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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Magnetron Sputtered Zinc Oxide Nanorods as Thickness-insensitive Cathode Interlayer for Perovskite Planar-heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Suitable electrode interfacial layers are essential to the high performance of perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells. In this letter we report magnetron sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) film as the cathode interlayer for methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cell. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrate that the sputtered ZnO films consist of c-axis aligned nanorods. The solar cells based on this ZnO cathode interlayer showed high short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Besides, the performance of the device is insensitive to the thickness of ZnO cathode interlayer. Considering the high reliability and maturity of sputtering technique both in lab and industry, we believe that the sputtered ZnO films are promising cathode interlayers for perovskite solar cells, especially in large-scale production.
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[Response rules of pressing pain on back section in Governor Vessel in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The response rules of pressing pain on the back section in the Governor Vessel in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were studied to provide references for the diagnosis and treatment of GERD. Seventy-six cases of GERD were included into an observation group while 30 healthy volunteers were recruited into a control group. A mechanical measurement device of pressing pain that could measure the pain threshold was adapted to observe the pressing pain on the back section in the Governor Vessel in GERD patients and healthy volunteers. The test area is from spinous process of the 1st thoracic vertebra to that of the 12th thoracic vertebra (T1 -T12), including acupoints and non-acupoints on the Governor Vessel. As a result, in the observation group the pain threshold of T5-T7 spinous process clearance, which was the location of Shendao (GV 11), Lingtai (GV 10) and Zhiyang (GV 9), was lower than that in the control group (all P < 0.05). This result indicated that there was significant pressing pain in T5-T7 spinous process clearance in patients with GERD, which could be taken as an important auxiliary diagnosis and a new thinking method in the treatment of GERD with acupuncture.
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Combined effects of six cytokine gene polymorphisms and SNP-SNP interactions on hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Southern Guangxi, China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the genesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesized that combined effects of cytokine gene SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions are associated with HCC risk. Six SNPs in cytokine genes (IL-2, IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10) were genotyped in a study of 720 Chinese HCC cases and 784 cancer-free controls. Although none of these SNPs individually had a significant effect on the risk of HCC, we found that the combined effects of these six SNPs may contribute to HCC risk (OR=1.821, 95% CI=1.078-3.075). This risk was pronounced among smokers, drinkers, and hepatitis B virus carriers. A SNP-SNP interaction between IL-2-330 and IFN-?-1615 was associated with an increased HCC risk (OR=1.078, 95% CI=1.022-1.136). In conclusion, combined effects of SNPs and SNP-SNP interactions in cytokine genes may contribute to HCC risk.
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Au Photosensitized TiO2 Ultrathin Nanosheets with {001} Exposed Facets.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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We report a general route for the direct growth of metal particles on TiO2 nanosheets with (001) exposed facets by an oxygen-vacancy-driven self-redox reaction. As there is no need for thermal treatment to remove stabilizing agents, the structure of the nanoparticles can be retained, preserving the active sites associated with high activity.
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Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.
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[Effects of controllable dynamic inhaled exposure of moxa smoke on LDL-r, ICAM-1 and morphology of heart tissue in rats].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To observe the change of lipid metabolism and vascular endothelium as well as morphology of heart tissue in rats who were long-time exposed to moxa smoke with different concentrations in order to provide reference for safety assessment of moxa smoke on cardiovascular system.
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[Rapid propagation system for tissure culture of Smilax glabra].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Establishing the rapid propagation for plant tissue culture of Smilax glabra in order to rationally protect and utilize the resource.
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Effects of SSd combined with radiation on inhibiting SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell growth.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Saikosaponin-d (SSd) combined with radiotherapy on SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and its mechanism.
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[Curative effect of Ruangan pills in treatment of schistosomiasis liver fibrosis].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To explore the efficacy, mechanism and safety of silibinin combined with Ruangan pills (a Chinese herbal preparation) in the treatment of schistosomiasis liver fibrosis.
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Electrochemical codeposition of vanadium oxide and polypyrrole for high-performance supercapacitor with high working voltage.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Electrochemical codeposition of vanadium oxide (V2O5) and polypyrrole (PPy) is conducted from vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and pyrrole in their aqueous solution to get V2O5-PPy composite, during which one-dimensional growth of polypyrrole (PPy) is directed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) are used to characterize the composite, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to investigate their morphologies. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP) for galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to study electrochemical activities and pseudocapacitive properties of the composite. The influences of VOSO4 to pyrrole ratio in the electro-codeposition solution on morphologies and pseudocapacitive properties of the composite are discussed. Due to the organic-inorganic synergistic effect, V2O5-PPy composite exhibits good charge-storage properties in a large potential window from -1.4 to 0.6 V vs SCE, with a specific capacitance of 412 F/g at 4.5 mA/cm(2). A model supercapacitor assembled by using the V2O5-PPy composite as the electrode materials displays a high operating voltage of 2 V and so a high energy density of 82 Wh/kg (at the power density of 800 W/kg).
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Polymeric nanoporous materials fabricated with supercritical CO2 and CO2-expanded liquids.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Both academia and industries have put great efforts into developing non-destructive technologies for the fabrication of polymeric nanoporous materials. Such non-destructive technologies developed with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs) have been attracting more and more attention because they have been demonstrated to be green and effective media for porous polymer preparation and processing. In this tutorial review, we present several such new technologies with scCO2 and CXLs, which have the capacity to prepare polymeric nanoporous materials with unique morphologies. The fabricated nanoporous polymers have significantly improved the performance of polymeric monoliths and films, and have found wide applications as templates, antireflection coatings, low-k materials, tissue engineering scaffolds and filtration membranes. This tutorial review also introduces the associated characterization methods, including the imaging, scattering and physisorption techniques.
