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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
LASP1 is a HIF-1? target gene critical for metastasis of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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LASP1 is an actin-binding protein associated with actin assembly dynamics in cancer cells. Here we report that LASP1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) where it promotes invasion and metastasis. We found that LASP1 overexpression in PDAC cells was mediated by HIF-1? through direct binding to a hypoxia response element in the LASP1 promoter. HIF-1? stimulated LASP1 expression in PDAC cells in vitro and mouse tumor xenografts in vivo. Clinically, LASP1 overexpression in PDAC patient specimens was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Overall, our results defined LASP1 as a direct target gene for HIF-1? upregulation that is critical for metastatic progression of PDAC.
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[Neutrophil ratio/blood glucose and poor short outcome among patients with acute ischemic stroke].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To investigate the relationship between neutrophil ratio/blood glucose and short outcome among patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to hospitals.
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Long noncoding RNA expression in dermal papilla cells contributes to hairy gene regulation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Dermal papilla (DP) cells may be the source of dermal-derived signaling molecules involved in hair-follicle development and postnatal hair cycling. Early-passage DP cells can induce hair growth in vivo, but, on further culture, this ability is lost. The cellular mechanisms underlying the hair-follicle induction property of early-passage DP cells are unclear. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an important class of genes involved in various biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed and play roles in the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway, a critical point in maintaining hair-induction activity. LncRNA microarray revealed 1683 upregulated and 1773 downregulated lncRNAs in passage-4 DP cells compare with passage-10 DP cells. To investigate the relation between lncRNAs and coding genes in WNT signaling, we constructed a coding-noncoding gene co-expression network using lncRNAs and coding genes that were differentially expressed between the passage-4 and -10 DP cells. RP11-766N7.3, H19 and HOTAIR are specific lncRNAs that were aberrantly expressed in DP cells and played an important role in regulating Wnt signaling. This study may provide potential targets for discovering the hair-follicle induction mechanism of early-passage DP cells.
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Improving pilot mental workload evaluation with combined measures.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Behavioral performance, subjective assessment based on NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), as well as physiological measures indexed by electrocardiograph (ECG), event-related potential (ERP), and eye tracking data were used to assess the mental workload (MW) related to flight tasks. Flight simulation tasks were carried out by 12 healthy participants under different MW conditions. The MW conditions were manipulated by setting the quantity of flight indicators presented on the head-up display (HUD) in the cruise phase. In this experiment, the behavioral performance and NASA-TLX could reflect the changes of MW ideally. For physiological measures, the indices of heart rate variability (HRV), P3a, pupil diameter and eyelid opening were verified to be sensitive to MW changes. Our findings can be applied to the comprehensive evaluation of MW during flight tasks and the further quantitative classification.
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Biomorphic synthesis of mesoporous Co?O? microtubules and their pseudocapacitive performance.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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A novel meosoporous tubular Co3O4 has been fabricated by a simple and cost-effective biomorphic synthesis route, which consists of infiltration of cotton fiber with cobalt nitrate solution and postcalcination at 673 K for 1 h. Its electrochemical performance as a supercapacitor electrode material is investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry tests. Compared with bulk Co3O4 prepared without using cotton template, biomorphic Co3O4 displays 2.8 fold enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance because of the unique tubular morphology, relative high specific surface area (3 and 0.8 m(2)/g for biomorphic Co3O4 and bulk Co3O4, respectively), and mesoporous nature.
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Shear-thickening in mixed suspensions of silica colloid and oppositely charged polyethyleneimine.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The liquid-gel-liquid transition tuned by increasing concentration of linear and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine in suspension of silica colloids, and the accompanying shear-thickening phenomena, were investigated by rheological measurements. The influence from linear and hyperbranched polymer conformation and from different size-ratio between particle and polymer on the rheological properties of suspensions flocculated by absorbing polyelectrolyte were considered. Charge neutralization and bridging mechanism are the main reasons for the flocculation of silica colloid in this study. Because of charge reversal, the irreversible bridges are turned into flexible reversible bridges with increasing adsorption amount of oppositely charged polymer, which leads to an abrupt transition from gel to liquid. Over a narrow composition range, around the gel to liquid transition region, shear-thickening flow is observed. It is found that, for given particle volume fraction, the composition region exhibiting shear-thickening for mixed suspension with linear polyethyleneimine is broader than that for mixed suspension with hyperbranched polyethyleneimine, and the onset of shear-thickening depends only on size-ratio, regardless of the actual size of particle and polymer in the range of this study. The relationship between the gel to liquid transition and shear-thickening was discussed.
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Optimization of Process Parameters of Extraction of Amentoflavone, Quercetin and Ginkgetin from Taxus chinensis Using Supercritical CO2 Plus Co-Solvent.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The effects of extraction time, temperature, pressure and different concentration of ethanol and their interactions on the yields of amentoflavone, quercetin and ginkgetin extracted from Taxus chinensis by supercritical CO2 were investigated by using a central composite design (CCD). An CCD experimental design with four factors and five levels was used to optimize the extraction parameters. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was used to analyze the content of the tree components in the extracts. Experimental results show that the main effects of factors and their interactions are significant on the yields (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were established for the three compounds: yield of 4.47 mg/g for amentoflavone at 48 °C, 25 MPa, 2.02 h and 78.5% ethanol, 3.73 mg/g for quercetin at 46 °C, 24 MPa, 2.3 h, 82% ethanol and 3.47 mg/g for ginkgetin at 48 °C, 20 MPa, 2.38 h, 82% ethanol, respectively.
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Significance of thrombocytosis in clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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We aimed to study the relationship between thrombocytosis and clinical features of gastric cancer focussing on platelet counts and gastric cancer progression through different TNM stages.
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A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and the NF-?B-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.
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Feature selection for the identification of antitumor compounds in the alcohol total extracts of Curcuma longa.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Antitumor activity has been reported for turmeric, the dried rhizome of Curcuma longa. This study proposes a new feature selection method for the identification of the antitumor compounds in turmeric total extracts. The chemical composition of turmeric total extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (21 ingredients) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (22 ingredients), and their cytotoxicity was detected through an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay against HeLa cells. A support vector machine for regression and a generalized regression neural network were used to research the composition-activity relationship and were later combined with the mean impact value to identify the antitumor compounds. The results showed that six volatile constituents (three terpenes and three ketones) and seven nonvolatile constituents (five curcuminoids and two unknown ingredients) with high absolute mean impact values exhibited a significant correlation with the cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. With the exception of the two unknown ingredients, the identified 11 constituents have been reported to exhibit cytotoxicity. This finding indicates that the feature selection method may be a supplementary tool for the identification of active compounds from herbs.
