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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: Correlation Between Magnetic Resonance and Diffuse Weighted Imaging Characteristics and Histopathologic Findings.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging characteristics of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC).
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The effect of layer-by-layer assembly coating on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Nanocoating of a single-cell with biocompatible materials creates a defined microenvironment for cell differentiation and proliferation as well as a model for studies in cell biology. In addition, the acidic enviroment in the tissue of stroke victims necessitates drug release upon pH stimuli. Here we report the encapsulation of single neural stem cells (NSCs) using a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique with polyelectrolytes gelatin and alginate. Analysis of the NSCs showed that the LbL encapsulation would not affect the viability, proliferation and differentiation of the cells. When insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) was loaded on the coating material alginate, its release from alginate into the medium presented in a time-dependent and pH-dependent way. IGF-1 significantly enhanced the proliferation of the encapsulated NSCs, demonstrating a drug-carrier function of the LbL single-cell nanocoating. It provided a potential treatment strategy for nervous system disorders such as stroke.
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SCP Phosphatases Suppress Renal Cell Carcinoma by Stabilizing PML and Inhibiting mTOR/HIF Signaling.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The tumor-suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is aberrantly degraded in multiple types of human cancers through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the phosphatase SCP1 and its isoforms SCP2/3 dephosphorylate PML at S518, thereby blocking PML ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase KLHL20. Clinically, SCP1 and SCP3 are downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and these events correlated with PMLS518 phosphorylation, PML turnover, and high-grade tumors. Restoring SCP1-mediated PML stabilization not only inhibited malignant features of ccRCC, including proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, but also suppressed the mTOR-HIF pathway. Furthermore, blocking PML degradation in ccRCC by SCP1 overexpression or Pin1 inhibition enhanced the tumor-suppressive effects of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway of PML degradation in ccRCC that involves SCP downregulation, revealing contributions of this pathway to ccRCC progression and offering a mechanistic rationale for combination therapies that jointly target PML degradation and mTOR inhibition for ccRCC treatment. Cancer Res; 74(23); 1-12. ©2014 AACR.
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Characteristics of a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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To establish a rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude and to examine the characteristics of this model. Rats were divided randomly into a normobaric group and a high-altitude group and their corresponding control groups. A rat model of an open craniocerebral injury was established with a nail gun shot. Simulated high-altitude conditions were established with a hypobaric chamber at 0.6?ATA to mimic pressure at an altitude of 4000?m. Mortality, brain water content (BWC), Evans blue content, pathology, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), partial pressure of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2), and brainstem auditory-evoked potential were observed after injury. The mortality of the high-altitude group was significantly greater than that of the normobaric group within 72?h after injury (P<0.05). BWC and Evans blue content increased by 48?h after injury (P<0.05); pathological changes in damaged brains were more serious. In contrast, rCBF and PbtO2 had decreased markedly by 72?h (P<0.01); brainstem auditory-evoked potential values were significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Moreover, an inverse correlation between rCBF and BWC and a positive correlation between rCBF and PbtO2 were found. The rat model of an open craniocerebral injury at simulated high altitude can be established successfully using a nail gun shot and a hypobaric chamber. The injury characteristics at high altitude were more serious, rapid, and prolonged than those in the normobaric group.
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MRI for differentiating primary fallopian tube carcinoma from epithelial ovarian cancer.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To compare potential discriminatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) and primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
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Chronic Hydrocephalus and Perihematomal Tissue Injury Developed in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Ventricular Extension.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with secondary intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is an important clinical problem of which little is known. IVH and hydrocephalus are independent predictors of poor outcome in ICH. The aims of this study were, therefore, to establish a rat model of ICH with ventricular extension and investigate the occurrence of post-hemorrhagic chronic hydrocephalus and perihematomal tissue injury. Based on our previous rat model of IVH, we adjusted the injection coordinates and 200 ?l autologous blood was stereotaxically infused into the right striatum (coordinates: 0.2 mm posterior, 2.2 mm lateral, and 5.0 mm depth to the bregma). At 24 h post-infusion, the rats produced reproducible hematoma and ventricle expansion, which closely mimics the ICH with ventricular extension in humans. Hematoma consequences and perihematomal tissue injury were evaluated on the acute phase. At 4 weeks, ventricular dilatation, brain tissue loss, hippocampus volume, and cortical thickness were measured with magnetic resonance imaging and neurocognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test. With blood infusion, the animals demonstrated brain edema, blood-brain barrier breakdown, and marked perihematomal tissue injury on the acute phase. At 4 weeks, the T2 images showed remarkable hydrocephalus and tissue loss, and the Morris water maze test revealed neurocognitive deficits. The present ICH with the ventricular extension rat model features characteristics of both ICH and IVH rat models, which could be used for extending our pathophysiological understanding of post-hemorrhagic chronic hydrocephalus and perihematomal tissue damage.
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Osteopontin Mediates Hyperbaric Oxygen Preconditioning-Induced Neuroprotection Against Ischemic Stroke.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Neurosurgical operations may result in surgical injury which would lead to postoperative neurological deficits. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) may be beneficial for such people. However, the exact mechanism underlying HBO-PC is not well known yet. The aim of this study is to explore the role of osteopontin (OPN) in HBO-PC-induced neuroprotection. The study consisted of two experiments. In experiment 1, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: sham group, HBO-PC sham group, stroke group, and HBO-PC group (HBO-PC?+?stroke). The animals in the second experiment were randomly assigned to one of two groups: OPN small interfering (siRNA) group (HBO-PC?+?stroke?+?OPN siRNA) and control siRNA group (HBO-PC?+?stroke?+?negative control siRNA). Neurological outcome in HBO-PC group was better than that of stroke group. After OPN siRNA was administered, neurological function aggravated compared with control siRNA group. Brain morphology and structure seen by light microscopy was diminished in stroke group and OPN siRNA group, while fewer pathological injuries occurred in HBO-PC and control siRNA group. The infarct volume in HBO-PC group was the lowest, followed by OPN siRNA group and stroke group, respectively. Preconditioning with HBO promoted expression of OPN, which reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)-1?/nuclear factor-?-gene binding (NF?B) and augmented protein kinase B (Akt). OPN siRNA reversed these changes. OPN plays an important role in the neuroprotection elicited by HBO-PC. Pretreatment with HBO may be beneficial for people going to undertake brain surgery.