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Formation of breath figure arrays in methanol vapor assisted by surface active agents.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Breath figure (BF) process is a promising technique for fabricating honeycomb polymer films. It is usually conducted in water vapor. While, in organic vapors only unique polymer can be used to prepare BF arrays as reported in our previous article (Breath Figure in Nonaqueous Vapor. Soft Matter, 2013, 506-514), although new structure features are induced in the film. In this paper, a universal modified BF processing is devised for preparing porous films in methanol vapor with conventional polymers, by adding a small amount of surface active agent into the casting solution, such as siloxane- and fluorine-containing block copolymers. The pores in the PS films prepared with this method are of cylindrical shape with large depth-diameter aspect ratio, and the diameter and depth of pores can be well controlled by the experiment conditions. Based on these results, the formation mechanism of honeycomb structure in methanol vapor is discussed.
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[Effect of deep electroacupuncture stimulation of "Huantiao" (GB 30) on changes of function and nerve growth factor expression of the injured sciatic nerve in rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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OBJECTIVE; To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Huantiao"(GB 30) on the functional and pathological changes and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression of the damaged sciatic nerve in rats, so as to study its mechanisms underlying reliving sciatica.
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[Determination of migration of 15 N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosatable substances from children's latex articles by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using solid phase extraction].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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A method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for the determination of 15 N-nitrosamines from children's latex articles. Artificial saliva was used as the migration solution to extract N-nitrosamines in children' s latex articles. And then a polar modified polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (Chromabond Easy) was used for the selective SPE of the analytes in the migration solution. The analytes were then separated on an HP-5MS UI GC column and determined by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Good linearity ranged from 5 microg/L to 2 000 microg/L was observed for all the compounds (R2 > 0.998) and the limits of quantification for the 15 N-nitrosamines were 0.625 - 12.50 microg/kg (S/N = 10), which were lower than the limits required by the EU 2009/48/EC Directive. The average recoveries of the target analytes at low, medium, and high spiked levels were in the ranges of 53.8% - 116.2%, 52.7% - 105.1% and 49.5% - 102.9%, respectively. The average within-day and between-day RSDs were from 1.3% to 14.0% (n = 6) and from 1.6% to 7.6% (n = 4), respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor N-nitrosamines in baby nipples and balloons, and N-nitrosamines were found in some samples. The total contents of the 15 N-nitrosamines in the analyzed nipples and balloons samples ranged from 0.049 9 mg/kg to 41.2 mg/kg. And the total contents of the N-nitrosatable substances in the analyzed samples ranged from 0.026 4 mg/kg to 12.5 mg/kg.
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[Extraction of total RNA and cloning of sgDHAR gene from Siraitia grosvenorii].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Abstract: Total RNA was isolated from Siraitia grosvenorii fruit by the method of modified Trizol, according to S. grosvenorii fruit characteristics of rich phenols, polysaccharide, oil and proteins. The OD260/280, OD260/230, RNA integrity (RIN) and yield of the total RNA with this method were 2.01, 2.02, 9.50 and 260 mirog.g-1, respectively. The open reading frame (ORF) of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), named as SgDHAR, was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR method from S. grosvenorii. The GenBank accession number for this gene is KC907731. The SgDHAR gene contains a full-length cDNA of 1,252 bp including ORF of 819 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 272 amino acids. The molecular mass is 30.217 7 kD and the isoelectric point is 8.76. Homology comparison showed that it shared 87% nucleotide sequence homology with Cucumis sativus. Expression patterns using qRT-PCR analysis showed that SgDHAR was mainly expressed in fruit and stem, followed by flower, and was lowest in root, while the expression level was 6.83 times in triploid. T than that in diploid. Therefore, SgDHAR gene may be involved in abortion of triploid seedless S. grosvenorii.
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Association between interleukin 10 gene polymorphisms and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To investigate the relationship between the interleukin 10 (IL10) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) -1082?G/A (rs1800896), -819?T/C (rs1800871) and -592?A/C (rs1800872) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.
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Role of cytokine gene polymorphisms on prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma after radical surgery resection.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether SNPs of cytokine genes influence survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radical surgery resection. We evaluated 14 SNPs of eight cytokine genes in 263 patients treated with radical surgery resection of HCC. Categorical variables were compared by the ?(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used to compare survival of resected HCC patients according to the genotype. Among the 14 studied SNPs of cytokine genes, only the TNF-?-863 (CA+CC) genotypes were revealed to be significant independent predictors of prolonged overall survival (OS) after HCC radical surgery resection (HR: 0.586, 95% CI: 0.355-0.968), considering for other clinical factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between the 14 SNPs and relapse-free survival (RFS) of resected HCC patients. In addition, combination analysis with the Th1 cytokine (IFN-?, IL-2, IL-12B, TGF-?1) or Th2 cytokine (IL-6, IL-10) genetic polymorphisms by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate analysis did not reveal any significant association between OS and RFS of resected HCC patients.
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Role of moxibustion in inflammatory responses during treatment of rat ulcerative colitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of moxibustion in ulcerative colitis (UC) rats from morphological, immunological and molecular biological perspectives.
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The up-regulation of miR-199b-5p in erythroid differentiation is associated with GATA-1 and NF-E2.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important roles in normal hematopoiesis, including erythropoiesis. Although studies have identified several miRNAs that regulate erythroid commitment and differentiation, we do not understand the mechanism by which the crucial erythroid transcription factors, GATA-1and NF-E2 directly regulate and control differentiation via miRNA pathways. In this study, we identified miR-199b-5p as a key regulator of human erythropoiesis, and its expression was up-regulated during the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. Furthermore, the increase of miR-199b-5p in erythroid cells occurred in a GATA-1- and NF-E2-dependent manner during erythrocyte maturation. Both GATA-1 and NF-E2 bound upstream of the miR-199b gene locus and activated its transcription. Forced expression of miRNA-199b-5p in K562 cells affected erythroid cell proliferation and maturation. Moreover, we identified c-Kit as a direct target of miR-199b-5p in erythroid cells. Taken together, our results establish a functional link among the erythroid transcription factors GATA-1/NF-E2, miR-199b-5p and c-Kit, and provide new insights into the coupling of transcription and post-transcription regulation in erythroid differentiation.
