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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovering health knowledge in the BC nurse practitioners encounter codes.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Integrating the Nurse Practitioner (NP) role into clinical practice settings is new in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Encounter codes are unique numeric codes assigned to specific types of patient care services performed by NPs. In this study we apply knowledge discovery techniques to analyze the encounter codes extracted from the BC Ministry of Health database to understand the most common practice activities carried out by NPs and what diseases patients sought care for from NPs. The analysis produced important information about NPs' practice patterns. This work leads to a better understanding of NP practice patterns in BC.
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Do electronic health records help undergraduate students develop health informatics competencies?
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In this paper we describe the effects of hands-on exposure to an educational electronic health record (EHR) system upon undergraduate health informatics (HI) student competency development. We undertook a quasi-experimental study (i.e. pre-test, post-test design), where students were given the opportunity to do hands-on work with an educational EHR over a 10 week period. HI student competencies were measured pre and post educational EHR exposure. Several HI student competencies improved significantly following hands-on work with the EHR. As well, students provided more in-depth and higher quality case study answers after working with the educational EHR.
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Requirements for prototyping an educational electronic health record: experiences and future directions.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Electronic health records and related technologies are being increasingly deployed throughout the world. It is expected that upon graduation health professionals will be able to use these technologies in effective and efficient ways. However, educating health professional students about such technologies has lagged behind. There is a need for software that will allow medical, nursing and health informatics students access to this important software to learn how it works and how to use it effectively. Furthermore, electronic health record educational software that is accessed should provide a range of functions including allowing instructors to build patient cases. Such software should also allow for simulation of a course of a patient's stay and the ability to allow instructors to monitor student use of electronic health records. In this paper we describe our work in developing the requirements for an educational electronic health record to support education about this important technology. We also describe a prototype system being developed based on the requirements gathered.
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Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.
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A novel compound NSC745885 exerts an anti-tumor effect on tongue cancer SAS cells in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent cancer, especially in developing countries. Anthracyclines and their anthraquinone derivatives, such as doxorubicin, exhibit a cell growth inhibitory effect and have been used as anti-cancer drugs for many years. However, the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline antibiotics is a major concern in their clinical application. NSC745885 is a novel compound synthesized from 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone, which subsequently reacts with thionyl chloride and triethylamine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oral cancer potential and the safety of NSC745885.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased mortality in Chinese patients receiving curative surgery for colon cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the prognosis of patients with early colon cancer who had undergone curative surgery.
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Development of Wireless Oral-feeding Monitoring System for Preterm Infants.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Oral feeding disorder is common in preterm infants. It not only shows the adverse effect for growth and neurodevelopment in clinical but also becomes one of the important indicators of high risk group for neurodevelopment delay in preterm infants. Preterm infants must coordinate the motor patterns of sucking, swallowing, and respiration skillfully to avoid chocking, aspiration, oxygen desaturation, bradycardia or apnea episodes. However, up to now, the judgment and classification severity in preterm infants are mostly subjective and phasic evaluations. Directly monitoring the coordination of sucking-swallowing-breathing during oral feeding simultaneously is difficult for preterm infants. In this study, we proposed a wireless oral feeding monitoring system for preterm infants to quantitatively monitor sucking pressure via a designed sucking pressure sensing device, swallowing activity via a microphone to detect swallowing sound, and diaphragmatic breathing movement via surface electromyogram. Moreover, a sucking-swallowing-breathing detection algorithm is also proposed to evaluate the events of sucking-swallowing-breathing activities. Further verification of the accuracy and rationality of oral feeding parameters with clinical findings including sucking, swallowing, and breathing in term and preterm infants had proved the practicality and value of the proposed system.
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A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.
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A virtual platform for electronic health record (EHR) education for nursing students: moving from in-house solutions to the cloud.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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There is a need to develop cost effective ways to bring hands-on education about essential information technologies, such as electronic health record (EHR) systems to nursing students, nursing faculty and practitioners. This is especially the case as worldwide there is an increased deployment of these systems and they are transforming the practice of healthcare. However, due to technical, financial and knowledge limitations, many nursing schools and programs do not have an adequate way to bring such technology into their classes and curricula. In this paper we describe an approach to developing Web-based EHR education that allows students from any Web-accessible location to access and work with real EHR systems remotely over the Internet for learning purposes. In this paper we describe our work in moving this approach to a cloud-based solution to allow access to EHRs for educational purposes from any location with Web access and to do so in a way that is both educationally sound and cost effective.
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Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The relationship between sleep and immune function is not well understood at a functional or molecular level. We therefore used a genetic approach in Drosophila to manipulate sleep and evaluated effects on the ability of flies to fight bacterial infection.
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Nerve branches to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle may complicate the laryngeal reinnervation procedure.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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To better understand the reason for the low success rate of posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle reinnervation, we attempted to identify the communicating branches that may exist between the nerve branch to the PCA muscle and the other laryngeal adductors in addition to the interarytenoid (IA) muscle.
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Interleukin-17 induces CC chemokine receptor 6 expression and cell migration in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its ligand CCL20 are involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. In addition, interleukin-17 (IL-17), produced by a T cell subset named "Th17," has been identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and has emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. However, the relevance of IL-17 in the development and progression of CRC still remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IL-17 on the cell migration of CRC cells. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were used to study the effect of IL-17 on CCR6 expression and cell migration in CRC cells. IL-17 treatment induced migration of HCT-116 cells across the Boyden chamber membrane and increased the expression level of the CCR6. Inhibition of CCR6 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-17-induced cell migration. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK and p38 pathways are critical for IL-17-induced CCR6 expression and cell migration. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that IL-17 increased NF-?B-DNA binding activity in HCT-116 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B activation by specific inhibitors and siRNA blocked the IL-17-induced CCR6 expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6 up-regulation stimulated by IL-17 may play an active role in CRC cell migration. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila.