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The "lateral gutter drive-through" sign revisited: a cadaveric study exploring its real mechanism based on the individual posterolateral structure of knee joints.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Although the validity of the "lateral gutter drive-through" (LGDT) test has been proved to offer high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing the posterolateral rotational instability of knee joints, the real mechanism on how the injury pattern of individual posterolateral knee structure triggers the positive LGDT sign still remains unknown.
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Deferoxamine alleviates chronic hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage through iron chelation and Wnt1/Wnt3a inhibition.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Post-hemorrhagic chronic hydrocephalus (PHCH) is a common complication after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The mechanism of PHCH is not fully understood, and its treatment is relatively difficult. In the present study, a rat model of PHCH was used to elucidate the role of iron in the pathogenesis of PHCH. The action of deferoxamine (DFX) in IVH-induced PHCH, the expression of brain ferritin, the concentration of iron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and changes in Wnt1/Wnt3a gene expression were determined. Results indicate that iron plays an important role in the occurrence of hydrocephalus after IVH. The iron chelator, DFX, can decrease the concentrations of iron and ferritin after cerebral hemorrhage and can thereby decrease the incidence of hydrocephalus. In addition, after IVH, the gene expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a was enhanced, with protein expression also upregulated; DFX was able to suppress both gene and protein expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a in brain tissue. This indicates that iron may be the key stimulus that activates the Wnt signaling pathway and regulates subarachnoid fibrosis after cerebral hemorrhage, and that DFX may be a candidate for preventing PHCH in patients with IVH.
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Transfer of classical eyeblink conditioning with electrical stimulation of mPFC or tone as conditioned stimulus in guinea pigs.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Learning with a stimulus from one sensory modality can facilitate subsequent learning with a new stimulus from a different sensory modality. To date, the characteristics and mechanism of this phenomenon named transfer effect still remain ambiguous. Our previous work showed that electrical stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as a conditioned stimulus (CS) could successfully establish classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC). The present study aimed to (1) observe whether transfer of EBC learning would occur when CSs shift between central (mPFC electrical stimulation as a CS, mPFC-CS) and peripheral (tone as a CS, tone CS); (2) compare the difference in transfer effect between the two paradigms, delay EBC (DEBC) and trace EBC (TEBC). A total of 8 groups of guinea pigs were tested in the study, including 4 experimental groups and 4 control groups. Firstly, the experimental groups accepted central (or peripheral) CS paired with corneal airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US); then, CS shifted to the peripheral (or central) and paired with US. The control groups accepted corresponding central (or peripheral) CS and pseudo-paired with US, and then shifted CS from central (or peripheral) to peripheral (or central) and paired with US. The results showed that the acquisition rates of EBC were higher in experimental groups than in control groups after CS switching from central to peripheral or vice versa, and the CR acquisition rate was remarkably higher in DEBC than in TEBC in both transfer ways. The results indicate that EBC transfer can occur between learning established with mPFC-CS and tone CS. Memory of CS-US association for delay paradigm was less disturbed by the sudden switch of CS than for trace paradigm. This study provides new insight into neural mechanisms underlying conditioned reflex as well as the role of mPFC.
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C-terminal domain (CTD) small phosphatase-like 2 modulates the canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and mesenchymal differentiation via Smad dephosphorylation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates a wide range of cellular responses in metazoans. A key step in the canonical BMP signaling is the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 (collectively Smad1/5/8) by the type I BMP receptors. We previously identified PPM1A as a phosphatase toward dephosphorylation of all receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), including Smad1/5/8. Here we report another nuclear phosphatase named SCP4/CTDSPL2, belonging to the FCP/SCP family, as a novel Smad phosphatase in the nucleus. SCP4 physically interacts with and specifically dephosphorylates Smad1/5/8, and as a result attenuates BMP-induced transcriptional responses. Knockdown of SCP4 in multipotent mesenchymal C2C12 cells leads to increased expression of BMP target genes and consequently promotes BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SCP4, as a Smad phosphatase, plays a critical role in BMP-induced signaling and cellular functions.
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Evidence for existence of quorum sensing in a bioaugmented system by acylated homoserine lactone-dependent quorum quenching.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The introduction of a gene, strain, or microbial consortium into an indigenous bacterial population is known as bioaugmentation. This technique has been proposed as an effective strategy for accelerating and enhancing the removal of recalcitrant and toxic compounds during wastewater treatment. In this study, three types of reactors were used to test whether quorum sensing plays an important role in bioaugmented systems. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that the inoculated strain, HF-1, successfully colonized in the bioaugmented reactor. Meanwhile, no HF-1 colonization was observed in the quorum-quenching and non-bioaugmented reactors. Removal of nicotine in the bioaugmented reactor was almost 100 %, and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was higher than 50 %. However, less than 20 % of nicotine and 30 % of TOC was removed in quorum-quenching and non-bioaugmented reactors. Moreover, the release of acylated homoserine lactones reached the threshold for HF-1 biofilm formation in bioaugmented reactors but not in quorum-quenching or non-bioaugmented reactors. The addition of porcine kidney acylase I, a quenching reagent, to the quorum-quenching reactor hampered the colonization of HF-1. Together, these results demonstrate that quorum sensing plays an important role in HF-1 colonization of bioaugmented systems.
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Are failures of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction associated with steep posterior tibial slopes? A case control study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Recently, increasing number of literature has identified the posterior tibial slope (PTS) as one of the risk factors of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, few studies concerning the association between failure of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and PTS have been published. The objective of this study was to explore the association between the failure of ACLR and PTS at a minimum of two years follow-up.
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The National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey [HINTS]: a national cross-sectional analysis of talking to your doctor and other healthcare providers for health information.
BMC Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The need to understand preferred sources of health information remains important to providing patient-centered care. The Internet remains a popular resource for health information, but more traditional sources may still be valid for patients during a recent health need. This study sought to understand the characteristics of patients that turn to their doctor or healthcare provider first for a recent health or medical information need.
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Curcumin increased the differentiation rate of neurons in neural stem cells via wnt signaling in vitro study.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and the classical wnt signaling pathway.
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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for differentiating borderline from malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary: pathological correlation.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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To investigate diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for differentiating borderline from malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary.
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A new method for rapid construction of a Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented system: accelerating acylated homoserine lactones secretion by pH regulation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented systems were operated to treat tobacco wastewater under pH 5.5 for three cycles and pH 8.0 for the rest, which was suitable for HF-1 biofilm formation. The results showed that, under pH control, the contents of 3-oxo-C6-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL were significantly higher than HF-1 thresholds for biofilm formation. Compared with non-pH controlled reactors, HF-1 showed greater colonization in pH controlled reactors, primarily owing to the high extracellular polymeric substances secretion induced by quorum sensing. Accordingly, high indigenous community activity and granular sludge were observed. Sludge granulation occurred from the seventh cycle, and the average diameter was greater than 400 ?m. These systems were also highly efficient with nearly 100% nicotine degradation and 60% total organic carbon removal. Overall, the results indicate that pH regulation is a new and feasible method for acceleration of releasing of auto-inducers, which is beneficial to construction of HF-1 bioaugmented systems.
