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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cetuximab for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor can be found in 80 % of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and is associated with shorter survival. In this work, we evaluated the feasibility of adding cetuximab to concurrent cisplatin and radiotherapy (RT) in locoregionally advanced NPC. Twenty-eight patients with locoregionally advanced NPC who received the combination therapy were retrospectively reviewed and short-term efficacy was evaluated. Grade 3-4 oral mucositis occurred in 20 (71.4 %) patients. Grade 3 radiotherapy-related dermatitis occurred in seven patients (25 %). Three patients (14.3 %) had grade 3 and one patient (3.6 %) had grade 4 cetuximab-related acneiform rashes. These grade 3-4 skin and mucosal toxic effects were manageable and reversible. At a median follow-up of 33.4 months (95 % CI 29.2-38.1 months), the 2-year progression-free survival was 89.3 % (95 % CI 76.4-98.1 %). In conclusion, concurrent administration of cetuximab, cisplatin and RT is a feasible strategy against locoregionally advanced NPC. Preliminary survival data compare favorably with historic data and further follow-up is warranted.
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Transcriptome analysis reveals positive selection on the divergent between topmouth culter and zebrafish.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis) is a predatory cyprinid fish that distributes widely in the East Asia. Here we report the liver transcriptome in this organism as a model of predatory fish. Sequencing of 5Gb raw reads led to 27,741 unigenes and produced 11,131 annotatable genes. A total of 7093 (63.7%) genes were found to have putative functions by gene ontology analysis. Importantly, a blast search revealed 4033 culter genes that were orthologous to the zebrafish. Extracted from 38 candidate positive selection genes, 4 genes exhibit strong positive selection based on the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous substitutions (Ks). In addition, the four genes also indicated the strong positive selection by comparing them between blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) and zebrafish. These genes were involved in activator of gene expression, metabolic processes and development. The transcriptome variation may be reflective of natural selection in the early life history of Cyprinidae. Based on Ks ratios, date of the separation between topmouth culter and zebrafish is approximately 64millionyears ago. We conclude that natural selection acts in diversifying the genomes between topmouth culter and zebrafish.
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HPV and lung cancer risk: A meta-analysis.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The potential causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate whether HPV infection in lung tissue is associated with LC compared with non-cancer controls. We also quantified this association in different LC subtypes. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched through March 2014, using the search terms "lung cancer", "human papillomavirus", "HPV" and their combinations. Association was tested using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using Q and I(2) statistic. Finally, nine studies, for a total of 1094 LCs and 484 non-cancer controls, were identified as eligible publications. The pooled results showed that HPV infection was associated with LC (OR=5.67, 95% CI: 3.09-10.40, P<0.001). Similar results were also observed in HPV16 and/or HPV18 (HPV16/18) infection analyses (OR=6.02, 95% CI: 3.22-11.28, P<0.001). HPV16/18 was significantly associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (OR=9.78, 95% CI: 6.28-15.22, P<0.001), while the pooled OR was 3.69 in lung adenocarcinoma (95% CI: 0.99-13.71, P=0.052). Our results suggest that lung tissue with HPV infection has a strong association with LC, and especially, HPV16/18 infection significantly increases SCC risk, which indicates a potential pathogenesis link between HPV and LC.
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DNA methylation of pituitary growth hormone is involved in male growth superiority of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Growth hormone (GH) and its receptors are critical regulators of somatic growth and metabolism. It has been shown in mammals that the methylation of cytosines within the GH promoter plays a key role in regulating transcripts expression. In the present study, the GH, GHR1 and GHR2 proximal promoters were identified and the methylation levels of these genes in corresponding tissues were assayed. The results suggested that significant arising of GH putative promoter methylation levels in pituitary was observed in females compared with males. However, no such sex-specific changes were found in GHR1 and GHR2 promoters. The GH mRNA expression also was influenced by GH promoter methylation levels in pituitary, which resulted in the higher growth rate of Nile tilapia males. Meanwhile, the methylation levels of GH putative promoter were negatively correlated with growth rate as well as mRNA expression of GH. Furthermore, the methylation of specific E-Box CpG site is also negatively related to the mRNA expression of GH in pituitary. Taken together, our data provide an epigenetic mechanism of explicating the sex duality in phenotypic plasticity of growth rate in male and female of Nile tilapia.
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Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Epidemiological studies have reported the preventive effect of vitamin A intake on bladder cancer. However, the findings are inconsistent. To address this issue we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the quantitative effects of vitamin A on bladder cancer.
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Diagnostic values of soluble mesothelin-related peptides for malignant pleural mesothelioma: updated meta-analysis.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Although the values of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), including mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor, in serum and/or pleural fluid for diagnosing malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been extensively studied, the exact diagnostic accuracy of these SMRPs remains controversial. The purpose of the present meta-analysis is to update the overall diagnostic accuracy of SMRPs in serum and, furthermore, to establish diagnostic accuracy of SMRPs in pleural fluid for MPM.
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Interplay of Th1 and Th17 cells in murine models of malignant pleural effusion.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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IFN-?-producing CD4(+) T (Th1) cells and IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells have been found to be involved in multiple malignancies; however, the reciprocal relationship between Th1 and Th17 cells in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) remains to be elucidated.
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PD-1/PD-Ls pathways between CD4(+) T cells and pleural mesothelial cells in human tuberculous pleurisy.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Programmed death 1 (PD-1), PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and PD-L2 have been demonstrated to be involved in tuberculosis immunity, however, the expression and regulation of PD-1/PD-Ls pathways in pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) and CD4(+) T cells in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) have not been investigated. Expression of PD-1 on CD4(+) T cells and expressions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on PMCs in TPE were determined. The impacts of PD-1/PD-Ls pathways on proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and migration of CD4(+) T cells were explored. Concentrations of soluble PD-l, but not of soluble PD-Ls, were much higher in TPE than in serum. Expressions of PD-1 on CD4(+) T cells in TPE were significantly higher than those in blood. Expressions of PD-Ls were much higher on PMCs from TPE when compared with those from transudative effusion. Interferon-? not only upregulated the expression of PD-1 on CD4(+) T cells, but also upregulated the expressions of PD-Ls on PMCs. Blockage PD-1/PD-Ls pathways abolished the inhibitory effects on proliferation and adhesion activity of CD4(+) T cells induced by PMCs. PD-1/PD-Ls pathways on PMCs inhibited proliferation and adhesion activity of CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that Mycobacterium tuberculosis might exploit PD-1/PD-Ls pathways to evade host cell immune response in human.