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A survey of overlooked viral infections in biological experiment systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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It is commonly accepted that there are many unknown viruses on the planet. For the known viruses, do we know their prevalence, even in our experimental systems? Here we report a virus survey using recently published small (s)RNA sequencing datasets. The sRNA reads were assembled and contigs were screened for virus homologues against the NCBI nucleotide (nt) database using the BLASTn program. To our surprise, approximately 30% (28 out of 94) of publications had highly scored viral sequences in their datasets. Among them, only two publications reported virus infections. Though viral vectors were used in some of the publications, virus sequences without any identifiable source appeared in more than 20 publications. By determining the distributions of viral reads and the antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathways using the sRNA profiles, we showed evidence that many of the viruses identified were indeed infecting and generated host RNAi responses. As virus infections affect many aspects of host molecular biology and metabolism, the presence and impact of viruses needs to be actively investigated in experimental systems.
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Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? directly activates leptin receptor (Ob-R) in pancreatic cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate the regulatory mechanism of leptin receptors (Ob-R) in pancreatic cancer. We found that the over-expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1)? and hypoxia up-regulated the expression of Ob-R in pancreatic cancer cells. When HIF-1? gene was silenced in vitro, the expression of Ob-R was significantly decreased. Xenograft mouse models showed that the inhibition of HIF-1? resulted in the concomitant decrease of Ob-R in vivo. In addition, HIF-1? expression was correlated with Ob-R in pancreatic cancer tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Clinical data showed that over-expression of HIF-1 was associated with pathological tumor node metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis and overall survival. HIF-1? directly bound to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) located in Ob-R gene promoter (-828/-832) and activated the transcription. Finally, we demonstrated that the silence of HIF-1? gene reversed the inhibitory effect of leptin/Ob-R in pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that HIF-1? directly regulated Ob-R expression in pancreatic cancer, which might be a valuable therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
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Mucin 5B promoter polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to interstitial lung diseases in Chinese males.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The variation of G>T in the MUC5B promoter (rs35705950) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP) in Caucasians, but no information is available regarding this variant in the Chinese population. We recruited 405 patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD), including 165 IPF patients and 2043 healthy controls, for genotyping the MUC5B gene in the Chinese population. One hundred three patients with pneumonia and 360 patients with autoimmune diseases (ADs) were recruited as disease controls. Our results indicated that the prevalence of the minor allele (T) of the polymorphism rs35705950 in healthy Chinese subjects was approximately 0.66%, which was lower than that described in the Caucasian population. The frequencies of the T allele were 3.33% and 2.22% in IPF and ILD patients, respectively, and these values were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P = 0.001, OR = 4.332 for IPF, and P = 0.002, OR = 2.855 for ILD). A stratified analysis showed that this variant in MUC5B associated with the risk for ILD mainly in older male Chinese subjects. No difference was observed between patients with pneumonia, AD patients, and healthy controls.
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The clinical significance and regulation mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and miR-191 expression in pancreatic cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The aim of study was to discuss the correlation and regulatory mechanism of HIF-1 and miR-191 expression in pancreatic tumor. The association between the miR-191 and the clinicopathologic characteristics and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer was further explored. After hypoxic cultured for 6 and 12 h, qRT-PCR and Western blot were practiced to analyze the miR-191 and HIF-1 expression of MIA PaCa-2 and Aspac1 cells. We regulated the HIF-1 expression via plasmid and siRNA transfection to observe the alteration of HIF-1 and miR-191 expression. ChIP sequencing identified the binding sites of HIF-1 and miR-191. Dual luciferase assays were practiced to verify the binding sites. Immunohistochemical staining was practiced to analyze the expression of HIF-1, while qRT-PCR were done for investigating miR-191 in tumor tissues. Then, the association between the expression of them and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of pancreatic cancer were analyzed. After hypoxic cultured 12 h, the expression of HIF-1 protein, HIF-1mRNA and miR-191 of MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells increased significantly (P?
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Draft Sequencing and Analysis of the Genome of Pufferfish Takifugu flavidus.
DNA Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The pufferfish Takifugu flavidus is an important economic species due to its outstanding flavour and high market value. It has been regarded as an excellent model of genetic study for decades as well. In the present study, three mate-pair libraries of T. flavidus genome were sequenced by the SOLiD 4 next-generation sequencing platform, and the draft genome was constructed with the short reads using an assisted assembly strategy. The draft consists of 50,947 scaffolds with an N50 value of 305.7 kb, and the average GC content was 45.2%. The combined length of repetitive sequences was 26.5 Mb, which accounted for 6.87% of the genome, indicating that the compactness of T. flavidus genome was approximative with that of T. rubripes genome. A total of 1,253 non-coding RNA genes and 30,285 protein-encoding genes were assigned to the genome. There were 132,775 and 394 presumptive genes playing roles in the colour pattern variation, the relatively slow growth and the lipid metabolism, respectively. Among them, genes involved in the microtubule-dependent transport system, angiogenesis, decapentaplegic pathway and lipid mobilization were significantly expanded in the T. flavidus genome. This draft genome provides a valuable resource for understanding and improving both fundamental and applied research with pufferfish in the future.
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[A case-control study on the causes of new HIV infection among heroin addicts attendees at the methadone maintenance treatment clinics].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To explore the routes and factors associated with HIV new infection of heroin addicts who had been attending the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program.
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Design Novel Inhibitors for Treating Cancer by Targeting Cdc25B Catalytic Domain with de Novo Design.
Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) families of proteins are highly conserved dual specificity phosphatases that regulate cyclin-dependent kinases and represent a group of attractive drug targets for anticancer therapies. To develop novel Cdc25B inhibitors, the ZINC database was screened for finding the optimal fragments with de novel design approaches. As a result, top 11 compounds having higher binding affinities in flexible docking were obtained, which were derived from five novel scaffolds consisting of two isolated scaffolds located in the two binding domains (catalytic pocket and swimming pool) and the linker-part. The subsequent molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies showed that these compounds not only adopt more favorable conformations but also have stronger binding interaction with receptor than the inhibitors identified previously. The additional absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) predictions also indicted the 11 compounds (especially Comp#1) hold a high potential to be novel lead compounds for anticarcinogen. Consequently, the findings reported here may at least provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective Cdc25B inhibitors.
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Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Sl?-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Sl?-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Sl?-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Sl?-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Sl?-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Sl?-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.
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Hepatitis A virus 3C protease cleaves NEMO to impair induction of beta interferon.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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NEMO (NF-?B essential modulator) is a bridging adaptor indispensable for viral activation of interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Herein, we show that hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease (3Cpro) cleaves NEMO at the Q304 residue, negating its signaling adaptor function and abrogating viral induction of IFN-? synthesis via the retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (RIG-I/MDA5) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathways. NEMO cleavage and IFN antagonism, however, were lost upon ablation of the catalytic activity of 3Cpro. These data describe a novel immune evasion mechanism of HAV.