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Can Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection be eradicated by mass vaccination?
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The feasibility to eradicate Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in a conventional PCV2 infected farm by vaccinating both sows and piglets using a commercially subunit vaccine was assessed. Vaccination strategy implied that all sows, boars and gilts of the farm were vaccinated every four months, and all piglets vaccinated and revaccinated with the same vaccine at 4 and 7 weeks of age, respectively. This vaccination strategy was applied during 12 consecutive months. Blood samples from 15 piglets of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks of age and 15 sows were taken monthly PRE, DURING and POST mass vaccination strategy. From all the collected sera (n=1796), a representative proportion of them (n=1235, 69%) were analysed (n=1121 from piglets and n=114 from sows). All these samples were tested by PCV2 ELISA and PCV2 PCR (and quantitative-PCR when PCR positive). All tested sows were negative by PCR but seropositive. ELISA mean OD values of sows decreased throughout the study. Percentages of PCV2 PCR positive samples in piglets were 8% (12/150), 0.9% (6/659) and 3.5% (11/312) PRE, DURING and POST application of the mass vaccination program, respectively. ELISA mean OD values of PCV2 seropositive animals progressively decreased until the end of the mass vaccination period, but a clear seroconversion was observed after stopping such strategy. In conclusion, one year period of mass PCV2 vaccination (without implementing further farm management practices or biosafety measures) was not able to clear out PCV2 infection, and the virus became detectable again when vaccination was stopped.
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Blast-induced traumatic brain injury of goats in confined space.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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To study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) characteristics in confined space.
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Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The refractive indices, absorption coefficients, and complex dielectric constants of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the 0.2- to 2.0-THz range. The spectral differences between gliomas and normal brain tissues were obtained. Compared with normal brain tissue, our results indicate that paraffin-embedded brain gliomas have a higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the best THz frequencies for different methods of paraffin-embedded brain glioma imaging, such as intensity imaging, coherent imaging with continuum THz sources, and THz pulsed imaging with short-pulsed THz sources, are analyzed.
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Clinical Outcome of Simultaneous High Tibial Osteotomy and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction for Medial Compartment Osteoarthritis in Young Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees: A Systematic Review.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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High tibial osteotomy (HTO) has been a well-established procedure addressing tibiofemoral osteoarthritis in young patients. However, for physically active patients with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, simultaneous HTO and ACL reconstruction is considered a salvage procedure. Controversy exists regarding the subjective and objective evaluations and the prevalence of complications.
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Curcumin attenuates acute inflammatory injury by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-?B signaling pathway in experimental traumatic brain injury.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to substantial neuronal damage and behavioral impairment, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of thiscascade. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that curcumin, a phytochemical compound with potent anti-inflammatory properties that is extracted from the rhizome Curcuma longa, alleviates acute inflammatory injury mediated by TLR4 following TBI.
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Effect of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 inoculum on construction of a bioaugmented system for tobacco wastewater treatment: analysis from quorum sensing.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To better construct a bioaugmented system for tobacco wastewater treatment, activated sludge was inoculated with different concentrations of the nicotine-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. HF-1. The results showed that inoculum concentrations of 0.55 ± 0.01 and 1.10 ± 0.03 mg/g (dry weight of strain HF-1/dry weight of activated sludge) were best to ensure strain HF-1 survival and successful bioaugmentation. The release pattern of autoinducer (AI) for quorum sensing in the bioaugmented system was also investigated. During the period of HF-1 inoculation, compared with failed bioaugmented systems, AI-2 was significantly increased in the successful systems, suggesting that AI-2-mediated bacterial communication played an important role in the colonization of HF-1. When inoculation of strain HF-1 was stopped, the amount of AI-2 decreased and leveled out in all systems. Notably, there was a greater than threefold increase of short-chain AHLs in failed bioaugmented systems, but no increase in successful ones, implying that the fluctuation of short-chain AHLs could be an indicator of the failure of bioaugmentation. Thus, AI-2-mediated quorum sensing could be implemented to facilitate HF-1 colonization.
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Acute anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an augmented remnant repair: a comparative macroscopic and biomechanical study in an animal model.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Our purpose was (1) to compare the structural integrity and healing capacity of the acutely repaired anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnants and (2) to determine whether the short-term postoperative biomechanical results of the acute remnant-repairing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) were superior to the conventional ACLR.
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Curcumin inhibits microglia inflammation and confers neuroprotection in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Much evidence demonstrates that microglia mediated neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the inflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the compounds that can inhibit neuroinflammation are greatly needed. In the current study, we examined whether curcumin, present in a Chinese medicinal plant, could prevent ICH induced microglia activation and confer protection against neurotoxicity. The cytokines of microglia were measured by ELISA, p38MAPK/PKC and NF-?B were measured by Western blot and EMSA. Microglial toxicity was assessed using MTT and FACS assays. And neurological function was evaluated by animal behavioristics. We found that curcumin prevented ICH-induced inflammatory molecules through NF-?B activation via the p38MAPK/PKC pathway in vitro. In addition, curcumin protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect toxicity mediated by ICH-treated microglia cells. Further, curcumin also attenuated ICH-induced neurological deficit and cerebral water content in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that curcumin could suppress ICH induced inflammatory injury and represent a novel herbal sources for ICH therapeutical strategy.
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Complement C5a is detrimental to histological and functional locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury in mice.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Based on the studies on the role of complements C3, C1q and factor B, we hypothesized that complement C5a is detrimental to locomotor recovery at the early stage of secondary injury after spinal cord injury (SCI). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of inhibition of complement C5a receptor (C5aR) by using C5aR antagonist PMX53 (C5aRA) and deficiency of complement C5a receptor (C5aR-/- mice) on histological and locomotor recovery after SCI in mice. We demonstrated that the Basso Mouse Scale scores in the mice injected with C5aRA (C5aRA-mice) at 45min before and 24h after SCI and the C5aR-/- mice were markedly higher than those in the mice treated with saline (Saline-mice) and the C5aR+/+ mice respectively between 7 and 28days after SCI. Also, expression of TNF-? and IL-1? in C5aRA-mice was significantly lower than that in Saline-mice from 1 to 24h after SCI. In addition, the percentage of microglia/macrophage in C5aRA mice and C5aR-/- mice was significantly lower than those in their corresponding control groups from 1 to 14days after SCI. Furthermore, C5aRA mice and C5aR-/- mice had less GFAP expression in the injured spinal cord epicenter as compared to Saline mice and C5aR+/+ mice at day 28 after SCI. These findings provided evidence that inhibition or deficiency of C5aR could significantly improve histological and functional locomotor recovery after SCI in mice.