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Activation of neutral-sphingomyelinase, MAPKs, and p75 NTR-mediating caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of CAPE and addressed the role of p53 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in regulating CAPE-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
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Effect of a combination of whole-body vibration and low resistance jump training on neural adaptation.
Res Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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This study investigated and compared the effects of an eight-week program of whole body vibration combined with counter-movement jumping (WBV + CMJ) or counter-movement jumping (CMJ) alone on players. Twenty-four men's volleyball players of league A or B were randomized to the WBV + CMJ or CMJ groups (n = 12 and 12; mean [SD] age of 21.4 [2.2] and 21.7 [2.2] y; height of 175.6 [4.6] and 177.6 [3.9] cm; and weight, 69.9 [12.8] and 70.5 [10.7] kg, respectively). The pre- and post-training values of the following measurements were compared: H-reflex, first volitional (V)-wave, rate of electromyography rise (RER) in the triceps surae and absolute rate of force development (RFD) in plantarflexion and vertical jump height. After training, the WBV + CMJ group exhibited increases in H reflexes (p = 0.029 and <0.001); V-wave (p < 0.001); RER (p = 0.003 and <0.001); jump height (p < 0.001); and RFD (p = 0.006 and <0.001). The post-training values of V wave (p = 0.006) and RFD at 0-50 (p = 0.009) and 0-200 ms (p = 0.008) in the WBV + CMJ group were greater than those in the CMJ group. This study shows that a combination of WBV and power exercise could impact neural adaptation and leads to greater fast force capacity than power exercise alone in male players.
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Magnolol protects neurons against ischemia injury via the downregulation of p38/MAPK, CHOP and nitrotyrosine.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Magnolol is isolated from the herb Magnolia officinalis, which has been demonstrated to exert pharmacological effects. Our aim was to investigate whether magnolol is able to act as an anti-inflammatory agent that brings about neuroprotection using a global ischemic stroke model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with and without magnolol after ischemia reperfusion brain injury by occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The inflammatory cytokine production in serum and the volume of infarction in the brain were measured. The proteins present in the brains obtained from the stroke animal model (SAM) and control animal groups with and without magnolol treatment were compared. Magnolol reduces the total infarcted volume by 15% and 30% at dosages of 10 and 30mg/kg, respectively, compared to the untreated SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 were attenuated by magnolol. Magnolol was also able to suppress the production of nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), various phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and various C/EBP homologues. Furthermore, this modulation of ischemia injury factors in the SAM model group treated with magnolol seems to result from a suppression of reactive oxygen species production and the upregulation of p-Akt and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B). These findings confirm the anti-oxidative properties of magnolol, including the inhibition of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to involve changes in the in vivo activity of Akt, GSK3? and NF-?B.
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Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NF?B signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells.
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Improvements in hand function after intensive bimanual training are not associated with corticospinal tract dysgenesis in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) results from damage to the developing brain that occurs within the first 2 years of life. Previous studies found associations between asymmetry in the size of the corticospinal tract (CST) from the two hemispheres and severity of hand impairments in children with unilateral CP. The extent to which CST damage affects the capacity for hand function improvement is unknown. This study examines the association between an estimate of CST dysgenesis and (1) hand function and (2) the efficacy of intensive bimanual training in improving hand function. Children with unilateral CP, age 3.6-14.9 years, n = 35, received intensive bimanual training. Children engaged in bimanual functional/play activities (6 h/day, 15 days). Peduncle asymmetry, an estimate of CST dysgenesis, was measured on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Hand function was measured pre- and post-treatment using the assisting hand assessment (AHA) and Jebsen-Taylor test of hand function (JTTHF). AHA and JTTHF improved post-treatment (p < 0.001). Peduncle asymmetry was correlated with baseline AHA and JTTHF (p < 0.001) but not with AHA or JTTHF improvement post-training (R(2) < 0.1, p > 0.2). An estimate of CST dysgenesis is correlated with baseline hand function but is a poor predictor of training efficacy, possibly indicating a flexibility of developing motor systems to mediate recovery.
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A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios.
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Enhanced anti-tumor activity of triptolide in combination with irradiation for the treatment of oral cancer.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Advanced oral cancer has a poor prognosis because of the lack of an effective treatment. We explored the efficiency of combined treatment with triptolide and ionizing radiation for treating oral cancer. Human tongue cancer cells were treated with triptolide, ionizing radiation, or triptolide plus ionizing radiation. Cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic influences were analyzed by FACS and immunohistochemistry. Tumor potency was examined in an in vivo human tongue cancer cells xenograft mouse model. Our results demonstrated that triptolide caused a marked reduction in colony number that was further enhanced with increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Triptolide increased apoptosis and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. In vivo, combination treatment synergistically reduced tumor weight and volume possibly via the induction of apoptosis and reduction in anti-apoptotic protein expression. In conclusion, triptolide plus ionizing radiation treatment had synergistic anti-tumor effects, especially in vivo, and may be a promising combined modality therapy for advanced oral cancer.
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Neurotrophic and neuroprotective potential of human limbus-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to examine neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of limbus stroma-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (L-MSCs) on cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo.
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siRNA-targeting transforming growth factor-? type I receptor reduces wound scarring and extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Hypertrophic scarring is related to persistent activation of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/Smad signaling. In the TGF-?/Smad signaling cascade, the TGF-? type I receptor (TGFBRI) phosphorylates Smad proteins to induce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. In this study, we inhibited TGFBRI gene expression via TGFBRI small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. Our results demonstrate that downregulating TGFBRI expression in cultured human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced type I collagen, type III collagen, fibronectin, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA, and type I collagen and fibronectin protein expression. In addition, we applied TGFBRI siRNA to wound granulation tissue in a rabbit model of hypertrophic scarring. Downregulating TGFBRI expression reduced wound scarring, the extracellular matrix deposition of scar tissue, and decreased CTGF and ?-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression in vivo. These results suggest that TGFBRI siRNA could be applied clinically to prevent hypertrophic scarring.