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus nucleocapsid protein antagonizes beta interferon production by sequestering the interaction between IRF3 and TBK1.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes lethal watery diarrhea in piglets and results in large economic losses in many Asian and European countries. A large-scale outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in China in 2010, and the virus emerged in the United States in 2013 and spread rapidly, posing significant economic and public health concerns. Previous studies have shown that PEDV infection inhibits the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN), and viral papain-like protease 2 has been identified as an IFN antagonist. In this study, we found that the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein also inhibits Sendai virus-induced IFN-? production, IFN-stimulated gene expression, and activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-?B. We also found that N protein significantly impedes the activation of the IFN-? promoter stimulated by TBK1 or its upstream molecules (RIG-I, MDA5, IPS-1, and TRAF3) but does not counteract its activation by IRF3. A detailed analysis revealed that the PEDV N protein targets TBK1 by direct interaction and that this binding sequesters the association between TBK1 and IRF3, which in turn inhibits both IRF3 activation and type I IFN production. Together, our findings demonstrate a new mechanism evolved by PEDV to circumvent the host's antiviral immunity.
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Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution on novel Pd-loaded electrode modified with PPy-SDBS composite film.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It can be found in the air, water, and soil and enters the environment through evaporation from treated wood surfaces, industrial spills, and disposal at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Ecotoxicity of PCP necessitates the development of rapid and reliable remediation techniques. Electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis (ECH) has been proven as a promising method for detoxification of halogenated wastes, due to its rapid reaction rate, low apparatus cost, mild reaction conditions, and absence of secondary contaminants. Challenge for the application of ECH is to prepare a Pd-coated cathode with high stability, high catalytic activity, and low Pd loading level. In this work, Pd/polypyrrole-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/meshed Ti (Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti) electrode was prepared and was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Electrochemically reductive dechlorination of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode in aqueous solution was investigated. Pd microparticles were uniformly dispersed on PPy-SDBS film which was previously electrodeposited on the meshed Ti supporting electrode. The loading of Pd on the electrode was 0.72 mg cm(-2). Electrocatalytic dechlorination of PCP was performed in a two-compartment cell separated by cation-exchange membrane. The PCP removal on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode could reach 100 % within 70 min with dechlorination current 3 mA when PCP initial concentration was 10 mg L(-1) and initial pH was 2.4. Conversion of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the apparent activation energy was 13.0 kJ mol(-1). The removal of PCP still kept 100 % after 70 min dechlorination when the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti cathode was reused ten times. The electrode exhibited promising dechlorination potential with high electrocatalytic activity, good stability, and low cost.
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Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Preoperative Invasion Depth of Gastric Cancer with Dual-Energy Spectral CT Imaging.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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This study evaluates the accuracy of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DEsCT) imaging with the aid of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system in assessing serosal invasion in patients with gastric cancer.
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ZBTB20 regulates nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channel expression in nociceptive sensory neurons.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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In mammals, pain sensation is initiated by the detection of noxious stimuli through specialized transduction ion channels and receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are the key sensory transducers that confer nociceptors distinct sensory modalities. However, the regulatory mechanisms about their expression are poorly defined. Here we show that the zinc-finger protein ZBTB20 regulates TRP channels expression in nociceptors. ZBTB20 is highly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. Disruption of ZBTB20 in nociceptors led to a marked decrease in the expression levels of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8 and the response of calcium flux and whole-cell currents evoked by their respective specific agonists. Phenotypically, the mice lacking ZBTB20 specifically in nociceptors showed a defect in nociception and pain sensation in response to thermal, mechanical and inflammatory stimulation. Our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of nociception and pain sensation by modulating TRP channels expression in nociceptors.
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Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules.
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Plumbagin suppresses dendritic cell functions and alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Plumbagin (PL, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a herbal compound derived from medicinal plants of the Droseraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Dioncophyllaceae, and Ancistrocladaceae families. Reports have shown that PL exerts immunomodulatory activity and may be a novel drug candidate for immune-related disease therapy. However, its effects on dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that PL inhibits the differentiation, maturation, and function of human monocyte-derived DCs. PL can also restrict the expression of Th1- and Th17-polarizing cytokines in mDC. In addition, PL suppresses DCs both in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by its effects on the mouse DC line DC2.4 and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), respectively. Notably, PL ameliorated the clinical symptoms of EAE, including central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. Our results demonstrate the immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of PL via its effects on DCs and suggest that PL could be a potential treatment for DC-related autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
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Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41).
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a member of the DEXDc helicase family, was recently identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in mouse myeloid dendritic cells. In this study, porcine DDX41 (poDDX41) was cloned and its role in the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway was investigated in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. Full-length poDDX41 cDNA encodes 622 amino acid residues and contains a DEADc domain and a HELICc domain. poDDX41 mRNA is widely expressed in different tissues, especially the stomach and liver. Overexpression of poDDX41 in PK-15 cells induced IFN-? by activating transcription factors IRF3 and NF-?B. Knockdown of poDDX41 with siRNA significantly reduced IFN-? expression induced by poly(dA:dT), a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) analogue, or pseudorabies virus, a dsDNA swine virus. Therefore, poDDX41 is involved in the dsDNA- and dsDNA-virus-mediated type I IFN signaling pathway in porcine kidney cells.
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Genomic sequence analysis of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from Australia.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The complete genomic sequence of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus from Australia, HearNPV-Au, was determined and analyzed. The HearNPV-Au genome was 130,992 bp in size with a G + C content of 39 mol% and contained 134 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) consisting of more than 150 nucleotides. HearNPV-Au shared 94 ORFs with AcMNPV, HearSNPV-G4 and SeMNPV, and was most closely related to HearSNPV-G4. The nucleotide sequence identity between HearNPV-Au and HearSNPV-G4 genome was 99 %. The major differences were found in homologous regions (hrs) and baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) genes. Five hrs and two bro genes were identified in the HearNPV-Au genome. All of the 134 ORFs identified in HearNPV-Au were also found in HearSNPV-G4, except the homologue of ORF59 (bro) in HearSNPV-G4. The sequence data strongly suggested that HearNPV-Au and HearSNPV-G4 belong to the same virus species.
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Equilibrium spin current in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The existence of a background spin current under thermodynamic equilibrium is an interesting phenomenon in the two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). Here we study the equilibrium spin current (ESC) in graphene with RSOC. For an infinite graphene with uniform RSOC, we found that the ESC is proportional to ?(2) with ? the Rashba strength and mainly comes from the energy window [-?, ?] near Dirac points. In the regime of energy far away from Dirac points, the ?(3) dependence as that in a normal two-dimensional electron gas is recovered. In a system with a normal graphene strip inserted between two Rashba graphene sheets, we found that the ESC can penetrate through the normal graphene layer (perpendicular to the interface). This unique effect can be understood by considering the spin-filtered scattering from the normal region to the RSOC region. The finding of the ESC through the normal region without RSOC advances the understanding of ESC and provides a new way to generate a pure spin current in graphene. For an experimentally accessible strength of Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the ESC remains over room temperature.
