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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Highly Efficient Visible Light Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to Hydrocarbon Fuels by Cu-Nanoparticle Decorated Graphene Oxide.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (?4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.
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Study of optical design of Blu-ray pickup head system with a liquid crystal element.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This paper proposes a newly developed optical design and an active compensation method for a Blu-ray pickup head system with a liquid crystal (LC) element. Different from traditional pickup lens design, this new optical design delivers performance as good as the conventional one but has more room for tolerance control, which plays a role in antishaking devices, such as portable Blu-ray players. A hole-pattern electrode and LC optics with external voltage input were employed to generate a symmetric nonuniform electrical field in the LC layer that directs LC molecules into the appropriate gradient refractive index distribution, resulting in the convergence or divergence of specific light beams. LC optics deliver fast and, most importantly, active compensation through optical design when errors occur. Simulations and tolerance analysis were conducted using Code V software, including various tolerance analyses, such as defocus, tilt, and decenter, and their related compensations. Two distinct Blu-ray pickup head system designs were examined in this study. In traditional Blu-ray pickup head system designs, the aperture stop is always set on objective lenses. In the study, the aperture stop is on the LC lens as a newly developed lens. The results revealed that an optical design with aperture stop set on the LC lens as an active compensation device successfully eliminated up to 57% of coma aberration compared with traditional optical designs so that this pickup head lens design will have more space for tolerance control.
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Grommets for Otitis Media With Effusion in Children With Cleft Palate: A Systematic Review.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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No consensus has yet been reached with regard to the link between otitis media with effusion (OME), hearing loss, and language development in children with cleft palate. The objective of this study was to address the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) for OME in children with cleft palate.
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Neonatal Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants from Taiwan: Comparison with Canada, Japan, and the USA.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This study compared the current trend in survival rates and morbidity for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in five Medical Training Centers of Prematurity for the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan (PBFT), with the outcomes from the USA, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (NICHD NRN), the Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN), and the Neonatal Research Network of Japan (NRNJ).
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[Applying Swanson's Caring Theory to Manage Spiritual Distress in a Patient With Terminal Lung Cancer].
Hu Li Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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This case report shares a nursing experience that applied Swanson's Caring Theory as part of the care regimen for a terminal lung cancer patient suffering from spiritual distress. The nursing care was provided from March 20th to April 25th, 2012. Data were collected through observation and conversation and recorded using sketches and written notes. The nurse assessed the patient's relationships with the self, with others, with the environment, and with God in accordance with Stoll's spiritual interrelatedness hypothesis. Several spiritual distresses were reported. Interventions such as "knowing", "being with", "doing for", "enabling" and "maintaining belief" were applied to manage the patient's spiritual distress and address spiritual needs. This case report is intended to help increase the awareness and sensitivity of nurses to patients' spiritual needs and to help nurses provide effective spiritual care.
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A Rapid SNAP-Tag Fluorogenic Probe Based on an Environment-Sensitive Fluorophore for No-Wash Live Cell Imaging.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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One major limitation of labeling proteins with synthetic fluorophores is the high fluorescence background, which necessitates extensive washing steps to remove unreacted fluorophores. In this paper, we describe a novel fluorogenic probe based on an environment-sensitive fluorophore for labeling with SNAP-tag proteins. The probe exhibits dramatic fluorescence turn-on of 280-fold upon being labeled to SNAP-tag. The major advantages of our fluorogenic probe are the dramatic fluorescence turn-on, ease of synthesis, high selectivity, and rapid labeling with SNAP-tag. No-wash labeling of both intracellular and cell surface proteins was successfully achieved in living cells, and the localization of these proteins was specifically visualized.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Junceella fragilis (Gorgonacea, Ellisellidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract In this article, the complete mitogenome of the Octocorallia, zooxanthellate, Junceella fragilis has been amplified and sequenced. This mitochondrial genome consists of 18,724?bp, with 14 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 1 transfer RNA genes, no intron was observed. It has been observed that a mitochondrial mismatch repair (mtMutS) gene was present in all octocorals. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was A, 29.1%; G, 20.4%; C, 33.0%; and T, 17.5%, with a slight AT bias of 62.1%. The complete mitogenomic data may provide more informative for phylogenetic approach for soft corals phylogeny especially for octocorallian species.
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Butylidenephthalide blocks potassium channels and enhances basal tension in isolated guinea-pig trachea.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Butylidenephthalide (Bdph, 30~300??M), a constituent of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., significantly enhanced tension in isolated guinea-pig trachea. In this study, we investigate the mechanism(s) of Bdph-induced contraction in the tissue. Isolated trachea was bathed in 5?mL of Krebs solution containing indomethacin (3??M), and its tension changes were isometrically recorded. Cromakalim (3??M), an ATP-dependent K+ channel opener, significantly antagonized the Bdph-induced enhancement of baseline tension. Bdph (300??M) also significantly antagonized cromakalim-induced relaxation. Bdph (300??M) did not significantly influence the antagonistic effects of glibenclamide (GBC, 1??M) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 8?mM) against the cromakalim-induced relaxation. However, Bdph (300??M) and 4-aminopiridine (4-AP, 5?mM), a blocker of K v 1 family of K+ channels, in combination significantly rightward shifted the log concentration-relaxation curve of cromakalim. The antagonistic effect of the combination almost equals the sum of the individual effects of Bdph and 4-AP, suggesting that the antagonistic mechanism of Bdph may be similar to that of 4-AP. All calcium channel blockers influenced neither the baseline tension nor antagonistic effect of Bdph against cromakalim. In conclusion, Bdph may be similar to 4-AP, a blocker of K v 1 family of K+ channels, to enhance the baseline tension of guinea-pig trachea.