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Exploring the effects of tert-butylhydroperoxide induced liver injury using proteomic approach.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), an organic lipid hydroperoxide analog, has been demonstrated to exert pro-oxidant effects to evaluate mechanisms involving oxidative stress in hepatocyte cells and rat liver. Herein, we present an investigation of the event of molecular mechanism of t-BHP related acute liver injury. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins which are differentially expressed in liver cells following t-BHP treatment and the mechanism of its action in apoptotic and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Our results demonstrate that the t-BHP treatment of liver cells increased cell cytoxicity and apoptosis. t-BHP dose-dependent induction of cell apoptosis and stained liver sections relieved the acute rat liver injury were accompanied by sustained phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p65. In addition, there were 13 differentially displayed proteins between the t-BHP-induced and untreated were assayed and validated in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that t-BHP induced human Chang liver cell viability and apoptosis properties by up-regulating the levels of ETFA (electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alpha). This study demonstrated that there was an increase in the cellular levels of ETFA in the t-BHP induction in viability and apoptosis via the activation of JNK1/2 and NF?B signaling modules. NAC administration and shRNA ETFA conferred resistance to t-BHP-increased ETFA and CHOP expression via IRE1-alpha/TRAF2 complex formation, activation of JNK1/2 and p50. We concluded that the mechanism of t-BHP-induced an apoptosis cascade and endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocyte cells by up-regulation of ETFA, providing a new mechanism for liver injury.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Discrepancy between serological and virological analysis of viral hepatitis in hemodialysis patients.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Viral hepatitis is a health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients and it may be transmitted during treatment. Some patients categorized to have viral hepatitis were found to be non-viremic. To clarify the discrepancy between the serological tests in HD patients, we conducted the study.
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Comparison of Structured Skill and Unstructured Practice During Intensive Bimanual Training in Children With Unilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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. High-intensity training aims to improve hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). However, the extent to which skill training is required is not known.
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The effects of microenvironment on wound healing by keratinocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including keratinocyte-like cells, within suitable microniches. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of culture media, cell coculture, and a tissue-engineering biocomposite on the differentiation of mouse ESCs (MESCs) into keratinocyte-like cells and applied these cells to a surgical skin wound model. MESCs from BALB/c mice (ESC26GJ), which were transfected using pCX-EGFP expressing green fluorescence, were used to track MESC-derived keratinocytes. Weak expression of the keratinocyte early marker Cytokeratin 14 (CK-14) was observed up to 12 days when MESCs were cultured in a keratinocyte culture medium on tissue culture plastic and on a gelatin/collagen/polycaprolactone (GCP) biocomposite. MESCs cocultured with human keratinocyte cells (HKCs) also expressed CK-14, but did not express CK-14 when cocultured with human fibroblast cells (HFCs). Furthermore, CK-14 expression was observed when MESCs were cocultured by seeding HKCs or HFCs on the same or opposite side of the GCP biocomposite. The highest CK-14 expression was observed by seeding MESCs and HKCs on the same side of the GCP composite and with HFCs on the opposite side. To verify the effectiveness of wound healing in vivo, adipose-derived stem cells were applied to treat surgical wounds in nude mice. An obvious epidermis multilayer and better collagen deposition during wound healing were observed, as assessed by Masson staining. This study demonstrated the potential of keratinocyte-like differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells for use in promoting wound closure and skin regeneration.
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Ovarian cancer stem-like cells show induced translineage-differentiation capacity and are suppressed by alkaline phosphatase inhibitor.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Spheroid formation is one property of stem cells-such as embryo-derived or neural stem cells-that has been used for the enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). However, it is unclear whether CSLC-derived spheroids are heterogeneous or whether they share common embryonic stemness properties. Understanding these features might lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease of women. We identified two types of spheroids (SR1 and SR2) from ovarian cancer cell lines and patients specimens according to their morphology. Both types expressed stemness markers and could self-renew and initiate tumors when a low number of cells were used. Only SR1 could differentiate into multiple-lineage cell types under specific induction conditions. SR1 spheroids could differentiate to SR2 spheroids through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was highly expressed in SR1 spheroids, decreased in SR2 spheroids, and was absent in differentiated progenies in accordance with the loss of stemness properties. We verified that ALP can be a marker for ovarian CSLCs, and patients with greater ALP expression is related to advanced clinical stages and have a higher risk of recurrence and lower survival rate. The ALP inhibitor, levamisole, disrupted the self-renewal of ovarian CSLCs in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In summary, this research provides a plastic ovarian cancer stem cell model and a new understanding of the cross-link between stem cells and cancers.This results show that ovarian CSLCs can be suppressed by levamisole. Our findings demonstrated that some ovarian CSLCs may restore ALP activity, and this suggests that inhibition of ALP activity may present a new opportunity for treatment of ovarian cancer.
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High nuclear phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression associated with poor differentiation, larger tumor size, and an advanced stage of breast cancer.
Pol J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) is implicated in the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells. However, previous clinical-pathological studies have shown that expression of activated/phosphorylated ERK1/2 is not associated with enhanced proliferation and invasion of mammary carcinomas. ERK1/2 is expressed in the cytoplasm, and activated/phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocates to the nucleus. The aim of this study is to evaluate nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis. The clinical-pathological relation of cytoplasmic/nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 was analyzed in 105 surgically resected breast cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry with tissue microarray. The results showed that non-neoplastic breast tissue mainly showed faint phosphorylated ERK1/2 staining. No statistically significant association was found between the level of cytoplasmic phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression and the clinical features of the disease. High nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression was associated with high grade (poor differentiation, p = = 0.010), high T status (larger tumor size, p = 0.033), and an advanced stage (p = 0.018) of the disease. Thus, nuclear phosphorylated ERK1/2 is associated with enhanced proliferation and invasion of mammary carcinomas and may be a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and the determination of therapeutic strategies.