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Uniform small graphene oxide as an efficient cellular nanocarrier for immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted more and more attention as a promising nanomaterial in biomedical research and applications. In this study, we explore the ability of GO as nanocarrier for synthetic DNA strands. Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are attached to Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) functionalized, polydisperse GO, or uniform small GO (sGO) nanosheets. Both types of GO-CpG ODN nanoconjugates can be delivered into murine Raw264.7 macrophages and possess immunostimulatory activity, while sGO-CpG appears to be a more efficient stimulator. In addition, sGO-CpG nanosheets exhibit higher cellular uptake but better biocompatibility compared to the larger GO-CpG counterpart. Furthermore, PLL functionalized sGO-CpG has higher immunostimulatory activity than azide functionalized sGO-CpG. Together, our studies provide evidence that sGO can be utilized as an ideal intracellular nanocarrier for synthetic single-stranded DNA, and sGO-PLL-CpG conjugates may serve as a potential proinflammatory therapeutic tool.
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The influence of laser clipped by the laser entrance hole on hohlraum radiation measurement on Shenguang-III prototype.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Measuring the x-ray flux exiting the target's laser entrance hole (LEH) is the most common diagnostic that quantifies the x-ray intensity inside the laser-driven hohlraum. However, this signal accounts for only a small portion of the incident laser power and thus is likely to be affected by unwanted x-ray background from non-target area, leading to an overestimation of the hohlraum drive. Unwanted emission might be produced when the laser light is clipped by the LEH (LEH clipping) because of a lack of clearance for laser spot, or with a laser spot comprising of discrete structure, or even with a poor pointing accuracy. Its influence on the hohlraum radiation diagnostic is investigated on Shenguang-III prototype laser facility with the typical 1 ns square pulse. The experiment employed three types of targets to excite the unwanted x-ray background from LEH clipping, unconverted light, and both effects, respectively. This work gives an absolute evaluation of x-ray produced by the LEH clipping, which is measured by flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRD) at multiple view angles. The result indicates that there is little variation in measured emission to various view angles, because the unwanted x-rays are mainly generated at the side face of the LEH lip when laser is obliquely incident. Therefore, the LEH clipping brings more overestimation in hohlraum radiation measurement at larger view angle since the hohlraum LEH as an emitting source viewed by FXRD is decreased as the view angle increases. In our condition, the LEH clipping contributes 2%-3.5% overestimation to the hohlraum flux measurement.
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microRNA 376a regulates follicle assembly by targeting Pcna in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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In mammals, the primordial follicle pool, providing all oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, is established perinatally. Dysregulation of primordial follicle assembly results in female reproductive diseases, such as premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Female mice lacking Dicer1 (Dicer), a gene required for biogenesis of microRNAs, show abnormal morphology of follicles and infertility. However, the contribution of individual microRNAs to primordial follicle assembly remains largely unknown. Here, we report that microRNA 376a (miR-376a) regulates primordial follicle assembly by modulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), a gene we previously reported to regulate primordial follicle assembly by regulating oocyte apoptosis in mouse ovaries. miR-376a was shown to be negatively correlated with Pcna mRNA expression in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries and to directly bind to Pcna mRNA 3' untranslated region. Cultured 18.5 days postcoitum mouse ovaries transfected with miR-376a exhibited decreased Pcna expression both in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, miR-376a overexpression significantly increased primordial follicles and reduced apoptosis of oocytes, which was very similar to those in ovaries co-transfected with miR-376a and siRNAs targeting Pcna. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-376a regulates primordial follicle assembly by modulating the expression of Pcna. To our knowledge, this is the first microRNA-target mRNA pair that has been reported to regulate mammalian primordial follicle assembly and further our understanding of the regulation of primordial follicle assembly.
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Catheter-directed thrombolysis-assisted angioplasty for chronic lower limb ischemia.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Thrombolysis is an appropriate treatment for acute arterial occlusion. There remains controversy as to whether thrombolysis before angioplasty helps to identify the underlying lesion and improve results for chronic ischemia of the lower extremity. We sought to investigate the feasibility of catheter-directed thrombolysis-assisted angioplasty for chronic lower limb ischemia.
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Size-dependent programming of the dynamic range of graphene oxide-DNA interaction-based ion sensors.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Graphene oxide (GO) is widely used in biosensors and bioimaging because of its high quenching efficiency, facile chemical conjugation, unique amphiphile property, and low cost for preparation. However, the nanometer size effect of GO on GO-DNA interaction has long been ignored and remains unknown. Here we examined the nanometer size effect of GO on GO-DNA interactions. We concluded that GO of ?200 nm (lateral nanometer size) possessed the highest fluorescence quenching efficiency whereas GO of ?40 nm demonstrated much weaker ability to quench the fluorescence. We employed the nanometer size effect of GO to program the dynamic ranges and sensitivity of mercury sensors. Three dynamic ranges (1 to 40 nM, 1 to 15 nM, and 0.1 to 5 nM) were obtained with this size modulation. The sensitivity (slope of titration curve) was programmed from 15.3 ± 1.27 nM(-1) to 106.2 ± 3.96 nM(-1).
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Dyslipidemia and outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To study the relationship between dyslipidemia and outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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Prognostic implications for high expression of MiR-25 in lung adenocarcinomas of female non-smokers.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer and its proportion is rising, especially in Asian non-smoking women. Recent studies suggest miR-25 may have diverse effects on the pathogenesis of different types of cancer. However, the role of miR-25 in lung cancer is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical value of miR-25 in non-smoking women with lung ADC.
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Integrated strategy of pH-shift and glucose feeding for enhanced production of bioactive Antrodin C in submerged fermentation of Antrodia camphorata.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Antrodin C is one of the most potent bioactive components produced by the medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata. However, almost all studies in this field have focused on the biological activity of Antrodin C and relatively rare information has been reported regarding the biosynthetic process of Antrodin C. In this study, the strategies of pH-shift and glucose feeding for enhanced production of Antrodin C in submerged fermentation of A. camphorata were successfully applied in stirred bioreactors. The critical parameters for pH-shift and glucose feeding were systematically investigated. On one hand, the optimal culture pH for cell growth was distinct with Antrodin C biosynthesis and the maximum Antrodin C production was obtained by maintaining the first-stage culture at initial pH 4.5 and adjusted to 6.0 at day 8. On the other hand, it was beneficial for the Antrodin C accumulation with the initial glucose concentration of 40 g/L and feeding glucose to keep the residual sugar above 10 g/L. The maximum Antrodin C production (1,549.06 mg/L) was about 2.1-fold higher than that of control in 15-L stirred bioreactors by taking advantage of the integrated strategy of pH-shift and glucose feeding. These results would be helpful for the design of a highly efficient Antrodin C biosynthesis process.