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Enterovirus 71 infects brain-derived neural progenitor cells.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are stem cells that can differentiate into various neural lineage cells. The damage and loss of NPCs are associated with neurological conditions such as cognitive deficits and memory impairment. In a long-term study of patients with EV71, cognitive disorders were observed. Therefore, we hypothesized that NPCs may be permissive to EV71 infection. We demonstrated that NPCs are prone to EV71 infection and that these stem cells can support the active replication of this virus. Furthermore, EV71 infection triggers apoptosis, resulting in significant cell death in infected NPCs. However, EV71 did not replicate in the differentiated cell types that were tested. Our findings suggest that EV71 can infect NPCs and cause the depletion of these cells.
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Definition of PKC-?, CDK6, and MET as therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous and recurrent subtype of breast cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapy. To identify candidate therapeutic targets, we profiled global gene expression in TNBC and breast tumor-initiating cells with a patient survival dataset. Eight TNBC-related kinases were found to be overexpressed in TNBC cells with stem-like properties. Among them, expression of PKC-?, MET, and CDK6 correlated with poorer survival outcomes. In cases coexpressing two of these three kinases, survival rates were lower than in cases where only one of these kinases was expressed. In functional tests, two-drug combinations targeting these three kinases inhibited TNBC cell proliferation and tumorigenic potential in a cooperative manner. A combination of PKC-?-MET inhibitors also attenuated tumor growth in a cooperative manner in vivo. Our findings define three kinases critical for TNBC growth and offer a preclinical rationale for their candidacy as effective therapeutic targets in treating TNBC.
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The Role of Integrin ?v in Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cell Response to Calcium Silicate Cement.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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It has been proved that integrin ?v activity is related to cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and organ development. However, the biological functions of integrin ?v in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on silicate-based materials have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of integrin ?v in the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs cultured with the effect of calcium silicate (CS) cement and ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement.
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An integrated approach to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a fastener manufacturing industry.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF) and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr) and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr) as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA), and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3), action level (0.1 mg/m3), and acceptable health risk (10-3), respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers' PAH exposures.
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Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.
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The PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin improves the delivery and therapeutic efficiency of 188Re-Liposome by modulating phagocytosis in C26 murine colon carcinoma tumor model.
Nucl. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Liposome in delivering radionuclide for cancer therapy has been expansively studied; however, liposome itself can be deliberately entrapped and destroyed by the reticuloendothelial system, causing an insufficiency of the drug delivery, which in turn would restrict the effectiveness of the drug. In this study, mice with subcutaneous implantation of C26 murine colon cancer received an experimental treatment regimen in which mice took delivery of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (LipoDox) first, after a three-day interval, of Rhenium-188 encapsulated into PEGylated liposome ((188)Re-Liposome) subsequently and by which suppressed the functioning of reticuloendothelial system for the short term. The data showed that based upon the biodistribution assay and the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy, (188)Re-Liposome was more sufficiently delivered to tumor sites in mice with this treatment regimen than mice without the regimen, and that cancer mortalities in mice with the treatment regimen were much lower than the mortalities in mice without the regimen. Taken together, a new strategy proposed in this study significantly improved both the (188)Re-Liposome delivery and the effectiveness of (188)Re-Liposome, suggesting that the strategy can be an ideal treatment for cancer.
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Orbital hemangiopericytoma in an Asian population.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Hemangiopericytoma is a very rare orbital tumor. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and histopathological features of six cases of orbital hemangiopericytoma in an Asian population.
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A randomized controlled trial of clinic-based and home-based interventions in comparison with usual care for preterm infants: effects and mediators.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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This study examined the effects and mediators of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with usual care in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants on developmental and behavioral outcomes at 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). In this randomized controlled trial, VLBW preterm infants received either CBIP (n=57), HBIP (n=63), or usual care (n=58) from hospitalization to 12 months. At 12 months, infant emotional regulation was assessed using the toy-behind-barrier procedure and dyadic interaction was observed during free play. At 24 months, infant developmental and behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development- 3rd edition and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5, respectively. Compared with infants under usual care, the CBIP-group infants showed higher cognitive composite scores (difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.4, 0.8-7.9) and a lower rate of motor delay (odds ratio (OR), 95% CI=0.29, 0.08-0.99); the HBIP-group infants had lower sleep problem scores (difference, 95% CI=-1.4, -2.5 to -0.3) and a lower rate of internalizing problems at 24 months (OR, 95% CI=0.51, 0.28-0.93) (all p<.05). The CBIP's effect on cognitive outcome was attenuated when maternal or dyadic interactive behavior was considered; whereas the HBIP's effect on sleep and internalizing behavior was attenuated when duration of orientation to a toy or object was considered. In conclusions, interventions enhanced the cognitive, motor, and behavioral outcomes of VLBW preterm infants. The effects on cognitive and behavioral outcomes might be mediated by early-improved mother-infant interaction and infant emotional regulation, respectively.
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Distinct profiles of myelin distribution along single axons of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Myelin is a defining feature of the vertebrate nervous system. Variability in the thickness of the myelin envelope is a structural feature affecting the conduction of neuronal signals. Conversely, the distribution of myelinated tracts along the length of axons has been assumed to be uniform. Here, we traced high-throughput electron microscopy reconstructions of single axons of pyramidal neurons in the mouse neocortex and built high-resolution maps of myelination. We find that individual neurons have distinct longitudinal distribution of myelin. Neurons in the superficial layers displayed the most diversified profiles, including a new pattern where myelinated segments are interspersed with long, unmyelinated tracts. Our data indicate that the profile of longitudinal distribution of myelin is an integral feature of neuronal identity and may have evolved as a strategy to modulate long-distance communication in the neocortex.