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Exploring the contextual and human factors of electronic medication reconciliation research: a scoping review.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Medication reconciliation (MedRec) is an important task that occurs in a variety of different contexts. Similar to other healthcare practices, MedRec is transitioning from being a paper-based process to one that is performed electronically. This paper will provide a scoping review of the prevalent research topics from both contextual and human factors perspectives.
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Do electronic health records help undergraduate health informatics students to develop health informatics competencies?
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of hands-on exposure to an educational electronic health record (EHR) system upon undergraduate health informatics (HI) student competency development. We undertook a quasi-experimental study (i.e. pre-test, post-test design), where students were given the opportunity to do hands-on work with an educational EHR over a 10 week period. HI student competencies were measured pre and post educational EHR exposure. Several HI student competencies improved significantly following hands-on work with the EHR. As well, students provided more higher quality case study answerfollowing EHR use.
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Dual effect of capsaicin on cell death in human osteosarcoma G292 cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Thirty percent of osteosarcoma patients die within 5 years. New agents that induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells might be therapeutically useful. Here, we characterized the apoptotic mechanism induced by capsaicin in G292 osteosarcoma cells. Our results show that capsaicin induces an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration which is independent of the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and depletes intracellular Ca(2+) stores, suggesting the presence of endoplasmic reticulum transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1. Capsaicin also activates the mitochondrial caspase 3-dependent death cascade. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, evokes autophagy, as do capsaicin or thapsigargin, a sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase inhibitor that causes Ca(2+) store depletion. Capsaicin-induced cell death is completely inhibited by co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and increased by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting the existence of an autophagy-dependent anti-apoptotic mechanism. Capsaicin also induces ERK phosphorylation, which acts as a downstream effector of autophagy. 3-Methyladenine or PD98059, an ERK kinase inhibitor, restores capsaicin-induced cell death in the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy activates a second cell death pathway that is caspase-independent. Taken together, our data show that capsaicin causes Ca(2+) depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and simultaneously activates the mitochondrial caspase-dependent death cascade and autophagy-dependent ERK activation and that the latter counteracts a second death signaling pathway that is caspase-independent.
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High hepatitis B virus surface antigen levels and favorable interleukin 28B genotype predict spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance in uremic patients.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Host and viral factors interplay in the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to explore the roles of IL28B genotypes and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in spontaneous HCV seroclearance.
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Minimally invasive knee arthroplasty with the subvastus approach allows rapid rehabilitation: a prospective, biomechanical and observational study.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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[Purpose] To study the recovery of patients treated with minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed via the subvastus approach, and to develop an optimal rehabilitation program for these patients. [Methods] Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males; mean age 69.2?years), who received unilateral minimally invasive TKA for osteoarthritis, underwent isometric and isokinetic muscle testing and completed a quality of life questionnaire, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), before and after surgery. Muscle strength and ultrasound tests were repeated 1, 2, 6, and 12 months after surgery. [Results] Strength and range of motion were initially lower in the operated knees but demonstrated no significant difference from the healthy knees after 12 months. Sonographically, joint effusion was greater in the osteoarthritic knees than in the healthy knees at baseline, but no significant difference was observed after 12 months. The mean WOMAC pain, stiffness and function scores all decreased from baseline to 6 months, and then slightly increased at 12 months, but only the function score showed a significant difference compared to baseline. [Conclusions] One year after minimally invasive TKA using a subvastus approach, patients had a good overall prognosis, with prompt functional recovery.
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Interrelationships among genetic C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, biochemical folate status, and lymphocytic p53 oxidative damage in association with tumor malignancy and survivals of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Metabolic genotypes of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and folate status on oxidative DNA lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been elucidated. The aims of the study were to investigate the folate-polymorphic interactions on genetic oxidative damage in association with advanced HCC malignancy and prognosis.
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Improvement of n-butanol tolerance in Escherichia coli by membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Though n-butanol has been proposed as a potential transportation biofuel, its toxicity often causes oxidative stress in the host microorganism and is considered one of the bottlenecks preventing its efficient mass production.
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Sustained hepatitis C virus clearance and increased hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients with dual chronic hepatitis C and B during posttreatment follow-up.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Patients dually infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a higher risk of developing advanced liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma compared with monoinfected patients. Yet, there is a similar rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) after peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin combination therapy in these patients compared with HCV-monoinfected patients and a high hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance rate. The durability of hepatitis C and B clearance in coinfected patients was investigated in a 5-year follow-up study. Patients with active HCV genotype 1, both HBV-coinfected (n = 97) and HBV-monoinfected (n = 110), underwent 48-week combination therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. In patients with active HCV genotype 2 or 3, both HBV-coinfected (n = 64) and monoinfected (n = 50) patients underwent 24-week combination therapy. A total of 295 (91.9%) patients completed treatment and 24 weeks posttreatment follow-up; 264 (89.5%) patients agreed to receive additional follow-up for up to 5 years after the end of treatment. After a median follow-up of 4.6 ± 1.0 years, six of the 232 patients achieving SVR developed HCV RNA reappearance, including five HCV genotype 1/HBV-coinfected patients and one HCV genotype 2/3-monoinfected patient. Subgenomic analysis of the HCV core gene indicated that five patients developed delayed recurrence of HCV infection. Overall, the cumulative recurrence rate of HCV infection was 2.3% (0.4%/year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9%-5.5%). The cumulative HBsAg seroclearance rate was 30.0% (95% CI, 21.5%-42.0%); with 33.1% (95% CI, 21.8%-50.1%) in the 48-week combination therapy group and 24.3% (95% CI, 13.7%-42.9%) in the 24-week therapy group. Conclusion: Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin therapy provides good HCV SVR durability and a high accumulative HBsAg seroclearance rate in patients who are coinfected with HCV and HBV. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;).