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Specific control of BMP signaling and mesenchymal differentiation by cytoplasmic phosphatase PPM1H.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-? superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins that regulate a wide array of cellular functions. The key step in BMP signal transduction is the BMP receptor-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factors Smad1, 5, and 8 (collectively Smad1/5/8), which leads to the subsequent activation of BMP-induced gene transcription in the nucleus. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of PPM1H as a novel cytoplasm-localized Smad1/5/8-specific phosphatase. PPM1H directly interacts with Smad1/5/8 through its Smad-binding domain, and dephosphorylates phospho-Smad1/5/8 (P-Smad1/5/8) in the cytoplasm. Ectopic expression of PPM1H attenuates BMP signaling, whereas loss of PPM1H activity or expression greatly enhances BMP-dependent gene regulation and mesenchymal differentiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that PPM1H acts as a gatekeeper to prevent excessive BMP signaling through dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear exclusion of P-Smad1/5/8 proteins.
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Posterior tibial slope influences static anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a minimum 2-year follow-up study.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has recently been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries because of an associated increase in anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL loading. However, few studies concerning the correlation between PTS and postoperative ATT have been published.
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Impaired white-matter integrity in photosensitive epilepsy: a DTI study using tract-based spatial statistics.
J Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The present study was designed to map alterations in brain white-matter in photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) by applying tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis.
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Synthesis, characterization and in vitro and in vivo investigation of C3F8-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The present study aimed to prepare perfluoropropane (C3F8)-filled poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and investigate the feasibility of using PLGA nanoparticles as an ultrasound contrast agent. The PLGA nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent was prepared using a modified double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Camphor in the form of a sublimable porogen was added to render the nanoparticles hollow and enable C3F8 gas introduction. Various physicochemical properties of PLGA nanoparticles, including morphology, size and dispersion, were analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. In vitro ultrasound imaging of C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was also investigated under various imaging conditions. Further in vivo ultrasound imaging was conducted on male rats following intratesticular injection of PLGA nanoparticles. C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 152.0±58.08 nm were obtained. Electron microscopy revealed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with smooth surfaces, a capsular morphology and a large hollow within. In vitro ultrasound imaging of hollow PLGA nanoparticles indicated marked signal enhancement. Local intensity of the acoustical signal continued to increase during PLGA-nanoparticle injection into the testicle and the ability of hollow PLGA nanoparticles to enhance ultrasound imaging in vivo was demonstrated. The enhancement image of testicular tissue following injection with C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles was sustained for a minimum of five minutes. In conclusion, the hollow C3F8-filled PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have potential for applications as a novel ultrasound contrast agent.
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High-resolution ultrasonography for the diagnosis of brachial plexus root lesions.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using high-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis of brachial plexus (BP) root lesions. A prospective study of ultrasonographic evaluation of BP nerve roots was performed in 37 patients with BP root lesions (29 with root injuries, 8 with tumors). The pre-operative ultrasonographic findings were compared with the surgical and pathohistological findings. All C5-7 roots were detected by ultrasonography in all patients, whereas 92% (68/74) of C8 and 51% (38/74) of T1 nerve roots were visualized. Among 29 patients with BP root avulsion, partial injuries or totally interrupted BP roots were detected in all patients. Cystic masses and neuromas were detected in 16 and 23 patients, respectively. In 8 patients with BP root tumors, 8 hypo-echoic masses were detected inside or partly outside of intervertebral foramina connecting to nerve roots. Surgical exploration revealed that there were 57 BP root avulsions in 29 patients. However, 2 T1 nerve root avulsions had been missed by pre-operative ultrasonography. Pathohistology revealed that all 8 BP root tumors pre-operatively diagnosed by ultrasonography were schwannomas. High-resolution ultrasonography can provide a convenient and accurate imaging modality for quick diagnosis and location of BP root lesions.
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Imbalance of Ca2+ and K+ fluxes in C6 glioma cells after PDT measured with scanning ion-selective electrode technique.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) possesses the capacity to lead to death of C6 glioma in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Ca(2+) and K(+) homeostasis of C6 glioma cells were affected by PDT. C6 glioma cells were randomly divided into five groups: control group, Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) group (10 mg/l, without irradiation), PDT group (HpD 10 mg/l + irradiation), PDT&6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) group (HpD 10 mg/l + CNQX 50 mol/l + irradiation), and HpD&CNQX group (HpD 10 mg/l + CNQX 50 mol/l, without irradiation). Glioma cells in PDT and PDT&CNQX group were subjected to PDT. Cells in PDT&CNQX group were administered ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor antagonist CNQX prior to PDT on C6 glioma cells. The changes of Ca(2+) and K(+) fluxes were studied by using a non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). Morphology of C6 cells was observed with optical microscopy. PDT induced Ca(2+) influx and K(+) efflux significantly, which resulted in death of C6 cells. When AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist CNQX was applied, Ca(2+) influx and K(+) efflux were partly blocked up and viability of C6 cells increased. These results indicate that Ca(2+) influx and K(+) efflux may correlate with the treatment effects of PDT on C6 glioma cells.
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MRI appearances of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors: pathological correlation.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MRI features of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (MBOT).
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Trochleoplasty versus nontrochleoplasty procedures in treating patellar instability caused by severe trochlear dysplasia.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and postoperative complication rates between patients who underwent trochleoplasty or nontrochleoplasty procedures in treating patellar instability caused by severe trochlear dysplasia (STD).
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Smad3 signaling activates bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in renal fibrosis.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Recent studies have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived fibroblasts contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney are incompletely understood. As TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling has been shown to have an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis, we investigated the role of Smad3 in the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney following obstructive injury using Smad3-knockout mice and Smad3-null monocytes. Compared with wild-type mice, Smad3-knockout mice accumulated significantly fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney after obstructive injury. Furthermore, Smad3-knockout mice exhibited less myofibroblast activation and expressed less ?-SMA in the obstructed kidney. Consistent with these findings, genetic deletion of Smad3 reduced total collagen deposition and suppressed the expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Moreover, wild-type mice engrafted with Smad3(-/-) bone marrow cells displayed fewer bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney with obstructive injury and showed less severe renal fibrosis compared with wild-type mice engrafted with Smad3(+/+) bone marrow cells. In cultured monocytes, TGF-?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad3 deficiency abolished TGF-?1-induced expression of ?-SMA and extracellular matrix proteins. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Smad3 signaling has an essential role in the activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblasts in the kidney during the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis.