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Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important bacterial etiology of diarrheal disease, and it causes invasive diseases in immunocompromised hosts. For bacteremia from some species, blood culture with a rapid time to positivity (TTP) is associated with greater mortality. This study investigated TTP of NTS bacteremia and its relationship to clinical parameters and prognosis.
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Gene co-regulation by Fezf2 selects neurotransmitter identity and connectivity of corticospinal neurons.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The neocortex contains an unparalleled diversity of neuronal subtypes, each defined by distinct traits that are developmentally acquired under the control of subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that orchestrates the expression of these unique combinations of genes is unknown for any class of cortical neuron. Here, we report that Fezf2 is a selector gene able to regulate the expression of gene sets that collectively define mouse corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN). We find that Fezf2 directly induces the glutamatergic identity of CSMN via activation of Vglut1 (Slc17a7) and inhibits a GABAergic fate by repressing transcription of Gad1. In addition, we identify the axon guidance receptor EphB1 as a target of Fezf2 necessary to execute the ipsilateral extension of the corticospinal tract. Our data indicate that co-regulated expression of neuron subtype-specific and pan-neuronal gene batteries by a single transcription factor is one component of the regulatory logic responsible for the establishment of CSMN identity.
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The oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery: its relationship to preoperative clinical eye findings and subsequent postoperative emesis.
J AAPOS
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To compare the occurrence of significant bradycardia due to the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) during strabismus surgery and its relationship to preoperative clinical eye findings and subsequent development of postoperative emesis.
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Polyomavirus BK-encoded microRNA suppresses autoregulation of viral replication.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Polyomavirus BK (BKV) infection is an important cause of renal allograft failure. Viral microRNAs are known to play a crucial role in viral replication. This study investigated the expression of BKV-encoded microRNAs (miR-B1) in patients with polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and their role in viral replication. Following BKV infection in renal proximal tubular cells, the 3p and 5p miR-B1 levels were significantly increased. Cells transfected with the vector containing the miR-B1 precursor (the miR-B1 vector) showed a significant increase in expression of 3p and 5p miR-B1 and decrease in luciferase activity of a reporter containing the 3p and 5p miR-B1 binding sites, compared to cells transfected with the miR-B1-mutated vector. Transfection of the miR-B1 expression vector or the 3p and 5p miR-B1 oligonucleotides inhibited expression of TAg. TAg-enhanced promoter activity and BKV replication were inhibited by miR-B1. In contrast, inhibition of miR-B1 expression by addition of miR-B1 antagomirs or silencing of Dicer upregulated the expression of TAg and VP1 proteins in BKV-infected cells. Importantly, patients with PVAN had significantly higher levels of 3p and 5p miR-B1 compared to renal transplant patients without PVAN. In conclusion, we demonstrated that (1) miR-B1 expression was upregulated during BKV infection and (2) miR-B1 suppressed TAg-mediated autoregulation of BKV replication. Use of miR-B1 can be evaluated as a potential treatment strategy against BKV infection.
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Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree and its effect on anthocyanins and color.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Raw whole strawberries, if contaminated with pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, must be pasteurized prior to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree (SP), and evaluate the changes in anthocyanins and color, and the survival of yeasts and molds (YM) after thermal processing. Inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail, fresh SP, with or without added sugar (20 and 40 °Brix), was heated at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, 60, and 62.5 °C to determine the thermal resistance of E. coli O157:H7. In raw SP, the average D-values of E. coli O157:H7 were 909.1, 454.6, 212.8, 46.1, and 20.2 s at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively, with a z-value of 5.9 °C. While linearly decreasing with temperature, the log D-values of E. coli O157:H7 increased slightly with sugar concentration. The log degradation rates of anthocyanins increased linearly with temperature, but decreased slightly with sugar concentrations. These results suggest that sugar may provide some protection to both E. coli O157: H7 and anthocyanins in SP. The browning index was not affected by heating at 50 and 52 °C at low sugar concentrations, but increased by an average of 1.28%, 2.21%, and 10.1% per min when SP was exposed to heating at 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively. YM was also inactivated by heating. This study demonstrated that properly designed thermal processes can effectively inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and YM in contaminated SP, while minimizing the changes in anthocyanins and color.
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Electroacupuncture at ST36-ST37 and at ear ameliorates hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting in kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure rats.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Our previous study showed that mossy fiber sprouting can occur in the hippocampus region in rats 6 wk after kainic acid-induced epileptic seizure, and this mossy fiber sprouting can facilitate epileptogenesis. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), which is similar to cervical VNS, can reduce the occurrence of epileptic seizure in intractable epilepsy patients. Greater parasympathetic nerve activity can be caused by 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA). Therefore, we investigated the effect of 2 Hz EA at ST-36-ST37 and at the ear on mossy fiber sprouting in kainic-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The results indicated that applying 2 Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear for 3 d per week over 6 consecutive weeks can ameliorate mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus region of rats. These results indicated that applying 2 Hz EA at ST36-ST37 and at the ear might be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of epilepsy in humans.
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Validity and reliability of the Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale-Adult Version based on the WHODAS 2.0-36 items.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The disability eligibility determination system is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework in Taiwan. The Functioning Disability Evaluation Scale (FUNDES) has been developed since 2007 for assessing the status of an individual's activities and participation in the disability eligibility system. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the FUNDES-Adult Version (FUNDES-Adult).