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Seasonal changes and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) effects on innate immune genes expression in goldfish (Carassius auratus).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We profiled the expression of a group of proinflammatory immune genes, comprising TNF?-1, TNF?-2, IFN-?, IL1?-1, IL1?-2, CCL-1, and CXCL-8 in liver, head kidney, gills, and spleen of goldfish, during the reproductive cycle and in response to injection of the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Most genes showed higher expression during the breeding season in both sexes. However, activation of immune responses was much stronger in female goldfish. Injection with hCG, an analog of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is involved in numerous reproductive functions, markedly changed gene expression in most studied organs, in both male and female goldfish. Again, female goldfish were found to be more responsive than male goldfish. The strongest activation of these genes was seen 7 days post-injection; the effect was dose dependent with a lower dose being in general more effective. For several of the genes, the gills were the most responsive tissue and, in male goldfish, gills were often the only responsive tissue, suggesting an important immunological role for gills during breeding. The data suggest that increasing expression levels are regulated by LH arising during the breeding season, with greater sensitivity in female goldfish than in male goldfish. These data support an interaction between the innate immune system and the reproductive axis.
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Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is a major cause of disease progression and death, and causes huge medical expenditures. This consensus statement represents a description of clinical features of AECOPD in the People's Republic of China and a set of recommendations. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for community physicians, pulmonologists and other health care providers for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AECOPD.
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Efficacy and safety of talc pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusion: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Talc pleurodesis has been widely used to control malignant pleural effusion; however, it is still not clear whether talc pleurodesis is more effective than other local therapies. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of talc pleurodesis in the management of malignant pleural effusion.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in ovary and testis of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by using solexa sequencing technology.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs which play important roles in the regulation of gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Thereinto, some specific miRNAs show regulatory activities in gonad development via translational control. In order to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ovary and testis, two small RNA libraries of Nile tilapia were sequenced by Solexa small RNA deep sequencing methods. A total of 9,731,431 and 8,880,497 raw reads, representing 5,407,800 and 4,396,281 unique sequences were obtained from the sexually mature ovaries and testes, respectively. After comparing the small RNA sequences with the Rfam database, 1,432,210 reads in ovaries and 984,146 reads in testes were matched to the genome sequence of Nile tilapia. Bioinformatic analysis identified 764 mature miRNA, 209 miRNA-5p and 202 miRNA-3p were found in the two libraries, of which 525 known miRNAs are both expressed in the ovary and testis of Nile tilapia. Comparison of expression profiles of the testis, miR-727, miR-129 and miR-29 families were highly expressed in tilapia ovary. Additionally, miR-132, miR-212, miR-33a and miR-135b families, showed significant higher expression in testis compared with that in ovary. Furthermore, the expression patterns of the miRNAs were analyzed in different developmental stages of gonad. The result showed different expression patterns were observed during development of testis and ovary. In addition, the identification and characterization of differentially expressed miRNAs in the ovaries and testis of Nile tilapia provides important information on the role of miRNA in the regulation of the ovarian and testicular development and function. This data will be helpful to facilitate studies on the regulation of miRNAs during teleosts reproduction.
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Investigation of capacitively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for nondestructive evaluation.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Capacitive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory, feasibility, and optimization of such a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface relies on an electric field formed between four metal plates-two plates are physically connected to the electrodes of a transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit connected to the transmit/receive channel of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as an electric network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a transducer attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. A transmission line model is developed which is a function of the physical parameters of the capacitively coupled system, such as the permittivity of the material between the plates, the size of the metal plates, and their relative positions. This model provides immediate prediction of electric input impedance, pulse-echo response, and the effect of plate misalignment. The model has been validated experimentally and has enabled optimization of the various parameters. It is shown that placing a tuning inductor and series resistor on the transmitting side of the circuit can significantly improve the system performance in terms of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio. Practically, bulk-wave CCTSs have been built and demonstrated for underwater and through-composite testing. It has been found that electrical conduction in the media between the plates limits their applications.
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Combined detections of interleukin 27, interferon-?, and adenosine deaminase in pleural effusion for diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Previous studies reported interleukin-27 (IL-27), interferon-? (IFN-?), or adenosine deaminase (ADA) alone plays a helpful role in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). The present study aims at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of pleural IL-27, IFN-?, and ADA, and investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of IL-27, IFN-?, or/and ADA for differentiating TPE from pleural effusions with the other etiologies.
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Identification and characterization of psoralen and isopsoralen as potent CYP1A2 reversible and time-dependent inhibitors in human and rat preclinical studies.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Naturally occurring furanocoumarin compounds psoralen (PRN) and isopsoralen (IPRN) are bioactive constituents found in herbaceous plants. They are widely used as active ingredients in several Chinese herbal medicines. In this study, the CYP1A2 inhibitory potential of PRN and IPRN was investigated in rats in vitro and in vivo as well as in human liver microsomes. Both compounds exhibited reversible and time-dependent inhibition toward rat microsomal cyp1a2. The IC(50), k(inact), and K(I) values were 10.4 ± 1.4 ?M, 0.060 ± 0.002 min(-1), and 1.13 ± 0.12 ?M for PRN, and 7.1 ± 0.6 ?M, 0.10 ± 0.01 min(-1), and 1.95 ± 0.31 ?M for IPRN, respectively. In human liver microsomal incubations, potent reversible CYP1A2 inhibition was observed for both compounds, with IC(50) values of 0.26 ± 0.01 ?M and 0.22 ± 0.03 ?M for PRN and IPRN, respectively. However, time-dependent inhibition was only observed for IPRN, with kinact and KI values of 0.050 ± 0.002 min(-1) and 0.40 ± 0.06 ?M, respectively. Coadministration with PRN or IPRN significantly inhibited cyp1a2 activity in rats, with the area under the curve (AUC) of phenacetin increasing more than 5-fold. Simcyp simulation predicted that PRN would cause 1.71- and 2.12-fold increases in the phenacetin AUC in healthy volunteers and smokers, respectively. IPRN, on the other hand, would result in 3.24- and 5.01-fold increases in phenacetin AUCs in healthy volunteers and smokers, respectively. These findings represent the first detailed report comparing the potential drug-drug interactions of PRN and IPRN, and provide useful information for balancing safe and efficacious doses of PRN and IPRN.
