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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
MicroRNA-223 coordinates cholesterol homeostasis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes and contribute to metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-223 (miR-223), an miRNA previously associated with inflammation, also controls multiple mechanisms associated with cholesterol metabolism. miR-223 promoter activity and mature levels were found to be linked to cellular cholesterol states in hepatoma cells. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia was associated with increased hepatic miR-223 levels in athero-prone mice. miR-223 was found to regulate high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) uptake, through direct targeting and repression of scavenger receptor BI, and to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis through the direct repression of sterol enzymes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and methylsterol monooxygenase 1 in humans. Additionally, miR-223 was found to indirectly promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression (mRNA and protein) through Sp3, thereby enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux. Finally, genetic ablation of miR-223 in mice resulted in increased HDL-C levels and particle size, as well as increased hepatic and plasma total cholesterol levels. In summary, we identified a critical role for miR-223 in systemic cholesterol regulation by coordinated posttranscriptional control of multiple genes in lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism.
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HIV protein Nef causes dyslipidemia and formation of foam cells in mouse models of atherosclerosis.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Patients with HIV are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study we investigated the effect of Nef, a secreted HIV protein responsible for the impairment of cholesterol efflux, on the development of atherosclerosis in two animal models. ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet and C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet were injected with recombinant Nef (40 ng/injection) or vehicle, and the effects of Nef on development of atherosclerosis, inflammation, and dyslipidemia were assessed. In apoE(-/-) mice, Nef significantly increased the size of atherosclerotic lesions and caused vessel remodeling. Nef caused elevation of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the plasma while reducing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. These changes were accompanied by a reduction of ABCA1 abundance in the liver, but not in the vessels. In C57BL/6 mice, Nef caused a significant number of lipid-laden macrophages presented in adventitia of the vessels; these cells were absent from the vessels of control mice. Nef caused sharp elevations of plasma triglyceride levels and body weight. Taken together, our findings suggest that Nef causes dyslipidemia and accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages within the vessel wall, supporting the role of Nef in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.-Cui, H. L., Ditiatkovski, M., Kesani, R., Bobryshev, Y. V., Liu, Y., Geyer, M., Mukhamedova, N., Bukrinsky, M., Sviridov, D. HIV protein Nef causes dyslipidemia and formation of foam cells in mouse models of atherosclerosis.
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Prion Infection Impairs Cholesterol Metabolism in Neuronal Cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Conversion of prion protein (PrPC) into a pathological isoform (PrPSc) during prion infection occurs in lipid rafts and is dependent on cholesterol. Here we show that prion infection increases the abundance of cholesterol transporter, ABCA1, but reduces cholesterol efflux from neuronal cells leading to accumulation of cellular cholesterol. Increased abundance of ABCA1 in prion disease was confirmed in prion-infected mice. Mechanistically, conversion of PrPC to the pathological isoform led to PrPSc accumulation in rafts, displacement of ABCA1 from rafts and the cell surface, and enhanced internalization of ABCA1. These effects were abolished with reversal of prion infection or by loading cells with cholesterol. Stimulation of ABCA1 expression with LXR agonist or overexpression of heterologous ABCA1 reduced the conversion of prion protein into the pathological form upon infection. These findings demonstrate a reciprocal connection between prion infection and cellular cholesterol metabolism which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of prion infection in neuronal cells.
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Liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in aqueous halloysite nanotube dispersions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) aqueous dispersions have been investigated by applying polarized optical microscopy (POM), macroscopic observation, rheometer, small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The liquid crystalline phase starts to form at the HNT concentration of 1 wt %, and a full liquid crystalline phase forms at the HNT concentration of 25 wt % as observed by POM and macroscopic observation. Rheological measurements indicate a typical shear flow behavior for the HNT aqueous dispersions with concentrations above 20 wt % and further confirm that the sol-gel transition occurs at the HNT concentration of 37 wt %. Furthermore, the HNT aqueous dispersions exhibit pH-induced gelation with more intense birefringence when hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added. The above findings shed light on the phase behaviors of diversely topological HNTs and lay the foundation for fabrication of the long-range ordered nano-objects.
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Antiretroviral compounds and cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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HIV infection is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. The effect of antiretroviral drugs on metabolism of atherogenic very low and low density lipoproteins is well studied, but a possible effect of these drugs on reverse cholesterol transport is still unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various classes of anti-HIV drugs on cellular cholesterol efflux.
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HIV-1 Nef mobilizes lipid rafts in macrophages through a pathway that competes with ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux.
J. Lipid Res.
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HIV infection, through the actions of viral accessory protein Nef, impairs activity of cholesterol transporter ABCA1, inhibiting cholesterol efflux from macrophages and elevating the risk of atherosclerosis. Nef also induces lipid raft formation. In this study, we demonstrate that these activities are tightly linked and affect macrophage function and HIV replication. Nef stimulated lipid raft formation in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, and lipid rafts were also mobilized in HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nef-mediated transfer of cholesterol to lipid rafts competed with the ABCA1-dependent pathway of cholesterol efflux, and pharmacological inhibition of ABCA1 functionality or suppression of ABCA1 expression by RNAi increased Nef-dependent delivery of cholesterol to lipid rafts. Nef reduced cell-surface accessibility of ABCA1 and induced ABCA1 catabolism via the lysosomal pathway. Despite increasing the abundance of lipid rafts, expression of Nef impaired phagocytic functions of macrophages. The infectivity of the virus produced in natural target cells of HIV-1 negatively correlated with the level of ABCA1. These findings demonstrate that Nef-dependent inhibition of ABCA1 is an essential component of the viral replication strategy and underscore the role of ABCA1 as an innate anti-HIV factor.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.