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Adult supratentorial extra-pineal primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignant brain tumors, mostly undifferentiated, that tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Extra-pineal supratentorial PNET in adults are very rare. Published guidelines for adult PNET were not available until 2011, and at our institute surgeons and oncologists did not have consensus on imaging evaluation or treatment protocols between 1994 to 2008. Twenty-two consecutive adult patients with extra-pineal supratentorial PNET from this period were reviewed in this retrospective study. Their clinical profiles and radiologic images were evaluated. A pathological review based on the 2007 World Health Organization criteria was also conducted. Prognostic factors were analyzed. The 1 and 3 year overall survival rates were 64% and 32% for adult extra-pineal supratentorial PNET, respectively. Limited by the small number of tumors in this series, we suggest that negative prognostic factors are multiplicity at onset, initial CSF seeding, and tumor differentiation. Although age of onset, extent of resection, radiation and chemotherapy were assumed to be good prognostic factors, the analysis did not reveal strong significance for overall survival with univariate and multivariate analysis. We believe more detailed investigations on the genetic/molecular basis of supratentorial PNET and their clinical outcomes are warranted.
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Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-Analysis.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS) score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = -1.14, 95% CI = -1.69 to -0.58, p < 0.001). There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68-1.73, p = 0.74). Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.
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Combined therapeutic efficacy of (188)Re-liposomes and sorafenib in an experimental colorectal cancer liver metastasis model by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Rhenium-188 ((188)Re) displays abundant intermediate energy ? emission and possesses a physical half-life of 16.9 h. Sorafenib is an orally available multikinase inhibitor that targets Raf kinases and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Sorafenib has demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity against several types of tumors, such as renal cell and colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of radiotherapeutics of (188)Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib in a C26-luc metastatic colorectal liver tumour mouse model. Liver metastases were established by intrasplenic injection of C26-luc murine colon cancer cells. Based on the results of the toxicity assessment, an administration dose of 80% the maximum tolerated dose was selected. (188)Re-liposomes were administered on day 1, when metastases of several hundred micrometers in diameter were observed. In the combination therapy group, 10 mg/kg sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar) was administered every other day for 1 week and the survival of mice was assessed. The tumor growth was more significantly inhibited in the (188)Re-liposome plus sorafenib group compared with the (188)Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). Furthermore, (188)Re-liposomes combined with sorafenib achieved higher survival rates compared with the (188)Re-liposome alone, sorafenib alone and untreated normal saline groups (P=0.0000). These results support the use of combined radio-chemotherapy with (188)Re-liposomes plus sorafenib as a viable treatment option in the adjuvant setting for liver metastases of colorectal cancer.
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Rosuvastatin suppresses the oxidative response in the venous limb of an arteriovenous fistula and enhances the fistula blood flow in diabetic rats.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The blood flow in the arteriovenous (AV) fistula is significantly reduced in diabetic patients. Statins are known to mediate pleiotropic effects in the vascular endothelium and attenuate inflammatory responses. This study tested the vascular protective effect of rosuvastatin in an experimental model of AV fistula.
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Monitoring the VEGF level in aqueous humor of patients with ophthalmologically relevant diseases via ultrahigh sensitive paper-based ELISA.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in aqueous humor has been used as an indicator to monitor specific diseases in the retinal ischemic condition. For clinical diagnosis, only about 200 ?L of aqueous humor can be collected from the anterior chamber before the threat of anterior chamber collapse. It is necessary to develop an inexpensive diagnostic approach with the characteristics of highly sensitive, short operation duration, and requires small clinical sample quantities. To achieve the main objective of this study, we first prepared bevacizumab to be conjugated with HRP. We then deposited 2 ?L aqueous humor from patients with different diseases onto each test zone of paper-based 96-well plates. After the colorimetric results were performed via ELISA protocol, the output signals were recorded using a commercial desktop scanner for analysis. In this study, only 2 ?L from the aqueous humor of each patient was required for paper-based ELISA. The mean aqueous VEGF level was 14.4 pg/mL from thirteen patients (N = 13) with senile cataract as the control. However, the mean aqueous VEGF level from other patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (N = 14), age-related macular degeneration (N = 17), and retinal vein occlusion (N = 10) showed VEGF increases to 740.1 pg/mL, 383 pg/mL, and 219.4 pg/mL, respectively.
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Salivary gland tumors: A 20-year review of clinical diagnostic accuracy at a single center.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Obtaining reliable pre-operative diagnosis is crucial in planning treatment for patients with salivary gland tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative clinical diagnosis of salivary gland tumors managed at a single tertiary university hospital over a period of 20 years. A retrospective analysis of the period between 1992 and 2011 was carried out to review the cases of patients with salivary gland tumors. A total of 101 patients were enrolled and general data were described. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the final pathological diagnosis to reveal the clinical diagnostic accuracy. Of the parotid and submandibular gland tumors, 86 and 67% were benign, respectively. The clinical diagnostic accuracies for diagnosis of parotid tumors as benign or malignant were 100 and 57%, respectively. The clinical diagnostic accuracies for diagnosis of submandibular tumors as benign or malignant were 67%. Therefore, the overall clinical judgment of benign and malignant tumors in the submandibular gland is unreliable. The accuracy for a parotid tumor to be clinically interpreted as benign was 100%. While it is difficult to draw any conclusion for non-parotid gland tumors, surgical intervention should be recommended in patients with parotid tumors clinically suspected to be malignant, and all submandibular, sublingual and minor salivary gland tumors.