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Mepilex Lite dressings for managing acute radiation dermatitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: a systematic controlled clinical trial.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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More than 60% nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving the radical radiotherapy treatment will develop moist desquamation skin reaction at some time during the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Mepilex Lite dressings and the usual care in the healing of postirradiation dermatitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. This was a randomized controlled trial, and a sample of 88 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who had developed radiation dermatitis was assessed. Comparisons were made regarding parameters related to wound healing, including healing time and wound pain, and also regarding the impact of wound on the patient, including restriction of neck movement, sleep problem, and disturbance in body image. The results showed that radiation-induced dermatitis in the study group (Mepilex Lite, 43 patients) healed in a median of 16 days, which was significantly different from the healing time in the control group (median 23 days, 45 patients; P = 0.009). No statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups with respect to neck mobility and appearance disturbance. However, Mepilex significantly improved patients sleep (P = 0.005). The researchers conclude that Mepilex Lite dressing provides a promising alternative to radiation dermatitis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and is worthy of further research.
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[Inhibitory effect of imperatorin and isoimperatorin on activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human and rat liver microsomes].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Imperatorin (IM) and isoimperatorin (ISOIM) are major active components of common herbal medicines from Umbelliferae plants, and widely used in clinic. This article studies the inhibitory effect of IM and ISOIM on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, and assesses their potential drug-drug interaction. IM and ISOIM were incubated separately with human or rat liver microsomes for 30 min, with phenacetin, bupropion, tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, dextromethorphan and midazolam as probe substrates. Metabolites of the CYP probe substrates were determined by LC-MS/MS, and IC50 values were calculated to assess the inhibitory effect of the two drugs on human CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 enzymes, as well as on rat CYP1A2, 2B6, 2D2 and 3A1/2, and grade their inhibitory intensity. In human liver microsomes, IM and ISOIM showed different inhibitory effects on all of the six CYP isoenzymes. They were strong inhibitors for 1A2 and 2B6. The IC50 values were 0.05 and 0.20 micromol x L(-1) for 1A2, and 0.18 and 1.07 micromol x L(-1) for 2B6, respectively. They also showed moderate inhibitory effect on 2C19, and weak effect on 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4. In rat liver microsomes, IM and ISOIM were identified as moderate inhibitors for 1A2, with IC50 values of 1.95 and 2.98 micromol x L(-1). They were moderate and weak inhibitors for 2B6, with IC50 values of 6.22 and 21.71 micromol x L(-1), respectively. They also had weaker inhibitory effect on 2D2 and 3A1/2. The results indicated that IM and ISOIM had extensive inhibitory effects on human CYP enzymes. They are strong inhibitors of CYP1 A2 and 2B6 enzymes. However, it is worth noting the interaction arising from the inhibitory effect of CYP enzymes in clinic.
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Elevated expression of Piwi and piRNAs in ovaries of triploid crucian carp.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Increasing piRNAs provide RNA-interference pathways to regulate transposons and gene expression in germline cells. We demonstrate that Piwi transcripts are exclusively expressed in adult testes and ovaries in teleosts, with triploids showing the highest Piwi expression in the ovaries. Studies in vivo and in vitro showed that hCG and E2 treatment suppressed Piwi expression. We further cloned 200 small RNAs in the three kinds of fish. Seven piRNAs were obtained from all the three different ploidy fishes. During ovulation, five piRNAs showed significantly higher expression in the ovaries of sterile triploids than fertile diploids and tetraploids. Furthermore, E2 suppressed the expression of the six piRNAs at different levels in vivo and in vitro. The present study bridges the gap between the HPG axis and Piwi-piRNA pathway by suggesting that a dysfunctional HPG axis abrogated the piRNA suppression in triploid fish.
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Suppression effect of LHRH-A and hCG on Piwi expression in testis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Piwi proteins as constituent factors of the piRNA pathway are required for germline maintenance, meiosis and gonad development. Previous study showed hCG could regulate the Piwi expression in ovary of teleosts. In this study, we revealed effects of LHRH-A and hCG on Piwi expression in testis of tilapia using Real-time PCR and Western blot. Both in vivo and in vitro study suggest that LHRH-A and hCG significantly down-regulated Piwil-1 and Piwil-2 in mRNA or protein levels compared with controls. Meanwhile, tissue and cell distribution showed that Piwi proteins were mainly expressed in spermatocytes rather than mature sperms. These results indicated that HPG suppresses Piwis which may play a crucial role in testis differentiation and development.
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Influence of body size on Cu bioaccumulation in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to different sources of particle-associated Cu.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Size of organisms is critical in controlling metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation, while mechanisms of size-related metal bioaccumulation are not fully understood. To investigate the influences of different sources of particle-associated Cu on body size-related Cu bioavailability and bioaccumulation, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) of different sizes were exposed to stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) spiked algae (Chlorella vulgaris) or sediments in the laboratory and the Cu tissue concentration-size relationships were compared with that in unexposed mussels. Copper tissue concentrations decreased with mussel size (tissue or shell dry weight) in both unexposed and algal-exposed mussels with similar decreasing patterns, but were independent of size in sediment-exposed mussels. Furthermore, the relative contribution of Cu uptake from algae (65-91%) to Cu bioaccumulation is always higher than that from sediments (9-35%), possibly due to the higher bioavailability of algal-Cu. Therefore, the size-related ingestion of algae could be more important in influencing the size-related variations in Cu bioaccumulation. However, the relative contribution of sediment-Cu to Cu bioaccumulation increased with body size and thus sediment ingestion may also affect the size-related Cu variations in larger mussels (tissue weight >7.5mg). This study highlights the importance of considering exposure pathways in normalization of metal concentration variation when using bivalves as biomonitors.