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Rechallenge with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy improves the survival of patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Rechallenge chemotherapy with pemetrexed was shown to be efficient in malignant pleural mesothelioma; however, its role in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been investigated. In this study, we retrospectively enrolled 31 patients with non-squamous NSCLC who had achieved disease control with initial pemetrexed treatment, followed by rechallenge with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (PBC) upon disease progression. After the rechallenge, 5 patients (16.1%) achieved partial remission (PR), 17 (54.8%) achieved stable disease (SD) and 9 (29.1%) experienced progressive disease. The treatment was generally well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.8 months with the rechallenge. Patients with a PFS of ?10 months with initial PBC exhibited longer PFS and overall survival (OS) with the rechallenge compared to those with a PFS of <10 months with initial PBC (PFS: 6.2±0.33 vs. 3.1±0.26 months, respectively; P=0.011; and OS, 19.8±3.2 vs. 9.2±1.1 months, respectively; P=0.005). The time from the termination of initial PBC to disease progression was also associated with survival after the rechallenge. However, the response to initial PBC (PR vs. SD) did not affect PFS after the rechallenge. No significant differences were observed in thymidylate synthase expression, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene fusion, or epithelial growth factor receptor mutation status between pemetrexed-sensitive and pemetrexed-resistant patients. Our results demonstrated that rechallenge with PBC was well tolerated and survival after the rechallenge was associated with survival during initial PBC. Therefore, patients with a PFS of ?10 months or time-to-disease progression ?3 months may be considered as candidates for pemetrexed rechallenge.
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Synaptotagmin 7 functions as a Ca2+-sensor for synaptic vesicle replenishment.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Synaptotagmin (syt) 7 is one of three syt isoforms found in all metazoans; it is ubiquitously expressed, yet its function in neurons remains obscure. Here, we resolved Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent synaptic vesicle (SV) replenishment pathways, and found that syt 7 plays a selective and critical role in the Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. Mutations that disrupt Ca(2+)-binding to syt 7 abolish this function, suggesting that syt 7 functions as a Ca(2+)-sensor for replenishment. The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has also been implicated in SV replenishment, and we found that loss of syt 7 was phenocopied by a CaM antagonist. Moreover, we discovered that syt 7 binds to CaM in a highly specific and Ca(2+)-dependent manner; this interaction requires intact Ca(2+)-binding sites within syt 7. Together, these data indicate that a complex of two conserved Ca(2+)-binding proteins, syt 7 and CaM, serve as a key regulator of SV replenishment in presynaptic nerve terminals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01524.001.
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Corneal biomechanical assessment using corneal visualization scheimpflug technology in keratoconic and normal eyes.
J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Purpose. To compare the corneal biomechanical properties of keratoconic patients and age-matched controls using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST). Methods. Sixty keratoconic eyes from 47 keratoconus patients and 60 normal eyes from 60 controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Tomography and biomechanical parameters of all eyes were obtained with the Pentacam and Corvis ST, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Results. The tomography and biomechanical parameters of the keratoconic corneas were significantly different from those of the normal corneas except for the anterior chamber angle, first applanation length, the highest concavity time, and peak distance. The deformation amplitude was the best predictive parameter (area under the curve: 0.882), with a sensitivity of 81.7%, although there was a significant overlap between keratoconic and normal corneas that ranged from 1.0 to 1.4?mm. In both the keratoconus and control groups, the deformation amplitude was negatively correlated with intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and corneal volume at 3 and 5?mm. Conclusions. Corvis ST offers an alternative method for measuring corneal biomechanical properties. The possibility of classifying keratoconus based on deformation amplitude deserves clinical attention.
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Linker mutations reveal the complexity of synaptotagmin 1 action during synaptic transmission.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The Ca(2+) sensor for rapid synaptic vesicle exocytosis, synaptotagmin 1 (syt), is largely composed of two Ca(2+)-sensing C2 domains, C2A and C2B. We investigated the apparent synergy between the tandem C2 domains by altering the length and rigidity of the linker that connects them. The behavior of the linker mutants revealed a correlation between the ability of the C2 domains to penetrate membranes in response to Ca(2+) and to drive evoked neurotransmitter release in cultured mouse neurons, uncovering a step in excitation-secretion coupling. Using atomic force microscopy, we found that the synergy between these C2 domains involved intra-molecular interactions between them. Thus, syt function is markedly affected by changes in the physical nature of the linker that connects its tandem C2 domains. Moreover, the linker mutations uncoupled syt-mediated regulation of evoked and spontaneous release, revealing that syt also acts as a fusion clamp before the Ca(2+) trigger.
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Formation of protein sub-visible particles during vacuum degassing of etanercept solutions.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The main purpose of this manuscript is to describe a phenomenon in which vacuum degassing a reconstituted freeze-dried fusion protein etanercept formulation caused a significant amount of protein sub-visible particles (SbVP). Physical stability of etanercept was monitored by micro-flow imaging (MFI), dynamic light scattering (DLS), size-exclusion high pressure liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and far- and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (far- and near-UV CD). One potential explanation of this phenomenon is that bubble collapses when the vacuum is applied, leads to substantial heat formation, and ultimately free radical formation. Subsequently, the effect of a free-radical scavenger (ascorbic acid, AA) on SbVP formation was also evaluated. Degassing of etanercept solution by applying vacuum caused substantial increase of SbVP, as detected by MFI and DLS. However, traditional techniques such as SE-HPLC could not detect any change. The addition of free-radical scavenger had minimal effect on SbVP formation, therefore the formation of free radicals was probably not the main cause for this effect.
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Insulin therapy and colorectal cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Insulin is widely used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). More attention was focused on its higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This meta-analysis examined the relationship between levels of insulin use and the risk of CRC.