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Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The electrification of sand particles plays an important role in aeolian events. In this paper, the charge-to-mass ratio vertical profiles of saltating particles in wind-blown sand were measured by a field experiments. By combining the results of field measurements with our previous wind-tunnel measurements, we discussed the factors affecting the charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles. It reveals that the magnitude of the charge-to-mass ratio increases exponentially with height above the surface. In addition, the charge polarity of saltating particles depends on the relative size between saltating and creeping particles, and the magnitude of charge-to-mass ratio is determined by wind velocity and the relative size difference ratio between saltating and creeping particles.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma invasion and metastasis by activating transcription of the actin-bundling protein fascin.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Because of the early onset of local invasion and distant metastasis, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most lethal human malignant tumor, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. In this study, we investigated the role of fascin, a prometastasis actin-bundling protein, in PDAC progression, invasion, and the molecular mechanisms underlying fascin overexpression in PDAC. Our data showed that the expression levels of fascin were higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues, and fascin overexpression correlated with the PDAC differentiation and prognosis. Fascin overexpression promoted PDAC cell migration and invasion by elevating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Fascin regulated MMP-2 expression through protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Importantly, our data showed that hypoxia induced fascin overexpression in PDAC cells by promoting the binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) to a hypoxia response element on the fascin promoter and transactivating fascin mRNA transcription. Intriguingly, HIF-1? expression levels in PDAC patient specimens significantly correlated with fascin expression. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining of consecutive sections demonstrated colocalization between HIF-1? and fascin in PDAC specimens, suggesting that hypoxia and HIF-1? were responsible for fascin overexpression in PDAC. When ectopically expressed, fascin was able to rescue PDAC cell invasion after HIF-1? knockdown. Our results demonstrated that fascin is a direct target gene of HIF-1. Our data suggested that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment in PDAC might promote invasion and metastasis by inducing fascin overexpression, and fascin might be targeted to block PDAC progression.
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Integration of partial least squares and Monte Carlo gene expression analysis in coronary artery disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease and leading cause of mortality worldwide. Microarray technology for gene expression analysis has facilitated the identification of the molecular mechanism that underlies the pathogenesis of CAD. Previous studies have primarily used variance or regression analysis, without considering array specific factors. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of CAD using partial least squares (PLS)-based analysis, which was integrated with the Monte Carlo technique. Microarray analysis was performed with a data set of 110 CAD patients and 111 controls obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 390 dysregulated genes were acquired. Significantly increased representations of dysregulated genes in Gene Ontology items, including transforming growth factor ?-activated receptor activity and acyl-CoA oxidase activity, were identified. Network analysis revealed three hub genes with a degree of >10, including ESR1, ITGA4 and ARRB2. The results of the present study provide novel information on the gene expression signatures of CAD patients and offer further theoretical support for future therapeutic study.
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Gene expression pattern of insect fat body cells from in vitro challenge to cell line establishment.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The cell lines provided excellent tools to understand the mechanism of biological phenomenon at the cellular and molecular levels. The continuous development of new cell culture technology is both of interest for use in biochemical, immunology, and virological studies. The transformation of cells of the primary culture is a key procedure for insect cell line establishment but little is known about the molecular basis of these changes. Here, we found that the cell cycle progression of the cells of the primary culture was delayed or arrested in G2/M by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In this study, two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed to screen for immortal-related genes of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Gene ontology and pathway analysis indicated that members of the oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway are involved in processes leading toward cell immortalization merit further investigation. Our findings suggest that tumor-related genes or target genes of these pathways may contribute to the transformation of primary cell through regulation of G2/M cell cycle progression.
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Prediction of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles by pre-freeze morphology.
Iran J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Background: The selection of blastocyst warmed for transfer is based on pre-freeze morphology in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles. But, it is controversial which parameter of blastocyst morphology most closely related to the clinical outcomes. Objective: To estimate the effect of blastocoele expansion, trophectoderm (TE) morphology grade, and inner cell mass (ICM) morphology grade on clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfers. Materials and Methods: There were 172 vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles during the year 2012 included in this analysis. Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group based on patient and blastocyst morphology characteristics was done. Then stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to select the best morphological predictor for clinical pregnancy. Last, comparison of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes separated by the best independent morphological predictor was done. Results: Comparison of clinical results between pregnancy and no pregnancy group and logistic regression showed the clinical pregnancy rate was affected by ICM. Comparison of patient characteristics separated by ICM grade, ICM grade A cycles got higher clinical pregnancy rate than ICM grade B cycles (54.3% vs. 35.0% respectively, p=0.037). Conclusion: Blastocyst with good ICM morphology could increase clinical pregnancy rate in vitrified-warmed single blastocyst transfer cycles.
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Electric fields in unsteady wind-blown sand.
Eur Phys J E Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The electrification of wind-blown sand has been widely confirmed by field and wind-tunnel measurements. It plays an important role in the lifting and transport of sand particles. In this study we investigated the behavior of electric fields in unsteady saltation by adopting periodic variation wind sequences. The influence of electric fields on sand transport rate was also discussed. The results show that both horizontal and vertical electric fields exist in unsteady saltation, and the transport rate in unsteady saltation is less than that in steady saltation. An interesting result is that the directions of vertical electric field fluctuate upward and downward-pointing with time in the unsteady saltation. This provides a possible explanation for the bipolar pattern of the vertical electric field in wind-blown sand.
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Decreased response of interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex to 5-HT?A receptor activation in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine Parkinson model.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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This study examined the response of interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and change in expression of 5-HT1A receptor on glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Systemic administration of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT dose-dependently inhibited the firing rate of the interneurons at all doses tested in sham-operated rats. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, 8-OH-DPAT, at the same doses, also inhibited the firing rate of the interneurons, whereas the inhibition was significant only at a high cumulative dose. Furthermore, injection of 8-OH-DPAT into the mPFC inhibited the interneurons in sham-operated rats, while having no effect on firing rate of the interneurons in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In contrast to sham-operated rats, SNc lesion reduced the expression of 5-HT1A receptor on GAD67-positive neurons in the prelimbic cortex, a sub-region of the mPFC. Our results indicate that degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway leads to decreased response of mPFC interneurons to 5-HT1A receptor activation, which attributes to the down-regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression in these interneurons.
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A new fibrinogen-related protein from Argopecten irradians (AiFREP-2) with broad recognition spectrum and bacteria agglutination activity.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are a kind of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) containing fibrinogen-like (FBG) domains, and they play curial roles in the innate immune response. In the present study, a new FREP protein was identified from bay scallop Argopecten irradians (designated as AiFREP-2). The full-length cDNA of AiFREP-2 was of 1299 bp with an open reading frame of 762 bp encoding a polypeptide of 253 amino acids, including a signal sequence and an FBG domain. The FBG domain in AiFREP-2 was highly similar to those of ficolins, tenascins and other FREPs. The mRNA expression of AiFREP-2 could be detected in all the examined tissues with the highest level in gill. The mRNA expression of AiFREP-2 in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated post the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and ?-glucan (GLU) (P < 0.01). The recombinant AiFREP-2 (rAiFREP-2) could bind not only different PAMP ligands including LPS, PGN and GLU, but also various microbes including Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio anguillarum), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and fungus (Pichia pastoris and Yarrowia lipolytica). Additionally, rAiFREP-2 exhibited obvious agglutination activity towards Gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and Gram positive bacteria S. aureus. The results indicated that AiFREP-2 was involved in the immune response against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungus as a PRR in bay scallop, and the information was helpful to understand the innate immune defense mechanisms of mollusks.