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Osteoblastic cell response on biphasic fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (FHA/SrHA) biphasic coatings with F and Sr elements incorporated simultaneously into one coating layer were prepared on titanium substrate via colloidal sol-gel method. The bioactivity of the as-prepared FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings was evaluated in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All the biphasic coatings exhibited great ability to induce apatite precipitation on their surfaces. In vitro cell responses were evaluated using osteoblast-like MG63 cells in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin level). The biphasic coatings show significantly positive effects on the viability and functional activity of osteoblastic cells with clear evidence that an optimum SrHA amount dose exists, indicating that the coexistence of FHA and SrHA had a synergistic stimulatory effect. This finding suggests the potential use of this colloidal sol-gel derived FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings for hard tissue applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Recruitment and phenotypic characteristics of interleukin 9-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Our previous data have demonstrated that the number of IL-9-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th9 cells) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) was significantly increased when compared with that in blood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which Th9 cells were recruited into MPE and the phenotypic characteristics of pleural Th9 cells.
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Subpopulations of helper T lymphocytes in tuberculous pleurisy.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Although it is curable, tuberculosis continues to be is a major global public health problem, especially in developing countries. Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It has been well documented that CD4(+) T lymphocytes are dominant leukocytes present in TPE. Traditionally, CD4(+) T cells have been classified into two functionally distinct subsets, helper T-cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells, based on their cytokine production profiles. Recently, regulatory T cells, Th17 cells, Th9 cells, and Th22 cells have been added to the portfolio of Th cells. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the phenotypic characteristics of the above Th cells, the mechanisms of differentiation and recruitment of Th cells into pleural space, and the immune regulation of Th cells in TPE environment. We also describe the interplay between different Th cells, as well as between Th cells and other type of cells, such as pleural mesothelial cells in TPE. Further studies should be directed at identifying the mediators and mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory properties of pleural Th cells in tuberculosis infection.
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Regulation of CD4(+) T cells by pleural mesothelial cells via adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms in tuberculous pleurisy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) have been demonstrated to be expressed on pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs), and to mediate leukocyte adhesion and migration; however, little is known about whether adhesion molecule-dependent mechanisms are involved in the regulation of CD4(+) T cells by PMCs in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE).
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Differentiation and recruitment of IL-22-producing helper T cells stimulated by pleural mesothelial cells in tuberculous pleurisy.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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IL-22-producing helper T cells (Th22 cells) have been reported to be involved in tuberculosis infection. However, differentiation and immune regulation of Th22 cells in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) remain unknown.
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On-off switches for secondary cell wall biosynthesis.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Secondary cell walls provide plants with rigidity and strength to support their body weight and ensure water and nutrient transport. They also provide textiles, timber, and potentially second-generation biofuels for human use. Genes responsible for synthesis of the different cell wall components, namely cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, are coordinately expressed and under transcriptional regulation. In the past several years, cell wall-related NAC and MYB transcription factors have been intensively investigated in different species and shown to be master switches of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Positive and negative regulators, which function upstream of NAC master switches, have also been identified in different plant tissues. Further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of cell wall synthesis will facilitate the engineering of plant feedstocks suitable for biofuel production.
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[Nutrient balance between N, P, and K in flue-cured tobacco production under different preceding crops planting].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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A field experiment was conducted to study the nutrient balance between N, P, and K in flue-cured tobacco production in Shilin County of Yunnan Province under the effects of different preceding crops including rape, wheat, barley, and green manure planting. Overall, there existed significant differences in the soil nitrogen availability, tobacco plant dry matter accumulation, plant uptake of N, P and K, residual amounts of soil N, P, and K, apparent soil N loss, and apparent soil P- and K surplus during tobacco growth period under different preceding crops planting. Under preceding crop green mature planting, the soil mineral N content before tobacco plant transplanting, the soil N net mineralization rate during tobacco growth period, and the tobacco plant dry matter accumulation and N- and K uptake at maturation were all the highest, followed by under preceding rape planting, and under preceding barley or wheat planting. The P uptake by tobacco plant was also obviously higher under the preceding green manure or rape planting than under preceding barley or wheat planting. After the harvest of tobacco leaves, the soil residual mineral N content was the highest under the preceding green manure planting, followed by under preceding rape planting, and by preceding barley or wheat planting, while the soil available P and K contents were in adverse, being the highest under preceding barley or wheat planting and the lowest under preceding green manure planting. The apparent soil N loss during tobacco growth period was the highest under the preceding green manure planting, whereas the apparent soil P- and K surplus was obviously higher under preceding wheat or barley planting. It was suggested that an appropriate adjustment should be made on the fertilization rates of N, P, and K for tobacco production based on the preceding crops, i. e., lesser N application when the preceding crop was green manure or rape, and lesser application of P and K when the preceding crop was wheat or barley.
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[Correlative analysis between CT pancreatic inflammatory infiltration degree and clinical disease severity of severe acute pancreatitis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To investigate the correlation between CT pancreatic inflammatory infiltration degree of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and the clinical disease severity, and to explore its prognostic value.
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[Correlation analysis of computed tomography imaging scoring to the presence of acute kidney injury in severe acute pancreatitis].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To investigate the multi-detector-row spiral CT (MDCT) imaging findings of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with acute kidney injury (AKI), and to evaluate the correlation of MDCT imaging scoring to the presence of AKI in SAP.
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Over-expression of atf4 in Xenopus embryos interferes with neurogenesis and eye formation.
Zool. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Accumulated evidence indicates that the activating transcription factor 4 (atf4) is a developmentally relevant gene. Here, we report on the characterization of atf4 in Xenopus embryos, which is differentially expressed in the central nervous system, eyes, blood, and the pronephros, as well as in developing endodermal organs such as the stomach, duodenum, liver, and pancreas. Ectopic expression of atf4 in the animal hemisphere of Xenopus embryos had no obvious effects on the induction of neural progenitors, but suppressed neurogenesis and eye formation without promoting apoptosis. Our data suggest that tightly controlled atf4 activities may be crucial for normal neurogenesis and early eye patterning.
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Cellular sources of interleukin 16 in benign and malignant pleural effusions.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Interleukin 16 (IL-16) can be detected by ELISA in pleural effusion (PE) and its concentration is higher than in serum. This study investigated the cellular sources of IL-16 in PE.