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Sustained activation of SMAD3/SMAD4 by FOXM1 promotes TGF-?-dependent cancer metastasis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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A key feature of TGF-? signaling activation in cancer cells is the sustained activation of SMAD complexes in the nucleus; however, the drivers of SMAD activation are poorly defined. Here, using human and mouse breast cancer cell lines, we found that oncogene forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) interacts with SMAD3 to sustain activation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex in the nucleus. FOXM1 prevented the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase transcriptional intermediary factor 1 ? (TIF1?) from binding SMAD3 and monoubiquitinating SMAD4, which stabilized the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex. Loss of FOXM1 abolished TGF-?-induced SMAD3/SMAD4 formation. Moreover, the interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 promoted TGF-?/SMAD3-mediated transcriptional activity and target gene expression. We found that FOXM1/SMAD3 interaction was required for TGF-?-induced breast cancer invasion, which was the result of SMAD3/SMAD4-dependent upregulation of the transcription factor SLUG. Importantly, the function of FOXM1 in TGF-?-induced invasion was not dependent on FOXM1's transcriptional activity. Knockdown of SMAD3 diminished FOXM1-induced metastasis. Furthermore, FOXM1 levels correlated with activated TGF-? signaling and metastasis in human breast cancer specimens. Together, our data indicate that FOXM1 promotes breast cancer metastasis by increasing nuclear retention of SMAD3 and identify crosstalk between FOXM1 and TGF-?/SMAD3 pathways. This study highlights the critical interaction of FOXM1 and SMAD3 for controlling TGF-? signaling during metastasis.
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TGF-? induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells requires integrated smad3 and MAPK pathways.
Am J Clin Exp Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) regulates the reactive stroma microenvironment associated with most carcinomas and mediates expression of many stromal derived factors important for tumor progression, including FGF-2 and CTGF. TGF-? is over-expressed in most carcinomas, and FGF-2 action is important in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The signaling mechanisms of how TGF-? regulates FGF-2 expression in the reactive stroma microenvironment are not understood. Accordingly, we have assessed key signaling pathways that mediate TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in prostate stromal fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) null for Smad2 and Smad3. TGF-?1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2, Smad3, p38 and ERK1/2 proteins in both control MEFs and prostate fibroblasts. Of these, Smad3, but not Smad2 was found to be required for TGF-?1 induction of FGF-2 expression in stromal cells. ChIP analysis revealed a Smad3/Smad4 complex was associated with the -1.9 to -2.3 kb upstream proximal promoter of the FGF-2 gene, further suggesting a Smad3-specific regulation. In addition, chemical inhibition of p38 or ERK1/2 MAPK activity also blocked TGF-?1-induced FGF-2 expression in a Smad3-independent manner. Conversely, inhibition of JNK signaling enhanced FGF-2 expression. Together, these data indicate that expression of FGF-2 in fibroblasts in the tumor stromal cell microenvironment is coordinately dependent on both intact Smad3 and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These pathways and key downstream mediators of TGF-? action in the tumor reactive stroma microenvironment, may evolve as putative targets for therapeutic intervention.
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Hypoxia Induces autophagic cell death through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? in microglia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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As phagocytic cells of central nervous system, excessive activation or cell death of microglia is involved in a lot of nervous system injury and degenerative disease, such as stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia upregulates HIF-1? expression leading to cell death of microglia. However, the exact mechanism of cell death induced by hypoxia in microglia is not clear. In the current study, we showed that hypoxia induced cell death and autophagy in microglia. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin A1) or RNA interference in essential autophagy genes (BECN1 and ATG5) decreased the cell death induced by hypoxia in microglia cells. Moreover, the suppression of HIF-1? using either pharmacologic inhibitors (3-MA, Baf A1) or RNA interference decreased the microglia death and autophagy in vitro. Taken together, these data indicate that hypoxia contributes to autophagic cell death of microglia through HIF-1?, and provide novel therapeutic interventions for cerebral hypoxic diseases associated with microglia activation.
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Zinc Finger Protein 451 is a novel Smad corepressor in Transforming Growth Factor-? signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Zinc Figure Protein 451 (ZNF451) is a transcriptional cofactor localized to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies. Here, we present evidence demonstrating that ZNF451 physically interacts with Smad3/4 and functionally inhibits TGF-? signaling. Increased expression of ZNF451 attenuates TGF-?-induced growth inhibitory and gene transcriptional responses, whereas depletion of ZNF451 enhances TGF-? responses. Mechanistically, ZNF451 blocks the ability of Smad3/4 to recruit p300 in response to TGF-?, which causes reduction of histone H3K9 acetylation on the promoters of TGF-? target genes. Taken together, ZNF451 acts as a transcriptional corepressor for Smad3/4 and negatively regulates TGF-? signaling.
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[Validity of a novel arthroscopic test to diagnose posterolateral rotational instability of the knee joint: the lateral gutter drive-through test].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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To assess the validity of the lateral gutter drive-through (LGDT) test in diagnosing posterolateral rotational instability (PLRI) of the knee joint.
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Cutting edge: Smad2 and Smad4 regulate TGF-?-mediated Il9 gene expression via EZH2 displacement.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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IL-9 is a proallergic cytokine produced by a newly proposed Th cell subset, Th9. Th9 cells can be generated by treatment of naive T cells with TGF-? and IL-4 in vitro. However, it is still not clear how TGF-? signaling regulates Th9 differentiation. In this study, we demonstrate that Smad2 and Smad4, two transcriptional factors activated by TGF-? signaling, are required for Th9 differentiation in vitro. Deficiency of Smad2 or Smad4 in T cells resulted in impaired IL-9 expression, which was coincident with enrichment of repressive chromatin modification histone H3 K27 trimethylation and enhanced EZH2 binding to the Il9 locus. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 partially rescued IL-9 production in Smad-deficient Th9 cells. Smad proteins may displace EZH2 directly from the Il9 locus, because Smad2 and Smad4 can bind EZH2. Our data shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying Th9 cell differentiation, revealing that the TGF-?-Smad2/4-signaling pathway regulates IL-9 production through an epigenetic mechanism.