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Iridium-decorated palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Carbon-supported Pt, Pd, Pd-Pt core-shell (Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) and Ir-decorated Pd-Pt core-shell (Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) catalysts were synthesized, and their physical properties, electrochemical behaviors, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) characteristics and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performances were investigated herein. From the XRD patterns and TEM images, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has been confirmed that Pt was deposited on the Pd nanoparticle which had the core-shell structure. Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has more positive OH reduction peak than Pt/C, which is beneficial to weaken the binding energy of Pt-OH during the ORR. Thus, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has higher ORR activity than Pt/C. The maximum power density of H2-O2 PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C is 792.2 mW cm(-2) at 70°C, which is 24% higher than that using Pt/C. The single-cell accelerated degradation test of PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C shows good durability by the potential cycling of 40,000 cycles. This study concludes that Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has the low Pt content, but it can facilitate the low-cost and high-efficient PEMFC.
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Prolonged Seasonality of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection among Preterm Infants in a Subtropical Climate.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There is limited epidemiological data on the seasonality of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in subtropical climates, such as in Taiwan. This study aimed to assess RSV seasonality among children ?24 months of age in Taiwan. We also assessed factors (gestational age [GA], chronologic age [CA], and bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD]) associated with RSV-associated hospitalization in preterm infants to confirm the appropriateness of the novel Taiwanese RSV prophylactic policy.
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Using hemoglobin A1C as a predicting model for time interval from pre-diabetes progressing to diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The early identification of subjects at high risk for diabetes is essential, thus, random rather than fasting plasma glucose is more useful. We aim to evaluate the time interval between pre-diabetes to diabetes with anti-diabetic drugs by using HbA1C as a diagnostic tool, and predicting it using a mathematic model.
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A novel six consecutive monthly doses of palivizumab prophylaxis protocol for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk preterm infants in Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) circulates year round in Taiwan. A novel six consecutive monthly doses of palivizumab for RSV prevention protocol has been approved for high risk preterm infants since December 2010. This study aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of this novel protocol for the prevention of RSV infection.
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High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts mortality and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An elevated level of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is widely considered an indicator of an underlying inflammatory disease and a long-term prognostic predictor for dialysis patients. This cross-sectional cohort study was designed to assess the correlation between the level of high-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP) and the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
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Effect of electroacupuncture on rats with chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We adopt the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model to induce neuropathic pain to Spragrue-Dawley (SD) rats by ligating the right sciatic nerve of using four 4-0 chromic gut sutures and subsequently applying 2 and 15 Hz electroacupuncture (EA), respectively, to the right (ipsilateral) Zusanli (St-36) and Shangjuxu (St-37) acupoints. The results of this study are summarized as follows: (1) the differences in withdrawal latencies for the radiant heat test and total lift leg counts for the cold plate test (4°C) of the control (i.e., non-EA) and sham groups were greater than those of the 2 Hz EA (2EA) and 15 Hz EA (15EA) groups; (2) the von Frey test filament gram counts of the control and sham groups were less than those of the 2EA and 15EA groups on the 6th, 7th, 8th, 11th, 12th, and 13th day following ligation; and (3) the 2EA and 15EA groups exhibited reduced cerebral transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) expressions, although we did not observe a similar effect for cerebral TRPV1 or spinal TRPV4/TRPV1 expressions. These findings show that 2 and 15 Hz EA can reduce CCI-induced neuropathic pain, which indicates that various spinal segmental and gate effects have a crucial function in pain reduction. The relationship between EA and TRPV4/TRPV1 expression requires further study.
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Role of the DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aberrant synaptic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 (SAPAP2) located at the post-synaptic density of neuronal cells is involved in the neuronal synaptic function. This study aimed to investigate whether the DLGAP2 gene is associated with schizophrenia. We resequenced the putative promoter region and all the exons of the DLGAP2 gene in 523 patients with schizophrenia and 596 non-psychotic controls from Taiwan and conducted a case-control association analysis. We identified 19 known SNPs in this sample. Association analysis of 9 SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 5% showed no association with schizophrenia. However, we found a haplotype (CCACCAACT) significantly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio:2.5, p<0.001). We also detected 16 missense mutations and 1 amino acid-insertion mutation in this sample. Bioinformatic analysis showed some of these mutations were damaging or pathological to the protein function, but we did not find increased burden of these mutations in the patient group. Notably, we identified 5 private rare variants in 5 unrelated patients, respectively, including c.-69+9C>T, c.-69+13C>T, c.-69+47C>T, c.-69+55C>T at intron 1 and c.-32A>G at untranslated exon 2 of the DLGAP2 gene. These rare variants were not detected in 559 control subjects. Further reporter gene assay of these rare variants except c.-69+13C>T showed significantly elevated promoter activity than the wild type, suggesting increased DLGAP2 gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our results indicate that DLGAP2 is a susceptible gene of schizophrenia.
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Inhibition of aldolase A blocks biogenesis of ATP and attenuates Japanese encephalitis virus production.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Viral replication depends on host proteins to supply energy and replication accessories for the sufficient production of viral progeny. In this study, we identified fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A as a binding partner of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) untranslated regions (UTRs) on the antigenome via RNA affinity capture and mass spectrometry. Direct interaction of aldolase A with JEV RNAs was confirmed by gel mobility shift assay and colocalization with active replication of double-stranded RNA in JEV-infected cells. Infection of JEV caused an increase in aldolase A expression of up to 33%. Knocking down aldolase A reduced viral translation, genome replication, and viral production significantly. Furthermore, JEV infection consumed 50% of cellular ATP, and the ATP level decreased by 70% in the aldolase A-knockdown cells. Overexpression of aldolase A in aldolase A-knockdown cells increased ATP levels significantly. Taken together, these results indicate that JEV replication requires aldolase A and consumes ATP. This is the first report of direct involvement of a host metabolic enzyme, aldolase A protein, in JEV replication.