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Imbalance of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in tuberculous pleural effusion.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Both T helper interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells (Th17 cells) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been found to be increased in human tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE); however, the possible interaction between Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE remains to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution of Th17 cells in relation to Tregs, as well as the mechanism of Tregs in regulating generation and differentiation of Th17 cells in TPE. In the present study, the numbers of Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE and blood were determined by flow cytometry. The regulation and mechanism of CD39(+) Tregs on generation and differentiation of Th17 cells were explored. Our data demonstrated that the numbers of Th17 cells and CD39(+) Tregs were both increased in TPE compared with blood. Th17 cell numbers were correlated negatively with Tregs in TPE but not in blood. When naïve CD4(+) T cells were cultured with CD39(+) Tregs, Th17 cell numbers decreased as CD39(+) Treg numbers increased, and the addition of the anti-latency-associated peptide monoclonal antibody to the coculture reversed the inhibitory effect exerted by CD39(+) Tregs. This study shows that Th17/Treg imbalance exists in TPE and that pleural CD39(+) Tregs inhibit generation and differentiation of Th17 cells via a latency-associated peptide-dependent mechanism.
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CD39+ regulatory T cells suppress generation and differentiation of Th17 cells in human malignant pleural effusion via a LAP-dependent mechanism.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Both regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper IL-17-producing cells (Th17 cells) have been found to be involved in human malignancies, however, the possible implication of Tregs in regulating generation and differentiation of Th17 cells in malignant pleural effusion remains to be elucidated.
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Diagnostic accuracy of T-cell interferon-? release assays in tuberculous pleurisy: a meta-analysis.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy by analysis of pleural fluid using standard diagnostic tools is difficult. Recently, T-cell interferon-? release assays (IGRA) have been introduced for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of IGRA on both pleural fluid and peripheral blood, for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.
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Generation and differentiation of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells have been found to be increased in some human cancers; however, the possible implication of Th17 cells in regulating antitumor responses in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) remains to be elucidated. In the current study, distribution and phenotypic features of Th17 cells in both MPE and peripheral blood from patients with lung cancer were determined by flow cytometry or double immunofluorescence staining. The impacts of cytokines on Th17 cell generation and differentiation were explored. The chemoattractant activity of chemokines CCL20 and CCL22 for Th17 cells in vitro was also observed. It was found that the increased Th17 cells could be found in MPE compared with blood. The in vitro experiments showed that IL-1?, IL-6, IL-23, or their various combinations could promote Th17 cell generation and differentiation from naive CD4(+) T cells. MPE was chemotactic for Th17 cells, and this activity was partly blocked by anti-CCL20 and/or CCL22 Abs. Our data also showed that the accumulation of Th17 cells in MPE predicted improved patient survival. It could be concluded that the overrepresentation of Th17 cells in MPE might be due to Th17 cell differentiation and expansion stimulated by pleural proinflammatory cytokines and to recruitment of Th17 cells from peripheral blood induced by pleural chemokines CCL20 and CCL22. Furthermore, the accumulation of Th17 cells in MPE predicted improved patient survival. These data provide the basis for developing immune-boosting strategies based on ridding the cancer patient of this cell population.
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Effects of the TREM-1 pathway modulation during empyema in rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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The activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in the presence of microbial components amplifies the inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modulation of the TREM-1 pathway during empyema in rats.
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[Muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists enhanced the expression of CD(8)(+)CD(25)(+)Foxp(3)(+) regulatory T cells in stable COPD patients].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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to investigate the levels of peripheral CD(8)(+)CD(25)(+)Foxp(3)(+) regulatory T cells (CD(8)(+)CD(25)(+)Treg) in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and the effect of muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, tiotropium bromide, on the expression of CD(8)(+)CD(25)(+)Treg.
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CCL22 is involved in the recruitment of CD4+CD25 high T cells into tuberculous pleural effusions.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells are increased in tuberculous pleural effusions (TPE). However, the mechanism by which CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells infiltrate into the pleural cavity is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 are present in TPE, and the chemoattractant activity of these chemokines for infiltration of CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells into the pleural space.
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[Study on the chemical constituents from Clematis brevicaudata].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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To study the chemical constituents from Clematis brevicaudata.
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Controls of dissolved organic matter and chloride on mercury uptake by a marine diatom.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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The effects of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from different origins (estuarine, coastal, and diatom decomposed) and chloride (Cl) on the uptake of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylated mercury (MeHg) by the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated using radiotracer techniques. We first developed a new method to remove the surface adsorbed mercury and quantified the intracellular mercury uptake by the diatoms. The dominant mercury species (DOC or chloride complexes, based on the mercury speciation phase diagrams) was controlled by the concentrations of DOC and Cl(-), which could explain the effects of DOC and Cl(-) on mercury uptake. DOC complexes dominated Hg(II)s speciation and reduced its uptake in most seawater examined. DOC complexes dominated MeHgs speciation only at relatively high DOC levels (>100 muM), but it could affect MeHg uptake even when MeHg-Cl complexes dominated. In a mercury-DOC complex dominated system, both the origin and quantity of DOC greatly influenced mercury uptake by the diatoms. Although DOC generally inhibited the uptake of Hg(II) or MeHg, DOC resulting from diatom decomposition enhanced Hg(II) uptake. Under conditions dominated by chloride complexation, neutral mercury chloride species (HgCl(2) or MeHgCl) may control the uptake.
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Anthropometric measurement and analysis of the external nasal soft tissue in 119 young Han Chinese adults.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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A random sample of 119 young, healthy Han Chinese adults (56 men and 63 women) between the age of 18 and 25 years (mean, 22.7 y) in PR China was obtained for this study. By the guidance of standard methods, based on Farkass anthropometric measurements in craniofacial region, 12 nasal soft tissue landmarks and 12 linear and 3 angular measurements were chosen. The linear measurements were taken directly, whereas the angular measurements were taken by photogrammetric method. Eight nasal proportion indices were calculated according to the linear measurements. The application of the independent-samples t-test showed sex dimorphism in most parameters of the nasal region. All the linear measurements were larger in men than in women, whereas all the angular measurements were smaller in men than in women. The significant differences in partial parameters between men and women have been proved. Ten of 12 linear measurements, 1 of 3 angular measurements, and 3 of 8 nasal proportion indices showed significant sexual dimorphism (P < 0.01). Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the nasal anthropometric measurements and proportion indices of Han Chinese adults were different, to some extent. This study could provide credible and objective reference material for plastic and maxillofacial surgeons for the external nasal soft tissue evaluation and planning of the cosmetic nasal surgery. Besides, these results could be a useful guidance for preoperative and postoperative evaluations of secondary rhinoplasty in nasal deformity associated with cleft lip and palate.