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Prevalence and burden of headache disorders in two neighboring provinces of China.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To our knowledge, studies concerning the prevalence and burden of primary headache in China are limited to specific regions without comparison of different districts. A survey in a different area with similar climate and culture may enhance our knowledge of the factors causing primary headache and the burden of headache. We conducted a 1 year survey on the prevalence and burden of primary headache in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Our study also evaluated the factors behind similarities and differences affecting prevalence in the two regions of study. The survey methodology, which was used in an Expanded Program on Immunization by the World Health Organization, was adopted to investigate the prevalence and burden of headache patients. Random samples of 372 local residents in Guangdong and 182 local residents in Guangxi aged 18-65 years were invited to a face-to-face interview. The education level and mean household income were higher in Guangdong (p<0.05). The 1 year prevalence of primary headache was 22.6% (84/372) in Guangdong and 41.2% (75/182) in Guangxi (p<0.001). The average financial burden of primary headache is 2.1% and 3.7% of the mean household income in Guangdong and Guangxi, respectively (p=0.001). The district with lower economic status had a higher prevalence of primary headache, and inevitably bears a heavier burden even with the same disease cost.
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Surveillance of pathogens causing gastroenteritis and characterization of norovirus and sapovirus strains in Shenzhen, China, during 2011.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and it is primarily caused by rotaviruses (RVs), astroviruses (AstVs), adenoviruses (AdVs), noroviruses (NoVs), and sapoviruses (SaVs). In this study, we determined the distribution of viral gastroenteritis and human calicivirus (HuCVs) in acute gastroenteritis patients in Shenzhen, China, during 2011. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus (NoV), group A rotavirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV), and astrovirus (AstV). From a total of 983 fecal samples, NoV was detected in 210 (21.4 %); RoV in 173 (17.6 %); AstV in 10 (1.0 %); and AdV in 15 (1.5 %). Mixed infections involving two NoVs were found in 21 of the 387 pathogen-positive stool specimens. NoV and SaV genotypes were further tested using RT-PCRs and molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were then performed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region for NoV and a conserved nucleotide sequence in the capsid gene for SaV. Of the 68 typed strains that were sequenced and genotyped, five were NoV G1 (7.5 %) and 63 were NoV GII (96.6 %). GII strains were clustered into five genotypes, including GII.4 (65.1 %; 36 GII.4 2006b and five GII.4 New Orleans), GII.3 (28.6 %), GII.2 (3.2 %), GII.6 (1.6 %), and GII.1 (1.6 %). While all fecal specimens were tested for SaVs, 15 (1.5 %) were positive, and of these, 12 isolates belonged to G1.2, and the remaining three SaV strains belonged to the SaV GII genogroup. Although various HuCVs were detected in acute gastroenteritis patients, NoV GII.4 2006b was more prevalent than the other HuCVs.
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The Influence of "wuqinxi" exercises on the Lumbosacral Multifidus.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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[Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ?exion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1?year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1?year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1?year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The "wuqinxi" exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain.
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Saikosaponin-D Enhances Radiosensitivity of Hepatoma Cells under Hypoxic Conditions by Inhibiting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1?.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Background: Our previous study revealed that the combination of Saikosaponin-d ( SSd) and radiation is more effective in the treatment of liver cancer than the application of either of these monotherapeutic methods. However, the molecular mechanisms of the radiosensitizing effect of SSd on liver cancer remained ill defined. Methods: Cells were treated with different interventions; afterward, cell viability, apoptosis, and cell survival of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 hepatoma cells were examined. Xenograft tumor models were established by subcutaneously injecting SMMC-7721 cells. The molecular mechanism was assessed by western blot. Results: SSd dose-dependently increased radiosensitivity of hepatoma cells under hypoxic condition. The growth inhibitory effect of the combined treatment was correlated with cell apoptosis. Further mechanistic analysis indicated that SSd induced the upregulation of p53 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2 by attenuating HIF-1? expression under hypoxic condition. These effects were enhanced when the HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478 was introduced. In vivo data also presented a more significant suppression of tumor xenograft growth from the combined therapy than from either of the monotherapeutic methods. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence for a radiosensitizing effect of SSd on hepatoma cells under hypoxic conditions by inhibiting HIF-1? expression. Thus, SSd can be used as a potential sensitizer in hepatoma radiotherapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Quantification and Dynamic Monitoring of EGFR T790M in Plasma Cell-Free DNA by Digital PCR for Prognosis of EGFR-TKI Treatment in Advanced NSCLC.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), about 50% carry the T790M mutation, but this frequency in EGFR-TKI-naïve patients and dynamic change during therapy remains unclear. This study investigated the quantification and dynamic change of T790M mutation in plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) of advanced NSCLC patients to assess the clinical outcomes of EGFR-TKI therapy.
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Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7) enhances EGF receptor-AKT signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7) is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and so is a potential biomarker for malignancy. Indeed, previous studies have shown that high EGFL7 expression promotes infiltration and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the metastatic cascade and endows cancer cells with invasive and migratory capacity; however, it is not known if EGFL7 promotes metastasis by triggering EMT. We found that EGFL7 was overexpressed in multiple human gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and that overexpression promoted cell invasion and migration as revealed by scratch wound and transwell migration assays. Conversely, shRNA-mediated EGFL7 knockdown reduced invasion and migration. Furthermore, EGFL7-overexpressing cells grew into larger tumors and were more likely to metastasize to the liver compared to underexpressing CG cells following subcutaneous injection in mice. EGFL7 overexpression protected GC cell lines against anoikis, providing a plausible mechanism for this enhanced metastatic capacity. In excised human gastric tumors, expression of EGFL7 was positively correlated with expression levels of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the EMT-associated transcription repressor Snail, and negatively correlated with expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. In GC cell lines, EGFL7 knockdown reversed morphological signs of EMT and decreased both vimentin and Snail expression. In addition, EGFL7 overexpression promoted EGF receptor (EGFR) and protein kinase B (AKT) phospho-activation, effects markedly suppressed by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478. Moreover, AG1478 also reduced the elevated invasive and migratory capacity of GC cell lines overexpressing EGFL7. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that EGFL7 promotes metastasis by activating EMT through an EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling pathway. Disruption of EGFL7-EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling may a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.