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Diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography by combined qualitative and quantitative analysis in breast lesions: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography for differentiation of breast lesions by combined qualitative and quantitative analyses in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Controversies and evolving new mechanisms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Prog. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms "early brain injury" and "delayed brain injury" are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications.
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In vitro comparison of popliteus tendon and popliteofibular ligament reconstruction in an external rotation injury model of the knee: a cadaveric study evaluated by a navigation system.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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In posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries in which the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is intact, there is controversy about whether reconstructing the popliteus tendon (POP), the popliteofibular ligament (PFL), or both structures (POP + PFL) is required to restore normal external tibial rotation.
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Experiences and complications in endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Endovascular treatment is a promising therapeutic alternative for paraclinoid aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of endovascular treatment for these lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, results and complications of endovascular treatment of a series of 47 consecutive patients with paraclinoid aneurysms. Nineteen of these patients presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 28 patients were treated for unruptured aneurysms. Endovascular treatment was performed for 50 aneurysms in 47 patients including stent-assisted coiling (19), balloon-assisted coiling (five), coiling without adjunctive techniques (25) and stent alone (one). Technical failures occurred in two patients (one stent deployment failure due to unsuccessful distal access across the aneurysm neck and one coiling failure due to unsuccessful microcatheter navigation through the stent). Periprocedural complications were observed in six patients (12.8%), with permanent morbidity in one patient resulting from a thromboembolic event. Immediate complete occlusion was achieved in 36 aneurysms (72%). During follow up, enlargement of a partially occluded giant aneurysm was observed in one patient, which was treated with parent artery occlusion. No delayed hemorrhagic complications were seen in the remaining patients. Endovascular treatment is technically feasible and safe in most patients with paraclinoid aneurysm, with a low rate of procedural complications.
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Ossifying fibroma tumor stem cells are maintained by epigenetic regulation of a TSP1/TGF-?/SMAD3 autocrine loop.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Abnormal stem cell function makes a known contribution to many malignant tumors, but the role of stem cells in benign tumors is not well understood. Here, we show that ossifying fibroma (OF) contains a stem cell population that resembles mesenchymal stem cells (OFMSCs) and is capable of generating OF-like tumor xenografts. Mechanistically, OFMSCs show enhanced TGF-? signaling that induces aberrant proliferation and deficient osteogenesis via Notch and BMP signaling pathways, respectively. The elevated TGF-? activity is tightly regulated by JHDM1D-mediated epigenetic regulation of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), forming a JHDM1D/TSP1/TGF-?/SMAD3 autocrine loop. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling in OFMSCs can rescue their abnormal osteogenic differentiation and elevated proliferation rate. Furthermore, chronic activation of TGF-? can convert normal MSCs into OF-like MSCs via establishment of this JHDM1D/TSP1/TGF-?/SMAD3 autocrine loop. These results reveal that epigenetic regulation of TGF-? signaling in MSCs governs the benign tumor phenotype in OF and highlight TGF-? signaling as a candidate therapeutic target.
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Luminescent cyanoruthenate(II)-diimine and cyanoruthenium(II)-diimine complexes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To improve the emission and excited-state properties of luminescent cyanometalates, new classes of highly solvatochromic luminescent cyanoruthenium(II) and cyanoruthenate(II) complexes of the general formulae [Ru(PR3)2(CN)2(NN)] and K[Ru(PR3)(CN)3(NN)], respectively, were developed. These complexes could be readily synthesized through the ligand-substitution reaction of K2[Ru(CN)4(PR3)2] with a diimine ligand. The geometrical isomerism of these complexes was characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. Their photophysical properties, solvatochromism, and electrochemistry have also been investigated. Our detailed study showed that many of these complexes exhibited extremely environmentally sensitive emissions and significantly improved emission quantum efficiencies and lifetimes compared with the well-studied tetracyanoruthenate systems.
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Veteran internet use and engagement with health information online.
Mil Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Veterans represent a unique population in need of accessing health services online. Data from a random-digit dialed survey conducted by the Pew Research Centers Internet & American Life Project were used to assess differences in online use of health information among Veterans in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) of the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), Veterans not in VA, and non-Veterans. This survey of 3,001 U.S. citizens oversampled lower-income households. Questions assessed Veteran status and use of VA health care services, self-reported Internet use and Internet searching for health-related information, and social engagement related to health online. Overall results suggest Veterans represent an opportune population to utilize personal health records and health services via the Internet. Veterans in VA are more likely to search for health issues related to Alzheimers disease and memory loss (odds ratio = 3.07; confidence interval = 1.41-8.28) compared to Veterans not in VA. Veterans receiving VA health care also reported higher proportions of social engagement related to health about tracking diet, weight, and exercise than Veterans not in VA, although not statistically significant. Veterans in VA are using the Internet for health information, and there is an opportunity to engage them more.
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Immediate splenectomy down-regulates the MAPK-NF-?B signaling pathway in rat brain after severe traumatic brain injury.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a difficult process. One key to improving treatment efficacy is to reduce secondary brain injury. Local and systemic inflammatory responses play an important role in secondary injury after TBI, which if unchecked can lead to fatal cerebral edema. Previous studies focused mainly on local brain tissue, whereas little is known about the contribution of peripheral organs in the pathogenesis of TBI. We previously showed that immediate splenectomy decreases mortality and improves cognitive function in rats after severe TBI by inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines both systematically and locally in the injured brain. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effect of the spleen on local brain inflammation after TBI.
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Ischemic Stroke Predicts Myocardial Injury After Carotid Endarterectomy for Symptomatic Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis.
Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Myocardial injury following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, and its risk varies depending on the severity and extent of disease. However, when patients with sympotomatic severe carotid stenosis undergo CEA, the frequency and potential predictors of myocardial injury remain unknown. A total of 40 patients (32 men and 8 women) who underwent successful standard CEA were observed. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were assessed before surgery and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3 in all patients. Myocardial injury was defined as the peak cTnI concentration > 0.04 ng/mL. In all, 42.5% patients had postoperative myocardial injury. Previous ischemic stroke and abnormal ST-segment changes were the preoperative predictors of myocardial injury after CEA, with odds ratios of 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-16.1; P = .04) and 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-27.7; P = .04), respectively. Sympotomatic patients with those conditions should receive more attention to myocardial injury, when presented for CEA.