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Correlates of methadone client retention: a prospective cohort study in Guizhou province, China.
Int. J. Drug Policy
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Methadone client retention levels and treatment doses of patients vary widely in methadone clinics across China. Because methadone clinics have been available in China only recently, this study explored the relationship between methadone dosage and client retention in methadone maintenance programmes in Guizhou province.
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[Infiltration of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) T cells into the allergic asthmatic airways caused by house dust mite antigen administration.].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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To investigate whether house dust mite (HDM) could induce CD(4)(+) CD(25)(+) T cells infiltration into asthmatic airways in patients vivo.
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[Effect of parathyroid hormone related protein on proliferation of human osteoblast-like cell under tension force].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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To investigate the effect of parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) on proliferation of human osteoblasts (MG-63) under the circumstance of tension force in vitro.
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Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg(-1) day(-1). The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day(-1) following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 microg Cu L(-1) for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.
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Differential expression of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr genes in sterile triploids and fertile tetraploids.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin hormone (GTH), and gonadotropin hormone receptor (GTHR) are the pivotal signal molecules of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, which plays a crucial role in regulating gonadal development in vertebrate. In this study, we comparatively analyze the expression characteristics of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr in red crucian carp diploids, triploids, and allotetraploids. The expression patterns of these genes are similar in the three fish ploidy types: the Gnrh2 gene is expressed in midbrains, pituitaries, and gonads; the Gthbeta gene is expressed in pituitaries; the Gthr gene is mainly expressed in gonads. These results indicate that the three genes participate in the regulation of gonadal development. By real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we find that, among these three fish ploidy types, the expression level of Gthr in the gonads of triploids is lower than those of diploids and tetraploids; this weakens the combination of GTHR with GTH released from the pituitary and leads to the sterility of triploids, since the gonad cannot produce enough sex steroids. In addition, the low expression of Gthr in triploids may affect the down-regulation of Gthbeta, which then affects the down-regulation of Gnrh2; hence, the expression levels of Gnrh2 and Gthbeta genes in triploids are the highest after the breeding season. In conclusion, the differential expression of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr in triploids and tetraploids is related to their sterility and bisexual fertility, respectively.
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The role of sorption and bacteria in mercury partitioning and bioavailability in artificial sediments.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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This study compared the relative importance of three types of sorption (organic matter-particle, mercury-organic matter and mercury-particle) in controlling the overall mercury partitioning and bioavailability in sediments. We found that all three types of sorption were important for both inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylated mercury (MeHg). Mercury-particle sorption was more important than mercury-fulvic acid (FA) sorption in increasing the mercury concentrations with increasing aging. Bioavailability (quantified by gut juice extraction from sipunculans) was mainly controlled by mercury-particle sorption, while FA-particle and mercury-FA sorption were not as important, especially for MeHg. Bacterial activity also increased the partitioning of Hg or MeHg in the sediments and was further facilitated by the presence of organic matter. The bioavailability of Hg or MeHg from sediments was only slightly influenced by bacterial activity. This study highlights the importance of sorption from various sources (especially mercury-particle sorption) as well as bacteria in controlling the partitioning and bioavailability of Hg or MeHg in sediments.
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CCL22 recruits CD4-positive CD25-positive regulatory T cells into malignant pleural effusion.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The aim of this study was to explore the presence of the chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 in malignant pleural effusion, and the chemoattractant activity of these chemokines on CD4-positive CD25-positive Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells infiltrating into the pleural space.
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Inorganic mercury binding with different sulfur species in anoxic sediments and their gut juice extractions.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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To investigate the roles of different sulfur (S) species in controlling the partitioning and bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) in anoxic sediments, we examined the differential binding of Hg with three key S species in anoxic sediment (mackinawite [FeS], pyrite [FeS2], and S(2-)) and then quantified their extraction by the gut juice of deposit-feeding sipunculans Sipunculus nudus. A sequential extraction method was simultaneously used to distinguish Hg sorption with different sediment components. All three S-containing sediment components could lead to a high binding of Hg in sediments, but most Hg was sorbed with FeS or FeS2 instead of formation of Hg sulfide despite the presence of S(2-) or humic acid. The gut juice extraction was relatively low and constant whenever FeS and FeS2 were in the sediment, indicating that both FeS and FeS2 controlled the Hg gut juice extraction and thus bioavailability. Mercury sorbed with FeS2 had higher gut juice extraction than that with FeS, while Hg sulfide was not extracted, strongly suggesting that Hg sorbed with FeS2 was more bioavailable than that with other S species. Mercury sorbed with FeS had very low bioavailability to sipunculans at a low Hg:S ratio in the sediment but was more bioavailable with increasing Hg:S ratio up to a maximum (approximately 1:10, mole based). The present study showed that different S species (FeS, FeS2) and Hg:S ratios significantly affected the binding and bioavailability of Hg in anoxic sediments.
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Diagnostic value of soluble mesothelin-related peptides for malignant mesothelioma: a meta-analysis.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Serum concentrations of soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) have been reported to be higher in patients with malignant mesothelioma than in healthy subjects and in patients with non-malignant mesothelioma diseases. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of SMRPs for diagnosing malignant mesothelioma.
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[Synthesis, characterization and electrocatalytic performance of Pd/CMK-3 for formic acid oxidation].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
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The synthesis of mesoporous carbons CMK-3 was implemented using SBA-15 samples as the hard templates and sucrose as the carbon source. Ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-3 supported palladium catalyst with a loading amount of 20% (Pd/CMK-3) was prepared by a complexing reduction method. XRD and TEM results showed that the p6mm hexagonal symmetric pore structures of CMK-3 were highly ordered and the Pd nanoparticles with the average size of 4. 2 nm and 4. 5 nm were well dispersed on CMK-3 and activated carbon (AC) surfaces respectively. Raman results revealed that CMK-3 presented higher graphitization and a higher electric conductivity than AC. The most probable pore size of CMK-3 was 4.5 nm, which is larger than that of AC (0.54 nm). The BET surface area of CMK-3 was 1 114 m2 x g(-1), which was also larger than that of AC(871 m2 x g(-1)). The mesoporous structure of CMK-3 was also observed. The Pd/CMK-3 catalyst exhibited more excellent initial electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation than Pd/AC by cyclic voltammetry (CV). But the chronoamperometry (CA) demonstrated that the stability of the two catalysts were almost equal after 100 s polarization at 0.2 V (vs. SCE).