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Preparation and characterization of a novel aspirin derivative with anti-thrombotic and gastric mucosal protection properties.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASP) is limited by its adverse effects, especially the effect on the gastric mucosa. To address this problem, we synthesized a derivative form of ASP, prepared by modification of ASP with nano-hydroxyapatite (a kind of inorganic particle containing Ca(2+)). The derivative was named Ca-ASP. Structural study showed that Ca-ASP was a kind of carboxylate containing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Rats given a high dose of Ca-ASP (5 mmol per kg body weight) showed similar anti-thrombotic activity as those given the same dose of ASP, but had much lower gastric mucosal damage than ASP (UI: 2 versus UI: 12.5). These rats also showed reduced expression of COX-2, but their COX-1 expression was similar to that of control rats, but significantly higher than that of ASP-administered rats. Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was up-regulated in Ca-ASP-administered rats compared to ASP-administered rats. Taken together, the results showed that Ca-ASP possessed similar antithrombotic activity as ASP but without the side effect associated with ASP, and the underlying mechanism may center on inhibiting COX-2 without inhibiting COX-1, and thus favouring the production of PGE2, the prostaglandin that plays a vital role in the suppression of platelet aggregation and thrombosis, as well as in the repair of gastric damage.
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Reproducible copy number variation patterns among single circulating tumor cells of lung cancer patients.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) enter peripheral blood from primary tumors and seed metastases. The genome sequencing of CTCs could offer noninvasive prognosis or even diagnosis, but has been hampered by low single-cell genome coverage of scarce CTCs. Here, we report the use of the recently developed multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles for whole-genome amplification of single CTCs from lung cancer patients. We observed characteristic cancer-associated single-nucleotide variations and insertions/deletions in exomes of CTCs. These mutations provided information needed for individualized therapy, such as drug resistance and phenotypic transition, but were heterogeneous from cell to cell. In contrast, every CTC from an individual patient, regardless of the cancer subtypes, exhibited reproducible copy number variation (CNV) patterns, similar to those of the metastatic tumor of the same patient. Interestingly, different patients with the same lung cancer adenocarcinoma (ADC) shared similar CNV patterns in their CTCs. Even more interestingly, patients of small-cell lung cancer have CNV patterns distinctly different from those of ADC patients. Our finding suggests that CNVs at certain genomic loci are selected for the metastasis of cancer. The reproducibility of cancer-specific CNVs offers potential for CTC-based cancer diagnostics.
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[Identification of mutation in PAX9 gene in a Mongolian family with non-syndromic oligodontia].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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To investigate the mutation in transcription factor paired box gene PAX9 in a mongolian family with non-syndromic oligodontia.
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Activin signaling targeted by insulin/dFOXO regulates aging and muscle proteostasis in Drosophila.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Reduced insulin/IGF signaling increases lifespan in many animals. To understand how insulin/IGF mediates lifespan in Drosophila, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis with the insulin/IGF regulated transcription factor dFOXO in long-lived insulin/IGF signaling genotypes. Dawdle, an Activin ligand, is bound and repressed by dFOXO when reduced insulin/IGF extends lifespan. Reduced Activin signaling improves performance and protein homeostasis in muscles of aged flies. Activin signaling through the Smad binding element inhibits the transcription of Autophagy-specific gene 8a (Atg8a) within muscle, a factor controlling the rate of autophagy. Expression of Atg8a within muscle is sufficient to increase lifespan. These data reveal how insulin signaling can regulate aging through control of Activin signaling that in turn controls autophagy, representing a potentially conserved molecular basis for longevity assurance. While reduced Activin within muscle autonomously retards functional aging of this tissue, these effects in muscle also reduce secretion of insulin-like peptides at a distance from the brain. Reduced insulin secretion from the brain may subsequently reinforce longevity assurance through decreased systemic insulin/IGF signaling.
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Poly(dimethylsiloxane) oil absorbent with a three-dimensionally interconnected porous structure and swellable skeleton.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Cleanup of oil spills is a worldwide challenge to prevent serious environmental pollution. A new kind of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil absorbent with high absorption capacity and excellent reusability was prepared and used for oil/water separation. The preparation process of PDMS oil absorbents involves direct curing of a PDMS prepolymer in a p-xylene solution in the presence of commercial sugar particles, which is simple and economic. PDMS oil absorbents have interconnected pores and a swellable skeleton, combining the advantages of porous materials and gels. Absorption capacities of PDMS oil absorbents are 4-34 g/g for various oils and organic solvents, which are 3 times that reported previously. Owing to their hydrophobicity and oleophilicity, the as-obtained PDMS oil absorbents can selectively collect oils or organic solvents from water. The absorption process can be finished within tens of seconds. Furthermore, the absorbed oils or organic solvents can be recovered by compressing the oil absorbents, and after 20 absorbing/recovering cycles, PDMS oil absorbents show little loss of their absorption capacities and own weights.
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Nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides aerial parts and its constituent compounds against Meloidogyne incognita.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Hydrodistilled essential oil from Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim. (Ericaceae) aerial parts was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 42 compounds, accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were benzyl acetone (34.41%), nerolidol (10.19%), 1,4-cineole (8.41%), beta-caryophyllene (5.63%), gamma-elemene (5.10%), and spathulenol (3.06%). Four constituents were isolated from the essential oil based on fractionation. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides possessed nematicidal activity against the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with an LC50 value of 130.11 microg/ml. The main compound of the essential oil, benzyl acetone, exhibited nematicidal activity against M. incognita with an LC50 value of 74.17 microg/ml while 1,4-cineole, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene were not nematicidal at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides and benzyl acetone show potential for their development as possible natural nematicides for the control of the root knot nematode.
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[Determination of dioxane residue in cosmetics by isotope dilution-headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A comprehensive analytical method based on isotope dilution-headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of dioxane residue in the cosmetics. Cosmetic sample (2 g) was placed in a headspace vial. Then, 1 g sodium chloride, 1 mL d8-dioxane solution (20 mg/L) and 9 mL water were added. The vial was sealed and heated at 70 degrees C for 40 min. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out for the analyte in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode after the chromatographic separation on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for dioxane was 2.5 mg/kg. The mean recoveries were 90.5% - 104.0% at the spiked levels of 2.5 - 50 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations in the range of 1.26% - 3.98%. The method is accurate, simple, rapid, and applicable for the inspection of dioxane residue in cosmetics.