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Glycyrrhizin represses total parenteral nutrition-associated acute liver injury in rats by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is an artificial way to support daily nutritional requirements by bypassing the digestive system, but long-term TPN administration may cause severe liver dysfunction. Glycyrrhizin is an active component of licorice root that has been widely used to treat chronic hepatitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of glycyrrhizin on TPN-associated acute liver injury in vivo. Liver dysfunction was induced by intravenous infusion of TPN at a flow rate of 20 mL/kg/h for three h in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with Glycyrrhizin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg intravenously). After receiving TPN or saline (control group) for three h, the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and liver tissue was removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. We found that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in the TPN group without glycyrrhizin pretreatment and decreased in the glycyrrhizin-pretreated TPN group in a dose-dependent manner. The stained liver sections showed that glycyrrhizin relieved acute liver injury. The upregulation of serum protein biomarkers of reactive nitrogen species, including nitrotyrosine and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were attenuated by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. Levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress factors, such as phosphorylation of JNK1/2, p38 MAPK and CHOP, were decreased by glycyrrhizin pretreatment. In summary, our results suggest that glycyrrhizin decreases TPN-associated acute liver injury factors by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reactive nitrogen stress.
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Shear stress modulates macrophage-induced urokinase plasminogen activator expression in human chondrocytes.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Synovial macrophages, which can release proinflammatory factors, are responsible for the upregulation of cartilage-breakdown proteases and play critical roles in cartilage degradation during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, shear stress exerts multifunctional effects on chondrocytes by inducing the synthesis of catabolic or anabolic genes. However, the interplay of macrophages, chondrocytes, and shear stress during the regulation of cartilage function remains poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of human chondrocyte urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) expression by macrophages and shear stress. METHODS: Human chondrocytes were stimulated by peripheral blood-macrophage- conditioned medium (PB-MCM), or exposure of chondrocytes cultured in PB-MCM to different levels of shear stress (2 to 20 dyn/cm2). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze uPA gene expression. Inhibitors and small interfering RNA were used to investigate the mechanism for the effects of PB-MCM and shear stress in chondrocytes. RESULTS: Stimulation of human chondrocytes with PB-MCM was found to induce uPA expression. We demonstrated that activation of the JNK and Akt pathways and NF-?B are critical for PB-MCM-induced uPA expression. Blocking assays by using IL-1ra further demonstrated that IL-1? in PB-MCM is the major mediator of uPA expression in chondrocytes. PB-MCM-treated chondrocytes subjected to a lower level of shear stress showed inhibition of MCM-induced JNK and Akt phosphorylation, NF-?B activation, and uPA expression. The PB-MCM-induced uPA expression was suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist. The inhibitor or siRNA for AMPK abolished the shear-mediated inhibition of uPA expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that uPA upregulation stimulated by macrophages may play an active role in the onset of OA and in the shear-stress protection against this induction.
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Inhibitory effect of liposome-encapsulated anthocyanin on melanogenesis in human melanocytes.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Melanin plays an important role in preventing ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin damage. Overexposure to UV radiation can lead to the formation of free radicals and trigger inflammation and hyperpigmentation of the skin. Anthocyanin can combat excessive free radicals in the body and can reduce the occurrence of inflammation. However, anthocyanin molecules are unstable and highly susceptible to degradation.
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Quantitative proteomic analysis of the inhibitory effects of CIL-102 on viability and invasiveness in human glioma cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone), the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects. Herein, we present an investigation focused on the identification of the target(s) of CIL-102s action and the mechanism of its action in apoptotic and anti-invasive pathways. Proteomic approaches were used to purify and identify the protein substrates using 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) to assess changes in the expression of relevant protein treatment with CIL-102 that resulted in the inhibition of viability and invasion. Our results demonstrate that CIL-102 treatment of U87 cells decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness. CIL-102 dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and inhibitory invasiveness were accompanied by sustained phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p70S6K as well as generation of the reactive oxygen species. In addition, differential proteins displayed between CIL-102-treated and untreated U87 were determined and validated. There were 11 differentially expressed proteins between the CIL-102-treated and untreated groups. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CIL-102 inhibited cancer cell proliferation and reduced anti-invasion properties by up-regulating the levels of FUMH (Fumarate hydratase). The investigation demonstrated that there was an increase in the cellular levels of FUMH in the CIL-102 reduction in viability and invasion via the activation of JNK1/2 and mTOR signaling modules. NAC administration and shRNA FUMH conferred resistance to CIL-102-inhibited HIF1? and MMP-2 levels via inhibition of JNK1/2 and mTOR activation. We concluded that CIL-102-induced an apoptosis cascade and decreased aggressiveness in astrocytoma cells by modulation of mitochondria function, providing a new mechanism for CIL-102 treatment.
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Regulation of ICAM-1 expression in gingival fibroblasts infected with high-glucose-treated P.?gingivalis.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease, which is recognized as a common complication of diabetes. ICAM-1 expression by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) is crucial for regulating local inflammatory responses in inflamed periodontal tissues. However, the effect of P.?gingivalis in a high-glucose situation in regulating HGF function is not understood. The P.?gingivalis strain CCUG25226 was used to study the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HGF ICAM-1 expression by invasion of high-glucose-treated P.?gingivalis (HGPg). A high-glucose condition upregulated fimA?mRNA expression in P.?gingivalis and increased its invasion ability in HGFs. HGF invasion with HGPg induced increases in the expression of ICAM-1. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we have demonstrated that the activation of p38 MAPK and Akt pathways is critical for HGPg-induced ICAM-1 expression. Luciferase reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that HGPg invasion increases NF-?B- and Sp1-DNA-binding activities in HGFs. Inhibition of NF-?B and Sp1 activations blocked the HGPg-induced ICAM-1 promoter activity and expression. The effect of HGPg on HGF signalling and ICAM-1 expression is mediated by CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Our findings identify the molecular pathways underlying HGPg-dependent ICAM-1 expression in HGFs, providing insight into the effect of P.?gingivalis invasion in HGFs.