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Influence of contact time and sediment composition on the bioavailability of Cd in sediments.
Environ. Pollut.
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Stable isotope (111)Cd was spiked into sediments of different organic content levels for 3 days to 2 months. Bioavailability of spiked Cd to deposit-feeders, assessed by in vitro Cd solubilization, generally decreased with contact time but became comparable with that of background Cd after 2 months. This could be explained by the gradual transfer of Cd from the more mobile geochemical phase (carbonate associated phase) to more refractory phases (Fe-Mn oxide associated phase, and organic associated phase) within 2 months. The sedimentary organic content had a weak effect on Cd solubilization, while the distribution of Cd in carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide associated phase could have a larger influence on the solubilization of sedimentary Cd and its change with contact time. The observations in this study emphasize the need to consider Cd sequestration over time in sediments of various compositions, which would be useful in risk assessment of contaminated sediments.
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[Effects of DNAX-associated protein 12 signal pathways on differentiation of mouse monocytes RAW264.7 into osteoclasts by tensile strain].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
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To explore the effect of DNAX-associated protein 12 (DAP12) pathway on the transformation from mouse monocytes RAW264.7 to osteoclasts induced by tensile strain.
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Differentiation and immune regulation of IL-9-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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IL-9-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th9 cells) have been reported to be involved in inflammation and immune diseases. However, the involvement of Th9 cells in malignancy has not been investigated.
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Interleukin 22-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion.
Cancer Lett.
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Th22 cells have been reported to be involved in human cancers. However, differentiation and immune regulation of Th22 cells in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) remain unknown. We noted that Th22 cell numbers were increased in MPE, and that IL-22 substantially promoted the proliferation and migratory activity of A549 cells. Moreover, IL-22 could strongly facilitate intercellular adhesion of A549 cells to pleural mesothelial cell monolayers. Our data revealed that the increase in Th22 cells in MPE was due to pleural cytokines and chemokines, and that Th22 exerted an important immune regulation on cancer cells in human pleural malignant environment.
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Cell origins and diagnostic accuracy of interleukin 27 in pleural effusions.
PLoS ONE
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of interleukin (IL)-27 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural IL-27. The concentrations of IL-27 were determined in pleural fluids and sera from 68 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, 63 malignant pleural effusion, 22 infectious pleural effusion, and 21 transudative pleural effusion. Flow cytometry was used to identify which pleural cell types expressed IL-27. It was found that the concentrations of pleural IL-27 in tuberculous group were significantly higher than those in malignant, infectious, and transudative groups, respectively. Pleural CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and mesothelial cells might be the cell sources for IL-27. IL-27 levels could be used for diagnostic purpose for tuberculous pleural effusion, with the cut off value of 1,007 ng/L, IL-27 had a sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 99.1% for differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from non-tuberculous pleural effusions. Therefore, compared to non-tuberculous pleural effusions, IL-27 appeared to be increased in tuberculous pleural effusion. IL-27 in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from pleural effusions with the other causes.
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Elevated expressions of GH/IGF axis genes in triploid crucian carp.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
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Growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are pivotal signaling factors of the GH/IGF axis, which plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates. In this study, GH, GHR and IGF-1 cDNAs were cloned from triploid and tetraploid crucian carp. In addition, mRNA expression levels were characterized in diploid red crucian carp, triploids and tetraploids. Reverse transcriptase PCR indicated that GH genes were only expressed in the pituitary, while GHR and IGF-1 were widely expressed in all tested tissues. Real-time PCR study of different seasonal profiles showed that triploids had significantly higher expression of the studied genes during both the prespawning and the spawning season. Although different temperatures (22, 26 and 30°C) showed no significant effects on GH, GHR and IGF-1 mRNA expression in either diploids or triploids, triploids had higher expression levels than diploids at each temperature. After 1 week of fasting, the expression of all studied genes was reduced in both diploids and triploids, while the expressions levels were higher in triploids than in diploids. These results suggest that the elevated expression of GH/IGF axis genes in triploids plays a crucial role in the faster growth rate of triploids.
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Characterization and dietary regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in different ploidy fishes.
Amino Acids
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Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays a crucial role in amino acid deamination and has been used as an inductor of nutrients metabolism. In this study, we cloned and analyzed the GDH cDNAs in diploids (red crucian carp), triploids and tetraploids and characterized their expression profiles upon dietary treatments. Results showed a high sequence similarity of GDH among the three kinds of ploidy fishes and other vertebrates. Expression analysis revealed that GDH exhibited a distinct spatial pattern of expression in different types of fishes. The triploids and tetraploids had higher levels of expression than diploids in heart, liver, gill, muscle, fore-gut and mid-gut. The GDH expression was also developmentally regulated with a stronger expression around blastula stage. The maternal GDH transcripts were first detected from eggs and their expression dropped down from the gastrula stage to heart beat stage. Adult triploids showed the highest levels of GDH expression in liver during breeding season which may contribute to the good appetite and fast growth. In addition, triploids exhibited high growth rates and excess GDH expression compared with other two types of fishes. The liver GDH enzyme activities were also higher in triploids than red crucian carp and tetraploids. Moreover, GDH expression is regulated by dietary protein levels. Fish fed with either high or low protein diets showed higher levels of GDH expression. In summary, our results demonstrated for the first time that the different ploidy fishes had different patterns of GDH mRNA expression during development, breeding and non-breeding seasons, and as well dietary effects from different protein levels in diet. These data indicate that abundant GDH expression may play an important role in growth rates in triploids.
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Effect of angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab on survival in patients with cancer: a meta-analysis of the published literature.
PLoS ONE
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Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor which has been used in conjunction with other anti-cancer agents in the treatment of patients with many cancers. It remains controversial whether bevacizumab can prolong survival in cancer patients. This meta-analysis was therefore performed to evaluate effect of bevacizumab on survival in cancer patients. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for English-language studies of randomized controlled trials comparing bevacizumab with control therapy published through February 8, 2012. Progression-free survival, overall survival, and one-year survival rate were analyzed using random- or fixed-effects model. Thirty one assessable randomized controlled trials were identified. A significant improvement in progression-free survival in cancer patients was attributable to bevacizumab compared with control therapy (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.76; p<0.001). Overall survival was also significantly longer in patients were treated with bevacizumab (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.91; p<0.001). The significant benefit in one-year survival rate was further seen in cancer patients receiving bevacizumab (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 1.41; p<0.001). Current evidences showed that bevacizumab prolong progression-free survival and overall survival, and increase one-year survival rate in cancer patients as compared with control therapy.