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Specific frequency band of amplitude low-frequency ?uctuation predicts Parkinsons disease.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been considered for development as a biomarker and analytical tool for evaluation of Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we utilized analysis of the amplitude low-frequency ?uctuations (ALFF) to determine changes in intrinsic neural oscillations in 72 patients with PD. Two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz) were analyzed. In the slow-5 band, PD patients compared with controls had increased ALFF values mainly in the caudate and several temporal regions, as well as decreased ALFF values in the cerebellum and the parieto-temporo-occipital cortex. Additionally, in the slow-4 band, PD patients relative to controls exhibited reduced ALFF value in the thalamus, cerebellum, and several occipital regions. Together, our data demonstrate that PD patients have widespread abnormal intrinsic neural oscillations in the corticostriatal network in line with the pathophysiology of PD, and further suggest that the abnormalities are dependent on speci?c frequency bands. Thus, frequency domain analyses of resting state BOLD signals may provide a useful means to study the pathophysiology of PD and the physiology of the brains dopaminergic pathways.
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Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.
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Endovascular treatment for large and giant fusiform aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar arteries.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Fusiform aneurysms of vertebrobasilar arteries pose great challenge to surgical and endovascular treatment, especially large and giant aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed our experiences and results of endovascular treatments for a series of 10 consecutive patients with large and giant fusiform aneurysms. Eight patients underwent stents placement (5 patients) or stent-assisted coiling (3 patients), and 2 patients underwent proximal occlusion of the parent arteries. Retreatment was needed in 2 patients. With the exception of 1 patient who died of rebleeding after sole stenting, the remaining 9 patients had good outcome. Reconstructive strategies using stents is a useful alternative for large and giant fusiform aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar arteries.
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Surgical treatment of subacute and chronic valgus instability in multiligament-injured knees with superficial medial collateral ligament reconstruction using Achilles allografts: a quantitative analysis with a minimum 2-year follow-up.
Am J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Symptomatic medial collateral ligament (MCL) instability is rare, and it is frequently associated with multiligament injuries. Most clinical investigations have failed to clearly define the specific objective outcome measures assessing the stability of the MCL quantitatively before and after the reconstruction procedure.
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The anterior cruciate ligament remnant: to leave it or not?
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The role of the anterior cruciate ligament remnant in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is debated. The purposes of this systematic review were (1) to summarize the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing remnant-preserving ACLR and (2) to investigate whether those outcomes were superior to standard ACLR.
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In vivo dynamic monitoring of the biological behavior of labeled C6 glioma by MRI.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Gliomas are the most common type of intracranial tumor and have the highest rate of mortality. The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term course and biological behavior of orthotopically implanted C6 gliomas and to dynamically monitor the distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanocomposite-labeled C6 glioma cells in rats using 7.0T MRI. We observed that in the MRI of the rats implanted with SPIO-labeled cells, there were pronounced hypointense signal bands, which faded over time, but remained visible up to day 27 after implantation. We observed that the first tumors were detected as early as 2 days after implantation, presenting as slightly hyperintense regions with indefinite boundaries in the T1-weighted images (T1WIs). On the 9th day, thick tumor feeder vessels, ~0.2 mm in diameter, were observed and these increased rapidly over time. Edema was observed in the labeled and unlabeled groups in the T2WIs. Both the central hypointense signal area and the peripheral cogwheel-shaped hypointense signal band in the tumor were observed on the post-contrast T1WIs, in accordance with the necrosis observed in the photomicrographs following hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In conclusion, labeling tumor cells with SPIO and performing an MRI scan dynamically monitors the development and biological behavior of glioma at a very early stage.
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Implantation of GL261 neurospheres into C57/BL6 mice: a more reliable syngeneic graft model for research on glioma-initiating cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators are indispensable components of the tumor-initiating cell (TIC) niche and regulate the malignant behavior of TICs. However, conventional animal models for glioma-initiating cell (GIC) studies are based on the implantation of GICs from human glioblastoma (GBM) into immunodeficient mice without the regulation of immune system. Whether animal models can mimic the cellular microenvironment of malignancy and evaluate the biological features of GICs accurately is unclear. Here, we detected the biological features of neurosphere-like tumor cells derived from the murine GBM cell line GL261 (GL261-NS) and from primary human GBM (PGBM-NS) in vitro, injected GL261-NS into syngeneic C57/BL6 mouse brain and injected PGBM-NS into NOD/SCID mouse brain, respectively. The tumorigenic characteristics of the two different orthotopic transplantation models were analyzed and the histological discrepancy between grafts and human primary GBM was compared. We found that GICs enriched in GL261-NS, GL261-NS and PGBM-NS exhibited increased GIC potential and enhanced chemoresistance in vitro. GL261-NS was significantly more aggressive compared to GL261 adhesive cells (GL261-AC) in vivo and the enhanced aggression was more significant in syngeneic mice compared to immunodeficient mice. The discrepancy of tumorigenicity between GL261-NS and GL261-AC in C57/BL6 mice was also larger compared to that between PGBM-NS and PGBM-AC in immunodeficient mice. Syngrafts derived from GL261-NS in C57/BL6 mice corresponded to the human GBM histologically better, compared with xenografts derived from PGBM-NS in NOD/SCID mice, which lack inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators. We conclude that the inflammatory niche is involved in the tumorigenicity of GICs and implantation of GL261-NS into C57/BL6 mice is a more reliable syngeneic graft model for in vivo study on GICs relative to the immunodeficiency model.
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Patient-provider secure messaging in VA: variations in adoption and association with urgent care utilization.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The Veterans Health Administration has implemented patient to clinical team electronic asynchronous secure messaging (SM). This disruptive technology has the potential to support continuous, coordinated quality care, but limited evidence supports this connection.
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Cortical gyrification reductions and subcortical atrophy in Parkinsons disease.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Previous morphometric studies of PD were mainly conducted by measuring gray matter volume and cortical thickness, and little attention has been paid to the morphology of the cortical surface.
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Validity of a novel arthroscopic test to diagnose posterolateral rotational instability of the knee joint: the lateral gutter drive-through test.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a newly developed arthroscopic test, termed the lateral gutter drive-through (LGDT) test, to diagnose posterolateral rotational instability (PLRI) of the knee joint.