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Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.
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Stomach Virtual Non-Enhanced CT with Second-Generation, Dual-Energy CT: A Preliminary Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To compare the true non-enhanced (TNE) and virtual non-enhanced (VNE) data sets in patients who underwent gastric preoperative dual-energy CT (DECT) and to evaluate potential radiation dose reduction by omitting a TNE scan.
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The polymorphism in the promoter of HSP70 gene is associated with heat tolerance of two congener endemic bay scallops (Argopecten irradians irradians and A. i. concentricus).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one kind of molecular chaperones, which plays a key role in protein metabolism under normal and stress conditions.
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De novo transcriptomes of a mixotrophic and a heterotrophic ciliate from marine plankton.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studying non-model organisms is crucial in the context of the current development of genomics and transcriptomics for both physiological experimentation and environmental characterization. We investigated the transcriptomes of two marine planktonic ciliates, the mixotrophic oligotrich Strombidium rassoulzadegani and the heterotrophic choreotrich Strombidinopsis sp., and their respective algal food using Illumina RNAseq. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptomes of these contrasting ciliates and to identify genes potentially involved in mixotrophy. We detected approximately 10,000 and 7,600 amino acid sequences for S. rassoulzadegani and Strombidinopsis sp., respectively. About half of these transcripts had significant BLASTP hits (E-value <10-6) against previously-characterized sequences, mostly from the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Transcriptomes from both the mixotroph and the heterotroph species provided similar annotations for GO terms and KEGG pathways. Most of the identified genes were related to housekeeping activity and pathways such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins. Although S. rassoulzadegani can keep and use chloroplasts from its prey, we did not find genes clearly linked to chloroplast maintenance and functioning in the transcriptome of this ciliate. While chloroplasts are known sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we found the same complement of antioxidant pathways in both ciliates, except for one enzyme possibly linked to ascorbic acid recycling found exclusively in the mixotroph. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find qualitative differences in genes potentially related to mixotrophy. However, these transcriptomes will help to establish a basis for the evaluation of differential gene expression in oligotrichs and choreotrichs and experimental investigation of the costs and benefits of mixotrophy.
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Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A three-dimensional (3D) continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.
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CypA, a gene downstream of HIF-1?, promotes the development of PDAC.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is a highly important transcription factor involved in cell metabolism. HIF-1? promotes glycolysis and inhibits of mitochondrial respiration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In response to tumor hypoxia, cyclophilin A (CypA) is over-expressed in various cancer types, and is associated with cell apoptosis, tumor invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in PDAC. In this study, we showed that both HIF-1? and CypA expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor stage. The expression of CypA was correlated with HIF-1?. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of CypA markedly decreased or increased following the suppression or over-expression of HIF-1? in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that HIF-1? could directly bind to the hypoxia response element (HRE) in the CypA promoter regions and regulated CypA expression. Consistent with other studies, HIF-1? and CypA promoted PDAC cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we proved the combination effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and cyclosporin A both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that,CypA, a gene downstream of HIF-1?, could promote the development of PDAC. Thus, CypA might serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC.
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Integrated genomic and prospective clinical studies show the importance of modular pleiotropy for disease susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment.
Genome Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Translational research typically aims to identify and functionally validate individual, disease-specific genes. However, reaching this aim is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes in common diseases, and that many of those genes are pleiotropic, that is, shared by several diseases.
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[Effect of substrate temperature on structure and photoluminescence of ZnMgO films].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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ZnMgO films were deposited on quartz glass substrates by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at different substrate temperatures (450-550 degrees C). The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the substrate temperature has important effect on structural and optical characteristics. All the films have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and the c-axis preferential orientation has an optimum temperature of 530 degrees C. The sample prepared at this temperature owns uniform grain size, smooth surface morphology and better crystalline quality. The width of deep-level emission decreases and the near band edge (NBE) ultraviolet emission peak appears with the increase in temperature by the PL spectrum. When the temperature arrives to 530 degrees C, a distinct NBE emission peak can be observed at 374. 5 nm, while the deep level emission is almost undetectable.
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Regioselective Rapid Synthesis of Fully Substituted 1,2,3-Triazoles Mediated by Propargyl Cations.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Regioselective rapid triazole syntheses at low temperature are described. Organic azides and propargyl cations generated by acids gave fully substituted 1H-1,2,3-triazoles. Most reactions could be performed in 5 min at not only rt but also -90 °C. Both terminal and internal alkynes were acceptable, and the sterically bulky substituents could afford the products smoothly. Various types of three-component coupling reactions were demonstrated, and the presence of allenylaminodiazonium intermediates was indicated.
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HPLC-MS and GC-MS analyses combined with orthogonal partial least squares to identify cytotoxic constituents from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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We investigated the fingerprints of 48 batches of turmeric total extracts (TTE) by HPLC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses and 43 characteristic peaks (22 constituents from HPLC-MS-MS; 21 from GC-MS) were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. An MTT {3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide} assay was implemented to measure the cytotoxicity of the TTE against HeLa cells. Then we utilized orthogonal partial least squares analysis, which correlated the chemical composition of the TTE to its cytotoxic activity, to identify potential cytotoxic constituents from turmeric. The result showed that 19 constituents contributed significantly to the cytotoxicity. The obtained result was verified by canonical correlation analysis. Comparison with previous reports also indicated some interaction between the curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric.
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Potential sensitivities in frequency modulation and heterodyne amplitude modulation Kelvin probe force microscopes.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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In this paper, the potential sensitivity in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was investigated in frequency modulation (FM) and heterodyne amplitude modulation (AM) modes. We showed theoretically that the minimum detectable contact potential difference (CPD) in FM-KPFM is higher than in heterodyne AM-KPFM. We experimentally confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in FM-KPFM is lower than that in heterodyne AM-KPFM, which is due to the higher minimum detectable CPD dependence in FM-KPFM. We also compared the corrugations in the local contact potential difference on the surface of Ge (001), which shows atomic resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM. In contrast, atomic resolution cannot be obtained in FM-KPFM under the same experimental conditions. The higher potential resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM was attributed to the lower crosstalk and higher potential sensitivity between topographic and potential measurements.
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The correlation between pre-operative serum tumor markers and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients undergoing curative treatment.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients.
