhibitory activity of T1, whereas the C4-C41 disulfide bond is not as critical for maintaining the three-dimensional structure and function of the molecule but is responsible for maintaining flexibility of the reactive-site loop on a microsecond-nanosecond timescale.
Phosphine is a small redox-active gas that is used to protect global grain reserves, which are threatened by the emergence of phosphine resistance in pest insects. We find that polymorphisms responsible for genetic resistance cluster around the redox-active catalytic disulfide or the dimerization interface of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in insects (Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). DLD is a core metabolic enzyme representing a new class of resistance factor for a redox-active metabolic toxin. It participates in four key steps of core metabolism, and metabolite profiles indicate that phosphine exposure in mutant and wild-type animals affects these steps differently. Mutation of DLD in C. elegans increases arsenite sensitivity. This specific vulnerability may be exploited to control phosphine-resistant insects and safeguard food security.
Nontargeted metabolite fingerprinting is increasingly applied to biomedical classification. The choice of classification algorithm may have a considerable impact on outcome. In this study, employing nested cross-validation for assessing predictive performance, six binary classification algorithms in combination with different strategies for data-driven feature selection were systematically compared on five data sets of urine, serum, plasma, and milk one-dimensional fingerprints obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Support Vector Machines and Random Forests combined with t-score-based feature filtering performed well on most data sets, whereas the performance of the other tested methods varied between data sets.
Obesity is a serious health problem with an increased risk of several common diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Metabolomics is an emerging analytical technique for systemic determination of metabolite profiles, which is useful for understanding the biochemical changes in obesity or related diseases both in individual organs and at the organism level. Increasingly, this technology has been applied to the study of obesity, complementing transcriptomics and/or proteomics analyses. Indeed, the alterations of metabolites in biofluids/tissues are direct indicators of variations in physiology or pathology. In this paper, we will examine the obesity-related alterations in significant metabolites that have been identified by metabolomics as well as their metabolic pathway associations. Issues concerning the screening of biologically significant metabolites related to obesity will also be discussed.
Thousands of metabolites are excreted in urine, and potentially can be detected in NMR spectra. Currently, NMR spectral information for about one thousand metabolites has been deposited in publicly available sources, limiting the identification of chemical compounds that are potential biomarkers for clinical and subclinical applications. This study reports the identification of crotonyl glycine, one of the key metabolites detected by ¹H NMR as excreted in the urine of sheep after 48 h road transport and during the subsequent 72 h recovery period. This metabolite was important in separating the metabolic responses as expressed in the urine from animals undergoing shorter road transport treatments. At the time of the metabonomic analysis, the NMR signals from this metabolite were designated as unassigned as no match was found in public databases or the literature. Selected sheep urine samples containing the metabolite were resolved by reversed phase HPLC reducing the sample complexity. Subsequent ¹H NMR spectra of the collected fractions revealed that the unknown metabolite was present in a single HPLC fraction. High-resolution 1D and 2D ¹H NMR spectra of this fraction followed by mass determination of the parent ion and its fragments by nanoESI-TOF-MS/MS revealed the identity of the compound as crotonyl glycine (N-but-(E)-2-enoyl glycine). The HPLC fraction was subsequently spiked with synthetic crotonyl glycine which confirmed identification.
The accumulation of genomic structural variation between closely related populations over time can lead to reproductive isolation and speciation. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus is thought to have recently diversified, forming a species complex containing members with distinct morphologies, distributions, and pathologies of infection. We have investigated structural changes in genomic architecture such as inversions and translocations that distinguish the most pathogenic variety, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, from the less clinically prevalent Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Synteny analysis between the genomes of the three Cryptococcus species/varieties (strains H99, JEC21, and R265) reveals that C. neoformans var. grubii possesses surprisingly few unique genomic rearrangements. All but one are relatively small and are shared by all molecular subtypes of C. neoformans var. grubii. In contrast, the large translocation peculiar to the C. neoformans var. grubii type strain is found in all tested subcultures from multiple laboratories, suggesting that it has possessed this rearrangement since its isolation from a human clinical sample. Furthermore, we find that the translocation directly disrupts two genes. The first of these encodes a novel protein involved in metabolism of glucose at human body temperature and affects intracellular levels of trehalose. The second encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that modulates melanin production. Both mutations would be predicted to increase pathogenicity; however, when recreated in an alternate genetic background, these mutations do not affect virulence in animal models. The type strain of C. neoformans var. grubii in which the majority of molecular studies have been performed is therefore atypical for carbon metabolism and key virulence attributes.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.