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[Simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography and verification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight furocoumarines (8-hydroxypsoralen, psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin) in cosmetics. The cosmetic samples, including cream, lotion, shampoo, powder and lipstick, were supersonically extracted with appropriate solvents. The extract was centrifuged, and the supernatant was filtered through a membrane, and then separated on an Agilent Zorbax SB-Phenyl chromatographic column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with methanol-acetonitrile-water as mobile phases. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The wavelength of detection was 250 nm. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.25 mg/kg for 8-hydroxypsoralen and 0.5 mg/kg for psoralen, isopsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, trioxsalen, imperatorin and isoimperatorin. The recoveries at three spiked levels were in the range of 85.0% - 105.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.41% - 7.90%. The intra-day precision (n=6) was less than 1%, and the inter-day precision (n = 6) was less than 2% for the peak areas of the eight furocoumarines in a mixed standard solution. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and suitable for the determination of the eight furocoumarines in various cosmetic samples.
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[Research of potassium flow and circulation based on substance flow analysis].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Mass of potassium is consumed in the process of crop production, which is the dominating section of potassium flow and circulation in China. However, the degree of self-sufficiency is relatively low due to the deficient domestic resource of potassium. This study analyzed the key links of potassium issues in crop production and consumptive use in 2009 based on substance flow analysis. The results indicated that the farmland nutrient balance of input/output couldnt make even, with a heavy deficit of 50.4 kg x hm(-2) at the national level. Meanwhile, about 2.31 million ton of potash fertilizer was washed away into the hydrologic cycle, which accounts for 40.97% of chemical fertilizer applied in the whole year. Domestic wastewater in urban and rural areas was identified as another primary source for the transformation of potassium from terrestrial ecosystem to water environment system, annually contributing 671 and 547 thousand tons, which takes up 19.00% and 15.50%, respectively. And the amount of potassium in effluent of wastewater treatment plants was 505 thousand tons per year, accounting for 75.25% of the total emission in urban areas.
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PIK3CA mutation in Chinese patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To investigate PIK3CA mutation in Chinese patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and explore their relationship with clinicopathological profiles.
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[Relative factors of expectant management of ectopic pregnancy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To analyze select patients of ectopic pregnancy for expectant management.
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[Prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To identify potential prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).
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Construction of Self-Supported Three-Dimensional TiO2 Sheeted Networks with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The degradation of toxic gases and liquids using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal method, compared with landfill and combustion methods. The search for active semiconductor photocatalysts that efficiently decompose contaminations under light irradiation remains one of the most challenging tasks for solar-energy utilization. In this work, free-supporting three-dimensional (3D) nanosheeted hierarchical porous tungsten, titanium, and tin oxide networks were obtained by a facile Lewis acid catalytic binary template route. These networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter-sized) and hierarchical macro/mesoporous nanostructure with high surface area and large pore volume. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the nanosheets-constructed hierarchical porous networks have high photocatalytic activity and stability. The present synthetic route can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D layered porous nanostructures.
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Anti-tumor activity evaluation of novel chrysin-organogermanium(IV) complex in MCF-7 cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxylflavone, Chry) is a natural product extracted from plants, honey, and propolis. In this work, a novel chrysin-organogermanium(IV) complex (Chry-Ge) with enhanced anticancer activities was synthesized, and its potential anticancer effects against cancer cells were measured using various methods. MTT results showed that Chry-Ge had significant inhibition effects on the proliferation of MCF-7, HepG2 and Colo205 human cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner while had little cytotoxic effects on MCF-10A human normal cells (MCF-10A cells) with the same treatment of Chry-Ge. These results suggested that Chry-Ge possessed enhanced anticancer effects and high selectivity between cancer cells and normal cells. The immuno-staining results showed that the nuclei of MCF-7 cells represented a total fragmented morphology and a disorganized cytoskeletal network in MCF-7 cells after Chry-Ge treatment. Besides, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to detect the changes of ultrastructural and biomechanical properties of MCF-7 cellular membrane induced by Chry-Ge. The AFM data indicated that Chry-Ge treatment directly caused the decrease of cell rigidity and adhesion force of MCF-7 cells, suggesting that membrane toxicity might be one of the targets for Chry-Ge in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the fluorescence-based flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that Chry-Ge could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway. All results collectively showed that Chry-Ge could be as a promising anticancer drug for cancer therapy.
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Saikosaponin-d increases the radiosensitivity of smmc-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells by adjusting the g0/g1 and g2/m checkpoints of the cell cycle.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Saikosaponin-d (SSd), a monomer terpenoid purified from the Chinese herbal drug Radix bupleuri, has multiple effects, including anticancer properties. However, the effect of SSd on tumors exposed to radiation is largely unknown. To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of SSd and its possible mechanism, we combined SSd with radiation therapy to treat SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells under oxia and hypoxia.
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Enhanced antioxidant effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and Trolox in combination against radiation induced-oxidative stress.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Combinations of antioxidants are believed to be more effective than single antioxidant because when antioxidants are combined they support each other synergistically to create a magnified effect. Discovering the enhancer effects or synergies between bioactive components is valuable for resisting oxidative stress and improving health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible cooperation of natural antioxidant caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) with synthetic antioxidant Trolox in the model systems of chemical generation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation of microsomes and radiation-induced oxidative injury in L929 cells. Based on the intermolecular interaction between CAPE and Trolox, the present study shows a synergistic effect of CAPE and Trolox in combination on elimination of three different free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation initiated by three different systems. CAPE and Trolox added simultaneously to the L929 cells exerted an enhanced preventive effect on the oxidative injury induced by radiation through decreasing ROS generation, protecting plasma membrane and increasing the ratios of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione and the expression of key antioxidant enzymes mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our results showed for the first time that administration of CAPE and Trolox in combination may exert synergistic antioxidant effects, and further indicate that CAPE and Trolox combination functions mainly through scavenging ROS directly, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and promoting redox cycle of GSH mediated by Nrf2-regulated glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase expression.