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Use of knowledge discovery techniques to understand nurse practitioner practice patterns and their integration into a healthcare system.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of applying knowledge discovery techniques to identifying nurse practitioner practice patterns and enacted scope of practice. For the research, we plan to use data extracted from a Ministry of Health database. The data items are focused around: nurse practitioner demographics, health authorities, and encounter types. This analysis produces patterns that indicate relationships between the demographics, scope of practice and practice settings of nurse practitioners working in British Columbia.
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Mesenchymal stem cells from rat olfactory bulbs can differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte characteristics.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in different tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissues, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amnionic fluid. Recently, MSC-like cells were also found to exist in rat olfactory bulb and are capable of inducing differentiation into mesenchymal lineages - osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. However, whether these cells can differentiate into myocardial cells is not known. In this study, we examined whether olfactory bulb-derived MSCs could differentiate into myocardial cells in vitro. Fibroblast-like cells isolated from the olfactory bulb of neonatal rats were grown under four conditions: no treatment; in the presence of growth factors (neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin); co-cultured with cardiomyocytes; and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. Cell differentiation into myocardial cells was monitored by RT-PCR, light microscopy immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and contractile response to pharmacological treatments. The isolated olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells expressed CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166 but not CD34 and CD45, consistent with the characteristics of MSCs. Long cylindical cells that spontaneously contracted were only observed following 7?days of co-culture of MSCs with rat cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. RT-PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the cylindrical cells expressed myocardial markers, such as Nkx2.5, GATA4, sarcomeric ?-actinin, cardiac troponin I, cardiac myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide and connexin 43. They also contained sarcomeres and gap junction and were sensitive to pharmacological treatments (adrenal and cholinergic agonists and antagonists). These findings indicate that rat olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells with MSC characteristics can differentiate into myocardial-like cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Early neuromechanical outcomes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon after an Achilles tendon repair.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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To compare the neuromechanical and functional characteristics of the legs of athletes who underwent unilateral Achilles tendon repair and their controls, and to determine any correlation between the characteristics.
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The early on-treatment perihepatic lymph node response predicts sustained viral response of anti-hepatitis C virus therapy.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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In chronic hepatitis C, the change of perihepatic lymph nodal size after antiviral therapy could be a marker of virologic response. Whether the on-treatment nodal manifestations predict virologic responses is unknown.
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Inhibition of protein kinase C promotes differentiation of neuroblastoma?×?glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Differentiation of neuroblastoma?×?glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells can be induced by different means, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Our aim was to characterize the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process. The PKCs present in NG108-15 cells, i.e. PKC?, PKC?, PKC? and PKC?, were inhibited using a cocktail of Go6983 and Ro318220 or were downregulated by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In high-glucose Dulbeccos modified Eagle medium, neuritogenesis was induced by 24?h treatment with a cocktail of Go6983 and Ro318220 or by 48?h treatment with PMA, the latter process thus requiring a longer treatment. However, when cells treated with PMA for only 24?h were placed in extracellular standard salts solution, e.g. Lockes buffer, for 3?h, morphological and functional differentiation occurred, with rounding of the cell body, actin polymerization subjacent to the plasma membrane and an increase in voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel activity in the absence of cell death. This rapid differentiation was not due to autophagy, growth arrest or increased cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation, but coincided with combined activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, as confirmed by the effects of selective inhibitors. Furthermore, PKC activation blocked thapsigargin-induced neuritogenesis, whereas PKC downregulation did not. These results show that PKC downregulation promotes differentiation and this effect is accelerated by exposure to Lockes buffer. Although this experimental paradigm cannot be related to the in vivo situation and disease, it implies that combined inhibition of Akt and p44/p42 ERK and activation of p38 MAPK promotes differentiation.
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Can cloud computing benefit health services? - a SWOT analysis.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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In this paper, we discuss cloud computing, the current state of cloud computing in healthcare, and the challenges and opportunities of adopting cloud computing in healthcare. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis was used to evaluate the feasibility of adopting this computing model in healthcare. The paper concludes that cloud computing could have huge benefits for healthcare but there are a number of issues that will need to be addressed before its widespread use in healthcare.
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Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human bladder epithelial cells infected with type I fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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The type 1 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) have been described as important for the establishment of bladder infections and urinary tract infections (UTI). Urinary prostaglandin (PG) levels and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in urine particulates may increase with infectious and inflammatory processes, including UTIs. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of COX-2 expression through the invasion of type 1 fimbriated UPEC strain J96 (J96-1) in human bladder 5637 cells. Bladder 5637 cells infected with J96-1 induced increases in the expression of COX-2 and secretion of PGE(2) . By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we have demonstrated that the activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-Jun-NH(2) -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK pathways is critical for J96-1-induced COX-2 expression. Luciferase reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that J96-1 invasion increases NF-?B- and AP-1-DNA-binding activities in 5637 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 activations blocked the J96-1-induced COX-2 promoter activity and expression. The effect of J96-1 on 5637 cell signalling and COX-2 expression is mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. In summary, our findings provide the molecular pathways underlying type 1 fimbriated J96-dependent COX-2 expression in 5637 cells, providing insight into the function of UPEC invasion in bladder epithelial cells.
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Conduction and morphological changes in wrist nerves immediately after bilateral sanding exercises in hemiparetic subjects.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To investigate the immediate effects of bilateral upper-extremity sanding exercises on conduction and morphologic characteristics of the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist in hemiparetic subjects and control subjects.