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A low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-like molecule identified from Chlamys farreri participated in immune response against bacterial infection.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a group of important endocytic receptors contributing to binding ligands and maintaining internal environment. In the present study, an LRP-like molecule was identified from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (CfLPR), and its mRNA expression profiles, tissue location, and immunology activities were analyzed to explore its possible function in the innate immune system. The ORF of CfLRP was of 1971 bp encoding a polypeptide of 656 amino acids with ten low-density lipoprotein-receptor YWTD (LY) domains and one scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain. It shared similar structure with out-membrane domains of LRP family members in mammalian. The mRNA transcripts of CfLRP were dominantly expressed in hepatopancreas and mantle (P < 0.01), and its mRNA level in hemocytes was up-regulated (P < 0.01) significantly after the stimulations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and ?-glucan. Western blotting assay using polyclonal antibody specific for CfLRP revealed that CfLRP was localized in the plasma. The recombinant protein of CfLRP (rCfLRP) could bind acetylated low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL), metalloprotease SPF1 of Vibrio splendidus and mannan, but could not bind other typical PAMPs such as LPS, PGN, ?-glucan and zymosan. Meanwhile, rCfLRP also exhibited strong bacteriostatic activity to Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio anguillarum and V. splendidus. These results indicated that CfLRP could serve as a receptor to recognize and eliminate the invading pathogens, which provided a new implication in the function of LRP-like molecules in invertebrate immunity.
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The protein expression profile in hepatopancreas of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress and Vibrio anguillarum challenge.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Heat stress and pathogen infection have been considered as the main causes for mass mortality of cultured scallops during summer. In the present study, the expression profiles of proteins in the hepatopancreas of scallop Chlamys farreri were examined to reveal the possible mechanisms of physiological responses of scallop beneath heat stress and bacterial infection. An earlier occurred and higher mortality was observed in the scallops from combination treated group (28 °C and an injection of Vibrio anguillarum) in comparison to those in heat stress (28 °C) and bacteria challenge (V. anguillarum injection only) group, as well as control (PBS) and blank (untreated) group. The proteins in the hepatopancreas from scallops post 6 h of treatment were analyzed by using 2-D PAGE and ImageMaster 2D Platinum. There were total 1003 spots detected in control group, 1193 spots in heat stress group, 1263 spots in bacteria challenge group, and 1241 spots in the combination group. Fifteen protein spots expressed differentially between the combination treatment group and the bacteria challenge group were successfully identified by mass spectrometry and they were mainly classified as binding and catalytic proteins, such as endoglucanase, methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, xylose isomerase, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, 40s ribosomal protein SA, glutathione S-transferase 4, and Mitochondrial transcription factor A, etc. These results indicated that the mortality of scallops suffered from the combination treatment was probably attributed to the impaired modulation of digestion and metabolism and ruined protein synthesis caused by heat stress together with bacteria infection. These data also provided valuable insights into the possible mechanisms of summer mortality occurrence of scallop at protein level.
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Liquid-gel-liquid transition and shear thickening in mixed suspensions of silica colloid and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The rheological property of mixed suspensions of silica colloid and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (hPEI) was studied as functions of particle volume fraction, ratio of polymer to particle, and pH value. A mechanism of liquid-gel-liquid transition for this mixed system was proposed based on the amount and the conformation of polyelectrolyte bridges which were able to self-arrange with solution environments. The hPEI, which is adsorptive to the surface of silica colloid, can induce bridging or stabilizing effect between particles depending on whether the concentration of hPEI (Cp) is smaller or larger than the equilibrium adsorbed amount (Cp*) for a given volume fraction of particles. In dilute colloid suspensions, the Cp* can be determined by dynamic light scattering as the correlation function returns back to a narrow distributing single relaxation with increasing Cp. In concentrated colloid suspensions, the Cp* can be determined by rheological measurement as gel-liquid transition occurs with increasing Cp. The Cp* is an important concentration ratio of polymer to particle denoting the transition of irreversible and reversible bridging. For mixed suspensions at equilibrium adsorbed state (Cp ? Cp*), the adsorption-desorption of polymer bridges on the particles can reversibly take place, and shear thickening is observed under a steady shear flow as a result of rapid extension of bridges when the relaxation time scale of extension is shorter than that of desorption.
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A high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) gene from Chlamys farreri and the DNA-binding ability and pro-inflammatory activity of its recombinant protein.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, a highly conserved DNA binding protein, plays an important role in maintaining nucleosome structures, transcription, and inflammation. In the present research, a cDNA of 1268 bp for the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri HMGB1 (designed as CfHMGB1) was cloned via rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique and expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. The complete cDNA sequence of CfHMGB1 contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp, which encoded a protein of 215 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of CfHMGB1 shared 53-57% similarity with other identified HMGB1s. There were two HMG domains, two low complexity regions and a conserved acidic tail in the amino acid sequence of CfHMGB1. The mRNA transcripts of CfHMGB1 were constitutively expressed in all the tested tissues, including haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The mRNA expression profiles of CfHMGB1 in haemocytes after the stimulation with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and glucan (Glu), were similar with an up-regulation in the early stage and then recovered to the original level. The recombinant CfHMGB1 protein could bind double-stranded DNA and induce the release of TNF-? activity in mixed primary culture of scallop haemocytes. These results collectively indicated that CfHMGB1, with DNA-binding ability and pro-inflammatory activity, could play an important role in the immune response of scallops.
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Separation and purification of flavonoid from Taxus remainder extracts free of taxoids using polystyrene and polyamide resin.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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An efficient separation process of flavonoid from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids was developed in this study. AB-8 macroporous resin and polyamide resin offered the fine adsorption capacity, and its adsorption rate at 30°C fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundich isotherms. Resin dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were conducted to optimize the separation process of total flavonoids from T. wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids. The optimum parameters for adsorption by AB-8 resin were as follows: (1) the concentration of flavonoids in a sample solution of 5.61 mg/mL with a processing volume of 2 bed volume (BV) (60 mL); (2) for desorption, ethanol-water (80:20, v/v), with 6 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After a one-run treatment with AB-8 resin, the content of flavonoids was increased 5.10-fold from 4.05 to 20.65%. The optimum parameters for adsorption by polyamide resin were as follows: processing volume of 2 BV (30 mL); for desorption, ethanol-water (70:30, v/v), with 8 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After one-run treatment with polyamide resin, the content of total flavonoids increased from 20.65 to 65.21%. The method will provide a potential approach for large-scale separation and purification of flavonoid for its wide pharmaceutical use.
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Circulating IL-35 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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IL-35 is a novel inhibitory cytokine that is mainly produced by regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and is required for Treg-mediated immunosuppression. However, the plasma levels of IL-35 in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have never been investigated. In this study, we found that plasma IL-35 levels more significantly increased in PDAC patients than in normal controls (134.53±92.45pg/mL vs. 14.26±6.56pg/mL). IL-35 mRNA levels were positively correlated with plasma IL-35 levels (EBI3, R=0.925, p<0.01; p35, R=0.916, p<0.01). Furthermore, IL-35 expression levels were associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001) and late tumor stage (p=0.002). For the resected patients, high IL-35 expression levels were associated with large tumor size (p<0.01), higher TNM classification T staging (p<0.05), and late tumor stage (p<0.05). In conclusion, circulating IL-35 in PDAC patients significantly increased, suggesting that regulating the expression of IL-35 may provide a new possible target for the treatment of PDAC patients, especially for the resectable ones.