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Comparing Taiwanese womens biopsychosocial features by location of postpartum recovery.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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In Taiwan, a culturally sanctioned ritual of maternal rest and recuperation has been traditionally practiced patrilocally during the first postpartum month. However, in recent years, the places where women may observe the ritual have become more diverse.
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Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA), which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and rhynchophylline (RP) have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12?mg/kg, i.p.) to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3?h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0?g/kg), RP (0.25?mg/kg), and valproic acid (VA, 250?mg/kg) for 3?d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp) of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 ? , IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- ? remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.
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Impact of head and neck malignancies on risk factors and survival in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk of developing a head and neck malignancy (HNM). A history of SLE did not significantly impact the survival of our study cohort after cancer developed.
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Dose-normalization for exposure to mycophenolic acid and the early clinical outcome in patients taking tacrolimus after heart transplantation.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The early phase of MPA exposure has rarely been investigated after solid organ transplantation, especially in heart transplantation patients. We evaluated the association between exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA), a main metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and clinical events within 3 months after heart transplantation.
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Staff nurse decisional involvement: an Internet mixed-method study in Taiwan.
J Nurs Manag
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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(a) To explore staff nurses actual decisional involvement and preferred level of decisional involvement, the decisional dissonance, and the attributing factors; and (b) to understand staff nurses perceptions about the process of decisional involvement at their work place in Taiwan.
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Neonatal orbital abscess.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Orbital abscess is life-threatening and rare in children. Reported herein is a term male neonate who had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital abscess, and a literature review of this disease. A total of 16 neonates diagnosed with neonatal orbital abscess are reported in the literature. There is a mild male predilection and two neonates were delivered prematurely. Leukocytosis, fever, ethmoiditis and associated upper respiratory tract infection were found in approximately half of them. Eight neonates had sepsis and 14 patients underwent surgical intervention. One patient died. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 14 out of 17 patients. Neonatal orbital abscess is rarely encountered but may be fatal. Although streptococci are prevalent in childhood orbital infection, S. aureus was predominant in neonatal orbital abscess in the present series. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy against S. aureus is essential in treating neonatal orbital abs ess. This case suggests that a higher initial dose of vancomycin may be an effective and safe strategy for severe S. aureus infection in neonates.
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Increased risk of erectile dysfunction in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Previous studies have proposed that impaired cochlear blood perfusion and microvascular damage are important etiopathogenetic events in the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that SSHL is a risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED).
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A psychometric study of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition for term and preterm Taiwanese infants.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) was updated to enhance its usefulness for contemporary child developmental assessment. However, recent data in Western countries have implicated the overestimation of child development by the new instrument. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric features of the Bayley-III for term and preterm infants in Taiwan. Forty-seven term infants and 167 preterm infants were prospectively examined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 2nd Edition (BSID-II) and the Bayley-III at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). The psychometric properties examined included reliability, construct validity, and known-group validity. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley-III were good to excellent. The correlations between the BSID-II and Bayley-III raw scores were good to excellent for the cognitive and motor items and low to excellent for the language items. Term infants achieved higher composite scores than preterm infants on all of the Bayley-III scales (p<0.05). However, their rates of developmental delay were lower than the previously established prevalence estimates. The Bayley-III cut-off composite score was adjusted 10-20, 1-13, and 12-24 points higher than 70 for optimal prediction of cognitive, language, and motor delay, respectively, as defined by the BSID-II index score<70. The Bayley-III is a reliable instrument that extends its previous edition, especially in early language assessment. However, the upward adjustment of its cut-off score is recommended for the accurate identification of developmental delay in term and preterm Taiwanese infants.
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Effects of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the excited state dynamics of phenol chromophores.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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The theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of the 1??* excited state of phenol which is repulsive along the O-H bond has a large impact on the interpretation of phenol and tyrosine photochemistry. In this work, we demonstrate that this excited state changes significantly if the OH functional group is involved in the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the ground state. We investigate the excited state dynamics of 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyacetophenone (HAP) separately in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. H atom elimination from the repulsive excited state and Norrish type I reactions are the major dissociation channels of 3-HAP and 4-HAP which do not have intramolecular hydrogen bonding. However, the H atom elimination channel is completely quenched for 2-HAP which shows intramolecular hydrogen bonding. In addition, the ground state and the excited state potential energy surfaces (PESs) of HAP, 2-hydroxybenzoyl fluoride, 2-hydroxybenzoyl chloride, and 2-hydroxybenzamide are investigated using ab initio calculations. The results also show that the excited state potential along the O-H bond distance of the hydroxyl group changes significantly for molecules with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The changes include: (a) the repulsive potential energy surface becomes an attractive potential near the ground state equilibrium geometry, (b) the conical intersection between the first and the second excited states along the O-H bond moves to a much higher energy level, and (c) the conical intersection between the repulsive excited state and the ground state along the O-H bond distance disappears. The results suggest that the interpretation of the photochemistry for molecules with a phenol chromophore must take these effects into consideration.