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Immunogenicity and safety of three 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults: a double-blind and randomized trial.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (?60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.
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Determination of 48 fragrance allergens in toys using GC with ion trap MS/MS.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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This paper presents a method for the simultaneous determination of 48 fragrance allergens in four types of toys (plastic toys, play clays, plush toys, and paper toys) based on GC with ion trap MS/MS. Compared with single-stage MS, MS/MS is superior in terms of the qualification and quantification of a large range of compounds in complicated matrices. Procedures for extraction and purification were optimized for each toy type. The method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentrations for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0.9768 and 0.9999. Validation parameters, namely, LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.005-5.0 and from 0.02-20 mg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries of target compounds (spiked at three concentration levels) were in the range of 79.5-109.1%. Intraday and interday repeatabilities of the proposed method varied from 0.7-10.5% and from 3.1-13.4%, respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor fragrance allergens in commercial toy products. Our findings indicate that this method is an accurate and effective technique for analyzing fragrance allergens in materials composed of complex components.
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[Restore of the ancient "moxibustion the pulse" method].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The manipulation of ancient "moxibustion the pulse" method are replicated and discussed through literature review. It turned out that the old year moxa was the best material for moxibustion in ancient times because of its mild heat power and uninjurious to the skin or blood and vessels; it was believed by the ancient people that the ideal fire to light moxa which could play the curative effect best was "sunfire" (lighted through the bronze concave mirror focussing) while the prohibited were "eight kinds of wood fire"; the moxibustion area were the convergence of the pulse on limb ends. The way to determine the time and amount of moxibustion were various, but in general the moxa amount was larger; still after moxibustion, proper exercise and diet were recommended, the nursing methods of the moxibustion sore were recorded. In ancient times, moxibustion was not only a treatment method but also an unique culture carrier to reflect the faith and worship.
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Clinical outcomes of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a retrospective analysis of 142 cases.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCCE) is a rare and distinctive tumor with no standard treatment. This study aimed to explore treatment in relation to prognosis of the disease.
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Randomized controlled trial of zoledronic acid for treatment of osteoporosis in women.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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To assess the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk at the L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral neck, hip and trochanter in Chinese women with osteoporosis.
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Simultaneous DNA amplification and detection using a pH-sensing semiconductor system.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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We developed an integrated chip for real-time amplification and detection of nucleic acid using pH-sensing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we show an amplification-coupled detection method for directly measuring released hydrogen ions during nucleotide incorporation rather than relying on indirect measurements such as fluorescent dyes. This is a label-free, non-optical, real-time method for detecting and quantifying target sequences by monitoring pH signatures of native amplification chemistries. The chip has ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors, temperature sensors, resistive heating, signal processing and control circuitry all integrated to create a full system-on-chip platform. We evaluated the platform using two amplification strategies: PCR and isothermal amplification. Using this platform, we genotyped and discriminated unique single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants of the cytochrome P450 family from crude human saliva. We anticipate this semiconductor technology will enable the creation of devices for cost-effective, portable and scalable real-time nucleic acid analysis.
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[Analysis of distribution and pathological characteristics of 9 fatal trichinosis cases in Yunnan].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To explore forensic pathology features of the fatal trichinosis cases and to summarize the population distribution characteristics of trichinosis in Yunnan.
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Breath figure arrays: unconventional fabrications, functionalizations, and applications.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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A breath figure (BF) is the water droplet array that forms when moisture comes in contact with a cold substrate. This water droplet array has been widely utilized in the past two decades as a versatile soft template for the fabrication of polymeric porous films. Accordingly, the ordered pores on the polymer films formed with such a method are named a breath figure array (BFA).The BF templating technique is undergoing rapid development. Several unconventional BF processes have been established to prepare porous films with unique morphologies or primary materials, and various newly developed functionalization techniques have significantly improved the performance of polymeric films with BFA, leading to novel applications, including templates, biosensors, and separation membranes. These recent achievements will be described in this Minireview.
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Large-scale, three-dimensional, free-standing, and mesoporous metal oxide networks for high-performance photocatalysis.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Mesoporous nanostructures represent a unique class of photocatalysts with many applications, including splitting of water, degradation of organic contaminants, and reduction of carbon dioxide. In this work, we report a general Lewis acid catalytic template route for the high-yield producing single- and multi-component large-scale three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous metal oxide networks. The large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks possess large macroscopic scale (millimeter-sized) and mesoporous nanostructure with huge pore volume and large surface exposure area. This method also can be used for the synthesis of large-scale 3D macro/mesoporous hierarchical porous materials and noble metal nanoparticles loaded 3D mesoporous networks. Photocatalytic degradation of Azo dyes demonstrated that the large-scale 3D mesoporous metal oxide networks enable high photocatalytic activity. The present synthetic method can serve as the new design concept for functional 3D mesoporous nanomaterials.
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Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchanger 1 by cariporide alleviates burn-induced multiple organ injury.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Severe burns initiate an inflammatory response characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine, which contributes to multiple organ injury. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) plays a significant role in several inflammatory processes. This study was designed to investigate the role of NHE1 in burn-induced inflammation and multiple organ injury.
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A pilot study: sequential gemcitabine/cisplatin and icotinib as induction therapy for stage IIB to IIIA non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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A phase II clinical trial previously evaluated the sequential administration of erlotinib after chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This current pilot study assessed the feasibility of sequential induction therapy in patients with stage IIB to IIIA NSCLC adenocarcinoma.