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Bimanual training and constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized trial.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes hand function using intensive unimanual practice along with restraint of the less-affected hand. CIMT has not been compared with a treatment with equivalent dosing frequency and intensity in children with cerebral palsy (CP).
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Opportunities and challenges of cloud computing to improve health care services.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Cloud computing is a new way of delivering computing resources and services. Many managers and experts believe that it can improve health care services, benefit health care research, and change the face of health information technology. However, as with any innovation, cloud computing should be rigorously evaluated before its widespread adoption. This paper discusses the concept and its current place in health care, and uses 4 aspects (management, technology, security, and legal) to evaluate the opportunities and challenges of this computing model. Strategic planning that could be used by a health organization to determine its direction, strategy, and resource allocation when it has decided to migrate from traditional to cloud-based health services is also discussed.
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High glucose-treated macrophages augment E-selectin expression in endothelial cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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E-selectin expression by endothelial cells (ECs) is crucial for leukocyte recruitment during the inflammatory response. Macrophage accumulation and serum E-selectin elevation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the interactions between macrophages and ECs in regulating vascular endothelial function are not clearly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of EC E-selectin expression by high glucose (HG)-treated macrophages. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from HG-treated macrophages. EC stimulation with HG-MCM induced increases the expression and secretion of E-selectin. By using specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, we demonstrate that the activation of the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways are critical for HG-MCM-induced E-selectin expression. Transcription factor ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further showed that HG-MCM increases the NF-?B- and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in ECs. The inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 activation by specific siRNAs blocks the HG-MCM-induced E-selectin promoter activity and expression. Protein arrays and blocking assays using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that macrophage inflammatory protein 1? and 1? in HG-MCM are major mediators for the induction of EC E-selectin expression. These data support the hypothesis that E-selectin up-regulation stimulated by macrophages may play an active role in atherogenesis in the HG condition and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Genetic improvement of butanol tolerance in Escherichia coli by cell surface expression of fish metallothionein.
Bioeng Bugs
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Cysteine-rich metallothioneins (MTs) have been reported to possess the capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant strains of Escherichia coli expressing outer membrane protein C (OmpC) fused with MTs from human, mouse and tilapia displayed the ability for such surface-localized MTs to scavenge extracellular free radicals, but the benefits of the possible applications of this capacity have not yet been demonstrated. Because the intrinsic butanol tolerance of microbes has become an impediment for biological butanol production, we examined whether surface-displayed MTs could contribute to butanol tolerance. The results show that strains expressing OmpC-MT fusion proteins had higher butanol tolerance than strains with cytoplasmically expressed MTs. Furthermore, the OmpC-tilapia MT fusion protein enhanced butanol tolerance more strongly than other recombinant constructs. Although the enhanced level of tolerance was not as high as that provided by OmpC-tilapia MT, over-expression of OmpC was also found to contribute to butanol tolerance. These results suggest that free-radical scavenging by MT and OmpC-related osmoregulation enhance butanol tolerance. Our results shed new light on methods for engineering bacteria with higher butanol tolerance.
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Characterization of 4-[18F]-ADAM as an imaging agent for SERT in non-human primate brain using PET: a dynamic study.
Nucl. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated with many psychiatric diseases. This study investigated the biodistribution of a serotonin transporter imaging agent, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-(18)F-fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM), in nonhuman primate brain using positron emission tomography (PET).
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Involvement of SHP2 in focal adhesion, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells.
Brain Dev.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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SHP2 (Src-homology-2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase) plays an important role in cell adhesion, migration and cell signaling. However, its role in focal adhesion, differentiation and migration of neural stem cells is still unclear.
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Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-?. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC? and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo.
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A healthcare Lean Six Sigma System for postanesthesia care unit workflow improvement.
Qual Manag Health Care
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The aim of this article is to propose a new model called Healthcare Lean Six Sigma System that integrates Lean and Six Sigma methodologies to improve workflow in a postanesthesia care unit.
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Identification of immunodeficient molecules in neonatal mononuclear cells by proteomic differential displays.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Human newborns are known to be susceptible to microbial infection. This susceptibility is generally attributed to immaturity of the newborn immune system. However, the mechanisms for impaired immunity in newborns are still incompletely defined. In this study, we sought to elucidate the protein differential display between adult and neonatal mononuclear cells (MNC) using a proteomic approach. MNC samples from cord blood and adult peripheral blood were subjected to 2-D PAGE analysis. Differential protein displays between cord blood and adult MNC were determined and validated. There were 34 differentially expressed proteins between cord blood and adult MNC identified by 2-D PAGE. The differentially displayed proteins were clustered into two major signal pathways, cellular processing and purine metabolism. After validation by Western blot, we found more abundant arginase-1 (ARG1) and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2), while less adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ?-actin in cord blood MNC. In functional validation, we found that lower ADA was proven to enhance the TNF-? production by cord blood monocytes. The results from this study discovered the proteomic displays for altered immunity between adult and neonatal MNC that support a understanding of the correction of impaired immune response in newborns.
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Homocysteine induces smooth muscle cell proliferation through differential regulation of cyclins A and D1 expression.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The mechanism of homocysteine-induced cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) remains unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which homocysteine affects the expression of cyclins A and D1 in human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs). Homocysteine treatment induced proliferation of HUASMCs and increased the expression levels of cyclins A and D1. Knocking down either cyclin A or cyclin D1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited homocysteine-induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, treatment with extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) inhibitor (PD98059) and dominant negative Ras (RasN17) abolished homocysteine-induced cyclin A expression; and treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (rapamycin) attenuated the homocysteine-induced cyclin D1 expression. Homocysteine also induced transient phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). Neutralizing antibody and siRNA for ?1 integrin blocked cell proliferation, expression of cyclins A and D1, and phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. In conclusion, homocysteine-induced differential activation of Ras/ERK and PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathways and consequent expression of cyclins A and D1 are dependent on ?1 integrin. Homocysteine may accelerate progression of atherosclerotic lesions by promoting SMC proliferation.