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Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory metabolites from the soft coral Scleronephthya gracillimum.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Five new pregnane-type steroids, sclerosteroids J-N (1-5), and a diterpenoid with a new chemotype 3-methyl-5-(10-acetoxy-2,6,10-trimethylundecyl)-2-penten-5-olide (6), have been isolated from a soft coral Scleronephthya gracillimum. The structures of the metabolites were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, A549, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. Furthermore, steroids 2 and 4 were found to significantly inhibit the accumulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS protein, and 1, 2, 4 and 5 could effectively reduce the accumulation of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
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Inhibitory effects of hesperetin derivatives on guinea pig phosphodiesterases and their ratios between high- and low-affinity rolipram binding.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 molecule exists as two distinct conformers, PDE4H and PDE4L , which have high and low affinities, respectively, for the selective PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. The inhibition of PDE4H and PDE4L is associated with adverse responses, such as nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypersecretion, and with anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator effects, respectively. We determined the therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L) ratios of hesperetin-7-O-methylether, hesperetin-5,7,3-O-trimethylether (HTME), hesperetin-7-O-acetate, hesperetin-7,3-O-diacetate, hesperetin-5,7,3-O-triacetate (HTA), hesperetin-5,7,3-O-tripropionate, hesperetin-5,7,3-O-tributyrate, hesperetin-5,7,3-O-triisobutyrate, and hesperetin-5,7,3-O-tripivatate, and compared these ratios to those of hesperetin, hesperetin-7,3-O-dimethylether, hesperidin, and hesperidin-3-O-methylether to identify derivatives with therapeutic ratios and to characterize the structure-activity relationships among these compounds. The activities of PDE isozymes 1 through 5 were measured using a two-step procedure using [(3)H]adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate or [(3)H]guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate as substrates. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) for 50% of PDE4 inhibition and effective concentration (EC50) for replacing 50% of [(3)H]rolipram binding on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was taken as the PDE4L and PDE4H value, respectively. The HTME and the HTA dually inhibited PDE3 and PDE4, and displayed PDE4H/PDE4L ratios of 18.3 and 20.8, respectively, suggesting that they may be candidate drugs for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because the combined inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4 has synergistically anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator effects in COPD patients.
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Effect of clustering on ellipsometric spectra of randomly distributed gold nanoparticles on a substrate.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We present a theoretical model for describing light scattering from randomly distributed Au nanoparticles on a substrate, including the clustering effect. By using the finite-element Greens function method and spherical harmonic basis functions, we are able to calculate the polarization-dependent reflectivity spectra of the system (modeled by randomly distributed nanoparticles coupled with clusters) efficiently and accurately. The calculated ellipsometric spectra of the system with clusters can adequately describe the experimental data for the whole frequency range. We find that the clustering effect leads to some prominent features in the low frequency range of the ellipsometric spectra, which are attributed to plasmonic resonances associated with the coupling of Au nanoparticles and clusters.
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The relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences among Asian American young adults.
J Ethn Subst Abuse
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We examined the relationship between collective self-esteem (i.e., the value one places on being part of a collective group), acculturation, and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of 442 Asian American young adults. We found that membership self-esteem and public collective self-esteem interacted with acculturation such that low levels of both predicted greater rates of consequences. Participants with lower acculturation and greater private collective self-esteem experienced more alcohol consequences. This study suggests that differential aspects of collective self-esteem may serve as protective or risk factors for Asian American young adults depending on degree of acculturation.
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Influenza vaccination and reduction in risk of ischemic heart disease among chronic obstructive pulmonary elderly.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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COPD estimates the third leading cause of death by 2020. To reduce its complications becomes an important issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influenza vaccine effect for IHD occurrence with secondary to COPD. We used 11 years Taiwan National Health Insurance cohort research database and analyzed the relationships between vaccination and incident of IHD for COPD patients stratified by age. Total 29,178 COPD patients, 703 patients got vaccination out of 1464 who have developed IHD and 6010 patients vaccinated out of 27,714 that did not developed IHD. Major findings we observed: vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of IHD (OR, 0.746; 95% CI, 0.595-0.937) in elderly COPD patients. Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for IHD only in elderly COPD patients. Moreover, COPD patients with IHD had higher vaccination rate than without IHD.
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Relationship of neonatal cerebral blood flow velocity asymmetry with early motor, cognitive and language development in term infants.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome. Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term infants.
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The Wilms tumor suppressor Wt1 regulates Coronin 1B expression in the epicardium.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Coronin 1B has been shown to be critical for cell motility and various actin-dependent processes. To understand its role more extensively, the expression and transcriptional regulation of Coro1b gene during mouse development were explored. Coronin 1B is ubiquitously expressed in the whole embryo but nevertheless shows distinct expression pattern in developing heart. In addition to the localization in endocardium, Coronin 1B is specifically expressed in the endocardial cushion and epicardium where cardiac EMT processes take place as the heart develops. Promoter deletion analysis identified the positions between -1038 and -681 is important for Coro1b basal promoter activity. In addition to a correlation of Coronin 1B localization with Wt1 expression in the epicardium, we also identified putative Wt1 binding sequences within Coro1b promoter. Direct binding of Wt1 to GC-rich sequences within the Coro1b promoter is required for the regulation of Coro1b gene expression. In accordance with the motility defect found in Coronin 1B-knockdown cells, a modest decrease in expression of Coronin 1B in the remaining epicardium of Wt1(EGFPCre/EGFPCre) mutant embryos was observed. These findings seem to shed light on the role of Wt1 during cell migration and suggest that, at least in part, this involves transcriptional control of Coro1b gene expression.
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Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE.
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Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using the Novalis system for the management of pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Radiosurgery has been proven to be an effective treatment for residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after surgery. However, it causes severe complications when the optic apparatus is irradiated over the tolerance dose. In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to treat pituitary tumors close to the optic apparatus. Thirty-four patients from June 2006 to June 2011 with recurrent or residual pituitary adenomas close to (<3mm) the optic apparatus were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery. Three fractions with a total dose of 2100cGy were applied to the tumors. Imaging, examination of vision, and estimation of hormone level were regularly performed before and after radiosurgery. The mean tumor volume before fractioned stereotactic radiosurgery was 5.06±3.08cm(3) (range: 0.82-12.69cm(3)). After a mean follow up of 36.8±15.7months (range: 16-72months), tumor size was reduced in seven (20.6%) patients and remained the same in the other 27 (79.4%) patients. Vision was improved in one patient and remained stable in the rest. Only one patient developed transient post-treatment diplopia. This study suggests that fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery is safe for treating pituitary adenomas close to the optic apparatus. Studies with more patients and longer follow-up are required to draw definite conclusions.