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Inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 by cariporide reduces burn-induced intestinal barrier breakdown.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Severe burns initiate an inflammatory cascade within the gut, which leads to intestinal mucosal injury. Although Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) is recognised as a pivotal player in several inflammatory processes, its role in burn-induced intestinal injury is relatively unknown. We hypothesised that NHE1 might be involved in the increased intestinal permeability and barrier breakdown after severe burns. Thus, we here investigate whether the inhibition of NHE1 has a protective effect on burn-induced intestinal injury. Mice were subjected to a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness steam burn. Cariporide was used to assess the function of NHE1 in mice with burn-induced intestinal injury by fluorescence spectrophotometry, Western blotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that severe burn increased intestinal permeability, associated with the up-regulation of NHE1 and raised inflammatory cytokine levels. Mice treated with the NHE1 inhibitor cariporide had significantly attenuated burn-induced intestinal permeability and a reduced inflammatory response. NHE1 inhibition also reduced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and attenuated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Our study suggests that NHE1 plays an important role in burn-induced intestinal permeability through the regulation of the inflammatory response. Inhibition of NHE1 may be adopted as a potential therapeutic strategy for attenuating intestinal barrier breakdown.
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Safety observation study on haemophilus influenza type B conjugate vaccines injected at different sites in Chinese infants.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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In the present study, the safety of Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccines inoculated in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. 680 infants aged 2-5 months and 6-12 months were selected to be the research subjects in whom the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated by injection in the upper arm deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle, respectively. The safety analysis indicated that there were no statistic differences in the incidence rates of adverse reactions when the Hib conjugate vaccines were inoculated at different sites. So we concluded that the safety of inoculation injection of Hib conjugate vaccines in vastus lateralis muscle was the same as that inoculated in the upper arm deltoid.
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injuries in rats.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Inflammation and oxidative stress exert important roles in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have shown effective antioxidative and immunomodulatory functions in different models. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects and potential mechanisms of LBPs in intestinal IRI. Several free radical-generating and lipid peroxidation models were used to assess the antioxidant activities of LBPs in vitro. A common IRI model was used to induce intestinal injury by clamping and unclamping the superior mesenteric artery in rats. Changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, activated nuclear factor (NF)-?B, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, E-selectin, and related antioxidant enzyme levels, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) accumulation, intestinal permeability, and intestinal histology were examined. We found that LBPs exhibited marked inhibitory action against free radicals and lipid peroxidation in vitro. LBPs increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced intestinal oxidative injury in animal models of intestinal IRI. In addition, LBPs inhibited PMN accumulation and ICAM-1 expression and ameliorated changes in the TNF-? level, NF-?B activation, intestinal permeability, and histology. Our results indicate that LBPs treatment may protect against IRI-induced intestinal damage, possibly by inhibiting IRI-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
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Alterations in EGFR and related genes following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Genetic aberrancies within epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway are associated with therapeutic outcomes of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the impact of chemotherapy on EGFR-related genes alterations has not been defined in NSCLC. Our study aims to investigate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Neoadj-Chemo) on EGFR activating mutations and associated EGFR-TKIs resistance-related genes.
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Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormones source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging.
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Deletion of regulatory T cells supports the development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the intestine is associated with high morbidity and mortality in surgical and trauma patients. T cells participate in the pathogenesis of intestinal IRI, and T-cell depletion has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses and diminish intestinal damage. However, the mechanism by which T cells contribute to intestinal IRI is not completely understood. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specific subset of T cells that suppress immune responses and protect against tissue injuries. We hypothesized that Tregs might be involved in intestinal IRI.
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Detection and clinical significance of intratumoral EGFR mutational heterogeneity in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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This study evaluated occurrence and potential clinical significance of intratumoral EGFR mutational heterogeneity in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid on hepatocellular carcinoma via ERK-p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dramatically increasing and is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. One key approach to control HCC is chemoprevention by naturally occurring agents. This study aims at investigating the antitumor effect of oleanolic acid (OA) and the molecular mechanisms. BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with HepG2 cells to establish transplanted tumors. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest-related markers and signaling cascades were determined by western blot, immunofluorescence, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis. OA exhibited inhibitory effect on HCC through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest both in transplanted tumors and in HepG2 cells. OA induced apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway, evidenced by inhibition of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitochondrial dysfunction, transient increase of adenosine triphosphate, increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, increased release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway may be due to reactive oxygen species generated by mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, resulted from enhancement of lipolysis regulated by cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate response element-binding protein-hormone-sensitive lipase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? signaling. OA induced G2/M cell cycle arrest through p21-mediated downregulation of cyclin B1/cdc2. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and p53 were involved in OA-exerted effect, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-p53 signaling played a central role in OA-activated cascades responsible for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. OA demonstrated significant antitumor activities in HCC in vivo and in vitro models. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of OA.
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Expansion of decidual CD45RO? T cells with high expression of CEACAM1 in the early stage of pregnancy.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism involved in the expansion of CD45RO+ T cells in the decidual microenvironment, and in the expression of the inhibitory carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) on the surface of decidual CD45RO+ T cells. Twenty-one healthy nonpregnant females and seventeen healthy pregnant females in the first trimester were included in the study. Peripheral blood samples from nonpregnant and pregnant females, and decidual tissues from pregnant females following elective abortion, were obtained and analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentages of CD45RO+ T cells and CEACAM1-expressing CD45RO+ T cells were significantly higher in first trimester human decidua than in the peripheral blood. Conditioned medium from the coculture of monocytes and the human trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cell line (MHM) was added to the model for the generation of CD45RO+ T cells in vitro. MHM caused an increase in the percentage of CD45RO+ T cells in a monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)?dependent manner and an increase in the percentage of CEACAM1-expressing CD4+CD45RO+ T cells in the model. In conclusion, our results implied that trophoblast cells and monocytes may be involved in the increase of decidual CD45RO+ T cells and the high expression of CEACAM1 on their surfaces.
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The effect of RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS aqueous extract on radiation-induced skin injury in a rat model.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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Radiation-induced skin injury is a common complication of radiotherapy. The RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS aqueous extract (RCE) can ameliorate radiation-induced skin injury in our clinical observation. But, the protective mechanism of RHIZOMA COPTIDIS and COPTIS CHINENSIS in radiation-induced skin injury remains unclear.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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