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Superoxide mediates direct current electric field-induced directional migration of glioma cells through the activation of AKT and ERK.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Direct current electric fields (DCEFs) can induce directional migration for many cell types through activation of intracellular signaling pathways. However, the mechanisms that bridge extracellular electrical stimulation with intracellular signaling remain largely unknown. In the current study, we found that a DCEF can induce the directional migration of U87, C6 and U251 glioma cells to the cathode and stimulate the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the electrotaxis of glioma cells were abolished by the superoxide inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or overexpression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), but was not affected by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide through the overexpression of catalase. Furthermore, we found that the presence of NAC, as well as the overexpression of MnSOD, could almost completely abolish the activation of Akt, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, although only JNK and p38 were affected by overexpression of catalase. The presenting of specific inhibitors can decrease the activation of Erk1/2 or Akt as well as the directional migration of glioma cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that superoxide may play a critical role in DCEF-induced directional migration of glioma cells through the regulation of Akt and Erk1/2 activation. This study provides novel evidence that the superoxide is at least one of the "bridges" coupling the extracellular electric stimulation to the intracellular signals during DCEF-mediated cell directional migration.
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c-Cbl-mediated neddylation antagonizes ubiquitination and degradation of the TGF-? type II receptor.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is a potent antiproliferative factor in multiple types of cells. Deregulation of TGF-? signaling is associated with the development of many cancers, including leukemia, though the molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we show that Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), a known proto-oncogene encoding an ubiquitin E3 ligase, promotes TGF-? signaling by neddylating and stabilizing the type II receptor (T?RII). Knockout of c-Cbl decreases the T?RII protein level and desensitizes hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells to TGF-? stimulation, while c-Cbl overexpression stabilizes T?RII and sensitizes leukemia cells to TGF-?. c-Cbl conjugates neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8), a ubiquitin-like protein, to T?RII at Lys556 and Lys567. Neddylation of T?RII promotes its endocytosis to EEA1-positive early endosomes while preventing its endocytosis to caveolin-positive compartments, therefore inhibiting T?RII ubiquitination and degradation. We have also identified a neddylation-activity-defective c-Cbl mutation from leukemia patients, implying a link between aberrant T?RII neddylation and leukemia development.
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The possible reduction pathways of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by sulfide under simulated anaerobic conditions.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To predict the final fate of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its intermediates in an anaerobic fermentative solution containing reduced sulfur species and to provide a basis for the adoption of remediation methods, we investigated the pathways of TNT (TNT(0) = 50 mg/L) reduction by Na(2)S at 30 ± 1 °C in an acetic acid-sodium bicarbonate buffer. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to identify TNT metabolites at different reaction times. The law of growth and decline of TNT and its metabolites was determined with time. The LC/MS result, combined with the physicochemical characteristics of related products and information from the literature, indicated possible TNT conversion pathways. Sulfide can initiate both nitroreduction and denitration of TNT simultaneously. Nitroreduction led to the accumulation of primary intermediates 4-hydroxylaminodinitrotoluene and 4-aminodinitrotoluene, whereas denitration resulted in the production of unidentified substances with molecular weight less than that of TNT. Also, polyreaction between the above intermediates formed many unidentified substances. Humification was concluded to be the best choice for remediation of TNT-contaminated soil and water due to the formation of intermediates with stable, intact aromatic systems. However, the denitration pathway of TNT offered the possibility of mineralization.
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Growth of G422 glioma implanted in the mouse brain was affected by the immune ability of the host.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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It is generally accepted that gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. We aimed to explore the relationship of the immunity of the central nervous system and the genesis and development of glioma.
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[Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with remnant preservation: a prospective comparison study].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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To evaluate the clinical significance of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the remnant-preserved technique.
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Radical treatment strategies improve the long-term outcome of recurrent atypical meningiomas.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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Atypical meningioma is one of the rare subtypes of meningioma, which is lacking of optimal consensus on treatment strategies. This study aimed to investigate the radical treatment strategies to improve the long-term outcome of recurrent atypical meningiomas.
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Photodynamic therapy leads to death of C6 glioma cells partly through AMPAR.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2011
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Glioma cells release glutamate during growth, which promotes proliferation and migration of itself and causes excitotoxicity to the surrounding neurons by Ca(2+) influx through glutamate receptors. However, the role of glutamate and its receptors in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) on glioma cells is still unclear. Here we administered ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor (AMPAR) antagonist prior to PDT on C6 glioma cells. The changes of glutamate release, expression of AMPAR, apoptosis of C6 cells, and intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) were examined after PDT. We found that PDT increased extracellular glutamate and expression of AMPAR subunit GluR1 and GluR2, which might result in Ca(2+) influx and apoptosis of C6 cells. When AMPAR antagonist was added, intracellular free calcium reduced and apoptosis rate of C6 cells decreased. These results indicate that PDT may lead to death of C6 glioma cells partly through glutamate and its receptors AMPAR, which induces Ca(2+) influx and then cells apoptosis. This study allows us to further understand the effects and molecular mechanism of PDT on glioma.
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[Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament for recurrent patellar dislocation].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To investigate the procedure and effectiveness of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction for the treatment of recurrent patellar dislocation. METHODS; Between June 2005 and September 2007, 29 patients with recurrent patellar dislocation underwent MPFL reconstruction with allograft semitendinosus or allograft anterior tibialis tendon. There were 6 males and 23 females with an average age of 20.3 years (range, 13-45 years). The patients suffered from 2-10 times patellar dislocation preoperatively. The average time between last dislocation and surgery was 43.9 months (range, 1-144 months). CT scan was performed to measure the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG). The femoral tunnel was made at the origin of MPFL insertion, just inferior to the medial epicondyle. The double L-shape patellar tunnels were made on the medial rim of patella with 4.5 mm in diameter. The loop side of the graft was fixed with a bioabsorbable interference screw in the femoral tunnel both ends of the graft. For the TT-TG was more than 20 mm, a modified Elmslie-Trillat osteotomy was performed to correct the distal alignment of patella. The arthroscopic examination was also performed for loose body and lateral retinacular release.
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[Investigation and countermeasures analysis of catering waste in southern city in China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To find out a suitable way for catering food waste treatment, the waste characteristics from Chinese restaurant, Chinese canteen and western-style canteen in 4 seasons have been investigated. The results showed the average moisture content of the food waste was more than 60%, with more than 87% of VS/TS and the pH range of 4.64-6.98. The contents of organic components were high, the contents of fat and protein and carbohydrate were 16.98% - 38.92%, 6.58% - 11.65% and 46.27% - 68.28%, respectively. It implied the food waste could be easily bio-degraded. The salt content was 0.69% - 2.44%, with total P content of 0.13% - 0.30%. It suggested high content of salt could limit the efficiency of bio-degradation. Based on all above characteristics, separated collection and two-phase anaerobic digestion were considered to be a suitable ways for catering food waste treatment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.