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Exonic resequencing of the DLGAP3 gene as a candidate gene for schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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We resequenced the exonic regions of the DLGAP3 gene, which encodes SAP90/PSD95-associated protein 3, in 215 schizophrenic patients and 215 non-psychotic controls. Seven known single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, but not associated with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, we identified several rare missense mutations and some of them might be associated with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
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Information needs among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at their first hospital admission: priorities and correlates.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To better understand chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients informational needs and associated factors using the Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Causes in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation model.
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Elevation of S100A4 expression in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: involvement in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo.
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Crystallization and dissolution behavior of naproxen/polyethylene glycol solid dispersions.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The crystallization kinetics of naproxen (NAP) in NAP/polyethylene glycol (NAP/PEG) solid dispersions prepared at different crystallization temperatures was studied by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). It was found that the crystallization rate of NAP was faster at 25 °C in comparison to 40 °C. This resulted in different sizes of NAP domains, and consequently impacted the dissolution behavior. The sizes of NAP domains prepared at 40 °C were larger than those at 25 °C, as determined with surface area analysis, utilizing second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Consistent with this observation, the corresponding dissolution rate of the NAP/PEG dispersion prepared at 40 °C was indeed slower than that prepared at 25 °C. The microstructure of the NAP/PEG solid dispersions and the dissolution behavior also showed a dependence on the chemical composition of the solid dispersions.
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Children with Specific Language Impairment are not impaired in the acquisition and retention of Pavlovian delay and trace conditioning of the eyeblink response.
Brain Lang
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Three converging lines of evidence have suggested that cerebellar abnormality is implicated in developmental language and literacy problems. First, some brain imaging studies have linked abnormalities in cerebellar grey matter to dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI). Second, theoretical accounts of both dyslexia and SLI have postulated impairments of procedural learning and automatisation of skills, functions that are known to be mediated by the cerebellum. Third, motor learning has been shown to be abnormal in some studies of both disorders. We assessed the integrity of face related regions of the cerebellum using Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning in 7-11year-old children with SLI. We found no relationship between oral language skills or literacy skills with either delay or trace conditioning in the children. We conclude that this elementary form of associative learning is intact in children with impaired language or literacy development.
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Adhesive strength of ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive: how strong is it?
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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We evaluated the adhesive strength of ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate and compared the findings with those of traditional monofilament synthetic sutures. We also investigated the factors that could affect the effectiveness of cyanoacrylate bonding by skin surface modifications at the adhesion site.
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Prophylactic antibiotics for endoscopy-associated peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients.
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Baby oil therapy for uremic pruritus in haemodialysis patients.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of chilled/un-chilled baby oil therapy for treating uremic pruritus in haemodialysis patients.
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Triphasic computed tomography enterography with polyethylene glycol to detect renal cell carcinoma metastases to the small bowel.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Enteroclysis was first used to diagnose small bowel obstruction in 1996. However, nasojejunal intubation required during enteroclysis causes discomfort to the patient. Triphasic computed tomography (CT) enterography, a noninvasive procedure that does not require intubation, was found to be an efficient method to diagnose small bowel lesions. We describe our experience of using triphasic CT enterography with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for diagnosing renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastases to the small intestine. RCC can metastasize to many organs and can cause variable clinical presentations. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with RCC who had psoas muscle involvement and lung metastasis. The patient presented with melena and intermittent abdominal pain. Two conventional CT and small bowel series examinations had shown no obstructive lesion in the small intestine. However, triphasic CT enterography with PEG detected two enhanced masses suggestive of small bowel metastasis. The patient underwent laparotomy and segmental resection of the jejunum with primary anastomosis. Histologic examination was compatible with RCC. This is the first report where RCC metastasis to the small bowel was diagnosed using triphasic CT enterography. Our study emphasizes the importance of triphasic CT enterography in cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients suspected of having small bowel metastasis.
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Hesperetin-7,3-O-dimethylether selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 and effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with a high therapeutic ratio.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). While hesperetin-7,3-O-dimethylether (HDME) is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs) in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Bioactive cembranoids from the soft coral Sinularia crassa.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Eight new cembranoids, crassarines A-H (1-8) were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia crassa. Compounds 1-3 represent the rare cembranoids with a 1,12-oxa-bridged tetrahydrofuran ring, while 4 and 5 are the firstly discovered 1,11-oxa-bridged tetrahydropyranocembranoids. The absolute configuration of 6 was determined using the Moshers method. Compounds 6 and 8 were found to significantly inhibit the expression of both pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins at 10 ?M, respectively, while compounds 4-8 were found to be non-cytotoxic toward the selected human liver cancer cells.
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Adjunctive oral methylprednisolone in pediatric acute pyelonephritis alleviates renal scarring.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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To determine if glucocorticoids can prevent renal scar formation after acute pyelonephritis in pediatric patients.
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nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids from the formosan soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Five new nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, paralemnolins Q-U (1-5), along with three known compounds (6-8), were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the application of Moshers method on 1. Among these metabolites, 1 and 3 are rarely found nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, possessing novel polycyclic structures. Compounds 1, 3, 6 and 7 were found to possess neuroprotective activity.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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