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Asymmetric Synthesis of Pyrroloindolones by N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyzed [2+3] Annulation of ?-Chloroaldehydes with Nitrovinylindoles.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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NHC-enolate plus 3: N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) serve as organocatalysts for the [2+3] annulation of nitrovinylindoles with ?-chloroaldehydes via an intermediate azolium enolate. The method provides trans-disubstituted pyrroloindolones with good yields and excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Further transformations lead to tetracyclic pyrrolo[1,2-a]indoles with potential psychotropic and other bioactivities.
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Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and cancer stem cell-like properties in cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells through AKT/?-catenin/Snail signaling pathway.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Cisplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the therapeutic effect is disappointing, partly due to drug resistance. Emerging evidence showed that chemoresistance associates with acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and cancer stem cell-like properties. However, the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. In this study, we showed that cisplatin-resistant A549 cells (A549/CDDP) acquire EMT phenotype associated with migratory and invasive capability. A549/CDDP cells also displayed enhanced cancer stem cell-like properties. Increased expression of transcription factor Snail, but not ZEB1, Slug and Twist, was observed in A549/CDDP cells. Knockdown of Snail reversed EMT and significantly attenuated migration, invasion and cancer stem cell-like properties of A549/CDDP cells. Conversely, overexpressed Snail in A549 cells induced EMT and cancer stem cell-like properties. Finally, we demonstrated that activated AKT signal leads to increased ?-catenin expression and subsequently up-regulates Snail in A549/CDDP cells. Taken together, these results revealed that AKT/?-catenin/Snail signaling pathway is mechanistically associated with cancer stem cell-like properties and EMT features of A549/CDDP cells, and thus, this pathway could be a novel target for the treatment of NSCLC.
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Immune microenvironment profiles of tumor immune equilibrium and immune escape states of mouse sarcoma.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Cancer immunoediting consists of three distinct phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Here, for the first time, we investigated the immune microenvironment profiles of tumor immune equilibrium and immune escape states in 3-methylcholanthrene-induced murine sarcoma model. Our study indicates the relative balance of monocytic MDSCs and antitumor immunity cells (especially CTLs, NK cells and ??T cells) may involve in maintaining tumor cells in a state of immune-mediated dormancy. In addition, high percentages of Treg cells and PMN-MDSCs are associated with the tumor immune escape state - mice with progressing sarcomas. In summary, the relative balance of immune effector cells and suppressive populations in the tumor microenvironment may involve in determining the fate of tumors.
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[Relationship between dietary behaviors and growth-development of 1-7 years old children from seven provinces in Chinese rural areas].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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To explore the status of dietary behaviors of 1-7 years old children and its relationship with growth-development in Chinese rural areas and to provide 13,692 1-7 years old scientific evidences for corresponding intervention.
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The modulation of catecholamines on immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Catecholamines (CAs) play key roles in mediating the physiological responses to various stresses. In the present study, the expression of CA-related genes were examined in the hemocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress, and several immune or metabolism-related parameters were investigated after heat stress and adrenoceptor antagonist stimulation. After the scallops were cultured at 28°C, the mRNA expression level of dopa decarboxylase (CfDDC) and ?-adrenoceptor (Cf?AR) increased significantly (P<0.01), whereas that of monoamine oxidase (CfMAO) was down-regulated in the first 6h (P<0.05), and then up-regulated to the maximum level at 24h (P<0.01). In the hemocytes of scallops injected with adrenoceptor antagonist, the expression levels of peptidoglycan-recognition protein (CfPGRP-S1) and C-type lectin (CfLec-1) began to increase significantly at 2 and 3h post propranolol and high temperature treatment, respectively (P<0.01). While the up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (CfHSP70) post heat stress was significantly inhibited by prazosin injection (P<0.01), and that of hexokinase (CfHK) was inhibited by both prazosin and propranolol injection (P<0.01). Moreover, the remarkable increase of relative specific activity of SOD in the hemolymph post heat stress (P<0.01) was further up-regulated early after prazosin or propranolol injection (P<0.01), while that of the relative anti-bacterial ability was down-regulated by prazosin or propranolol treatment (P<0.01). These results collectively indicated that the catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system in scallop could be activated by heat stress to release CAs, which subsequently modulated the immune response and energy metabolism via ?- and ?-adrenoceptors.
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Ultrasonic-assisted ultra-rapid synthesis of monodisperse meso-SiO2@Fe3O4 microspheres with enhanced mesoporous structure.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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A core-shell-type of meso-SiO2@Fe3O4 microsphere was synthesized via an ultrasonic-assisted surfactant-templating process using solvothermal synthesized Fe3O4 as core, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica source, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as templates. The samples were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption technology, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that as-prepared meso-SiO2@Fe3O4(E) and meso-SiO2@Fe3O4(C) microspheres, treated by acetone extraction and high temperature calcination, respectively, still maintain uniform core-shell structure with desirable mesoporous silica shell. Therein, the meso-SiO2@Fe3O4(E) microspheres possess a distinct pore size distribution in 1.8-3.0nm with large specific surface area (468.6m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.35cm(3)/g). Noteworthily, the coating period of this ultrasonic-assisted method (40min) is much shorter than that of the conventional method (12-24h). The morphology of microspheres and the mesoporous structure of silica shell are significantly influenced by initial concentration of CTAB (CCTAB), ultrasonic irradiation power (P) and ultrasonic irradiation time (t). The acceleration roles of ultrasonic irradiation take effect during the whole coating process of mesoporous silica shell, including hydrolysis-condensation process of TEOS, co-assembly of hydrolyzed precursors and CTAB, and deposition of silica oligomers. In addition, the use of ultrasonic irradiation is favorable for improving the homogeneity of silica shell and the monodispersity of meso-SiO2@Fe3O4 microspheres.
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Two Rab GTPases, EsRab-1 and EsRab-3, involved in anti-bacterial response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Rab GTPase is essential for the control of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotic cells and further affects the ability of phagocytic cells to scavenge pathogen. In the present study, the cDNAs for two crab Rab proteins (EsRab-1 and EsRab-3) were identified from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches and expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNAs of EsRab-1 and EsRab-3 were of 892 bp and 965 bp with ORFs of 615 bp and 630 bp, respectively. The cDNAs encoded two peptides of 204 and 209 amino acid residues with the conserved GTP/Mg(2+) binding sites, Switch I region and Switch II region in RAB domains. The mRNA transcripts of EsRab-1 and EsRab-3 were both highest expressed in hepatopancreas, and marginally expressed in other tissues including hemocytes, muscle, gonad, gill and heart. After the crabs were challenged by bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, the expression levels of both EsRab-1 and EsRab-3 in hemocytes were significantly up-regulated, and reached the highest level at 1.5 h post-stimulation, which was 7-fold (P < 0.05) and 6-fold (P < 0.01) of blank group for EsRab-1 and EsRab-3, respectively. No significant change of mRNA expression was detected for either EsRab-1 or EsRab-3 in crabs stimulated by Pichia pastoris. These results clearly suggested the involvement of Rab proteins in crab anti-bacterial immunity.
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