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National strategies for health data interoperability.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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This paper compares the interoperability approaches of three countries: Taiwan, Denmark and Canada. The work maps out how various countries have addressed the interoperability problems as well as what factors affect decisions and the result, and in what manner. The key findings are as follows: (1) The federal governments ability to mandate standards affects choice of interoperability strategy; (2) E-Health status influences choice of interoperability strategy; (3) Differences in geography, population, and demographics affect the selection of national strategies towards interoperability.
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Critical success factors for implementing healthcare e-Learning.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The use of e-Learning in educational institutes has rapidly increased along with the development of information and communication technology (ICT). In healthcare, more medical educators are using e-Learning to support their curriculum design, delivery and evaluation. However, no systematic work exists on characterizing a collective set of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing e-Learning in the healthcare education institutions. The aim of this paper is to study the CSFs of implementing healthcare e-Learning.
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An RSVM based two-teachers-one-student semi-supervised learning algorithm.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Based on the reduced SVM, we propose a multi-view algorithm, two-teachers-one-student, for semi-supervised learning. With RSVM, different from typical multi-view methods, reduced sets suggest different views in the represented kernel feature space rather than in the input space. No label information is necessary when we select reduced sets, and this makes applying RSVM to SSL possible. Our algorithm blends the concepts of co-training and consensus training. Through co-training, the classifiers generated by two views can "teach" the third classifier from the remaining view to learn, and this process is performed for each choice of teachers-student combination. By consensus training, predictions from more than one view can give us higher confidence for labeling unlabeled data. The results show that the proposed 2T1S achieves high cross-validation accuracy, even compared to the training with all the label information available.
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Use of proteomic differential displays to assess functional discrepancies and adjustments of human bone marrow- and Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are suitable for the reconstruction of connective tissues and even brain tissue but have limitations in terms of cell expansion and fully specific differentiation. In our current study, we have attempted to adjust and improve the cell expansion and differentiation properties of human MSCs from different tissues. MSCs from normal bone marrow and Wharton jelly were subjected to proteomic differential displays, followed by functional adjustments based on these displays. Bone marrow MSCs expressed more transgelin-2 and differentiated more rapidly into bone nodules but showed a slower growth rate. A knockdown of transgelin-2 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased the growth rate of these cells, the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, and the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2. Wharton jelly MSCs expressed the chaperone protein HSP90? at higher levels and differentiated slowly toward an osteogenic lineage. However, the knockdown of HSP90? expression significantly increased bone nodule formation, inhibited cell growth, decreased the number of cells in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle, and decreased the interaction of cyclin D1 with cdk2 and of cyclin E with cdk2. These results were validated by the in vivo repair of segmental bone defects in a mouse model with severe combined immunodeficiency. We thus demonstrate an improvement in the cell expansion and tissue regeneration properties of human MSCs through specific adjustments.
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Interleukin-28B genetic variants in identification of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 patients responding to 24 weeks peginterferon/ribavirin.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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A substantial proportion of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR, HCV RNA seronegative throughout 24 weeks of post-treatment follow-up) after 24 weeks peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. We explored the role of interleukin-28B genotype in identifying patients who responded to the regimen.
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen-specific regulatory T cells confer sustained remission to anti-HBV therapy in chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Acute exacerbations (AEs) of chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) are thought to be the result of breakdown of immune tolerance on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Immune tolerance to HBV maintained in CH-B patients without hepatitis is under the control of the hosts forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs). Its breakdown mimics the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Severe AEs may lead to liver decompensation and mortalities. Consequently, AEs are currently the major therapeutic targets in patient treatment. In this study, we employed the SYFPEITHI scoring system to identify epitopes on HBV core antigen (HBcAg) for the construction of human leukocyte antigen class II tetramers to measure HBcAg-specific Treg frequencies (Tregf). Upregulation of Treg gene profiling accompanied by increased HBcAg-specific Tregf was detected in AE patients with sustained remission (SR) to anti-HBV therapy. Depletion of Tregs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced proliferation to HBcAg. HBcAg-specific Treg clones inhibited the killing capacity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones in an antigen-independent manner. A greater posttherapy increase in HBcAg-specific Tregf correlated with a higher SR rate to anti-HBV therapy. These results suggest that HBcAg-specific Tregs function as suppressor effectors and confer SR to anti-HBV therapy.
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Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin promotes cyclic AMP-induced differentiation of NG108-15 cells.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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To clarify the involvement of autophagy in neuronal differentiation, the effect of rapamycin, an mTOR complex inhibitor, on the dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP)-induced differentiation of NG108-15 cells was examined. Treatment of NG108-15 cells with 1 mM dbcAMP resulted in induction of differentiation, including neurite outgrowth and varicosity formation, enhanced voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel activity and expression of microtubule-associated protein 2, and these effects involved phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Simultaneous application of dbcAMP and rapamycin synergistically increased and accelerated differentiation. mTOR or raptor silencing with siRNA had a similar effect to rapamycin. Rapamycin and silencing of mTOR or raptor evoked autophagy, while blockade of autophagy by addition of 3-methyladenine or beclin 1 or Atg5 silencing prevented the potentiation of differentiation. Silencing of rictor also evokes autophagy, at a level 55% of that induced by raptor silencing and enhancement of differentiation is proportional. Rapamycin also caused increased ATP generation and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, but had no effect on CREB and ERK phosphorylation. dbcAMP also induced ATP generation, but not autophagy or cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that the increased autophagy, ATP generation and cell cycle arrest caused by mTOR inhibition promotes the dbcAMP-induced differentiation of NG108-15 cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.