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Modified orthotopic spiral ileal bladder substitution: surgical technique and long-term results.
Urol. Oncol.
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The objectives of this study are to introduce the surgical technique of a modified spiral orthotopic ileal neobladder and to assess the long-term outcomes.
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Effects of aging on the digestive solubilization of Cu from sediments.
Environ. Pollut.
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Solubilization of particulate Cu by different solutions, mimicking digestive fluids of deposit-feeders, was quantified in stable isotope (65)Cu-spiked sediments (with 3 days-2 months Cu-sediment contact time or aging). Copper solubilization generally decreased with prolonged aging. However, such decrease became less evident after 1 month and equilibrium of Cu in sediments could be reached after 2 months. Aging effects on Cu solubilization can be explained by the changes in Cu geochemical fractionation with aging: Cu generally transferred from more mobile phases (carbonate and Fe-Mn associated) to more refractory phases (organic associated and residual phase). Besides Cu geochemical fractionation, digestive fluid composition and different Cu solubilization pathways involved, as well as sedimentary organic content, could all affect the digestive solubilization of Cu and its change with aging. Our results emphasize the necessity of considering Cu aging in laboratory sediment toxicity experiments, and in risk assessment of Cu contaminated sediments.
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Differentiation and recruitment of Th9 cells stimulated by pleural mesothelial cells in human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
PLoS ONE
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Newly discovered IL-9-producing CD4(+) helper T cells (Th9 cells) have been reported to contribute to tissue inflammation and immune responses, however, differentiation and immune regulation of Th9 cells in tuberculosis remain unknown. In the present study, our data showed that increased Th9 cells with the phenotype of effector memory cells were found to be in tuberculous pleural effusion as compared with blood. TGF-? was essential for Th9 cell differentiation from naïve CD4(+) T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in vitro for 5 h, and addition of IL-1?, IL-4 or IL-6 further augmented Th9 cell differentiation. Tuberculous pleural effusion and supernatants of cultured pleural mesothelial cells were chemotactic for Th9 cells, and this activity was partly blocked by anti-CCL20 antibody. IL-9 promoted the pleural mesothelial cell repairing and inhibited IFN-?-induced pleural mesothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, pleural mesothelial cells promoted Th9 cell differentiation by presenting antigen. Collectively, these data provide new information concerning Th9 cells, in particular the collaborative immune regulation between Th9 cells and pleural mesothelial cells in human M. tuberculosis infection. In particular, pleural mesothelial cells were able to function as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate Th9 cell differentiation.
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Human chorionic gonadotropin suppresses expression of Piwis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovaries.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
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Piwi proteins are required for germline maintenance and gonad development. In this study, the cDNAs encoding Piwil1 and Piwil2 were cloned and sequenced from the common carp. The full-length cDNA of Piwil1 and Piwil2 were 3114 and 3421bp, encoding 858 and 1034 amino acids including PAZ domain and PIWI domain, respectively. In addition, the Piwil1 and Piwil2 proteins shared high homology with other teleosts. Reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the Piwi mRNAs were exclusively expressed in adult testes and ovaries. Using real-time PCR, expression study of different developmental profiles showed that Piwil1 and Piwil2 were down-regulated during pre-ovulation. Further, human chorionic gonadotropin treatment in ovaries (in vivo) and in cultured ovaries cells (in vitro) resulted in down-regulation of Piwi RNAs. These results suggest that the decreased expression which was regulated by hormone plays a crucial role during ovarian differentiation and development.
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RNAi-directed down-regulation of RSV results in increased resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Biotechnol. Lett.
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Rice stripe disease (RSD), caused by rice stripe virus (RSV), is a serious disease in temperate rice-growing areas. We have created an RNAi construct containing coat protein gene (CP) and disease specific protein gene (SP) sequences from RSV. The RNAi construct was transformed into two susceptible japonica varieties, Suyunuo and Guanglingxiangjing, to develop resistance against RSD. The homozygous progeny of rice plants in the T(5) and T(7) generations containing RNAi constructs, after self-fertilization were strongly resistant to viral infection. RT-PCR indicated that viral replication of SP and CP in the transgenic plants was significantly inhibited. There were no obvious morphological or developmental differences between the transgenic and wild-type plants from seedling stage to maturity. The excellent agronomic traits of these two varieties, such as high yield and good quality were maintained. Suppression of virus genes using RNAi is therefore a practical and effective strategy for controlling viral infection in crops.
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Uptake of dissolved organic carbon-complexed ??Cu by the green mussel Perna viridis.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
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Stable Cu isotope ((65)Cu) was complexed with various representative dissolved organic carbon (DOC) types, including coastal seawater DOC, fulvic acid (FA), cyanobacteria spirulina (SP) DOC, histidine (His), cysteine (Cys), and lipophilic diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) at different concentrations. The uptake of these dissolved Cu species by the coastal green mussel Perna viridis was quantified for the first time. Copper complexed with different DOC types were taken up in some measure by mussels, depending on the DOC types. However, complexation generally reduced Cu uptake as compared to that of inorganic Cu species, and DOC type-specific negative relationships were found between DOC levels and Cu uptake. Strong Cu binding sites (including His and organic sulfur functional groups) within DOC appeared to control the inhibitory effects of DOC on Cu uptake, possibly due to the competitive binding of Cu between the dissolved phase and biological membranes. Therefore, differences in strong Cu binding site levels may explain the differences in bioavailability of Cu complexed with different types of DOC. At the same time, the variations in Cu-DOC uptake may also be partly attributed to the absorption of Cu-DOC complexes, especially for the small Cu-DOC complexes (e.g., Cu-Cys, Cu-His, or Cu-DDC). Our study highlights the importance of considering the specificity of Cu-DOC complexes when assessing biological exposure to dissolved Cu in natural waters, especially during events, such as phytoplankton bloom periods, that could modify DOC composition and concentrations.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.