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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Marek's disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal and thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves with severe clinical symptoms that include transient paralysis, anemia, weight loss, and neurologic disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are considered the largest lymphoid aggregates of avian gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Along with Peyer's patches, CT elicits protective immune responses against bacterial and viral pathogens in the intestinal tract of avian species. In this study we investigated the effect of MDV infection on CT structural changes and cytokine gene expression in two MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines. The histopathologic analysis revealed that MDV causes the loss of germinal follicular centers within the CT of the resistant line while inducing a severe, near-total lymphoid depletion in the susceptible line during cytolytic infection. The lymphoid depletion, however, recovered approximately 2 wk postinfection but the loss of germinal centers persisted during the latent phase of infection in both lines. The atrophy of this important GALT was transient and there were no visible differences between the CT of the infected and control birds of either line by 21 days postinfection. Of the genes tested, IFN-beta and IFN-gamma were up regulated in the CT of both infected lines during lytic infection. The expression levels of both genes were much higher in the susceptible line than in the resistant line. A similar pattern of expression was observed for IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and iNOS. IL-12 was up regulated in the CT of birds of the susceptible line during all three phases of infection. An over expression of IL-18 was also observed in CT of the susceptible line during lytic and latent phases of infection. IL-8 was the only cytokine expressed at higher levels in the CT of the resistant line during the lytic and reactivation phases of infection. The histopathologic observations and gene expression profiling are further discussed.
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Host genetic resistance to Marek's disease sustains protective efficacy of herpesvirus of turkey in both experimental and commercial lines of chickens.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Marek's disease (MD) remains a continual threat to the poultry industry worldwide as the MD virus continues evolving in virulence. MD has been controlled primarily by intensive use of vaccines since 1969. Based on the antigenic and pathogenic differences of the viruses that the vaccines were derived from, commercially available MD vaccines are classified into three categories, MDV-1, -2, and -3 vaccines. This study was designed to compare the protective efficacy of MDV-1 (CVI988/Rispens) and MDV-3 (HVT) vaccines against challenge of a very virulent plus strain of Marek's disease virus (vv+MDV) in experimental and commercial egg-layer lines of chickens under controlled experimental conditions. The two experimental lines (63 and 72) of chickens carry a uniform MHC B*2 haplotype and are known to differ in resistance to MD. One of the two commercial egg-layer lines (WL and BL) segregates for three MHC haplotypes (B*2, B*15, and B*21); the other is unclear. MD incidences of the unvaccinated groups of both experimental lines and both commercial lines were 100% or close to 100% induced by the vv+MDV, 648A. Survived day patterns of the unvaccinated groups significantly differed between the two experimental lines, but did not between the two commercial lines, which suggested the two experimental lines do differ in resistance to MD but not between the two commercial lines. At manufacturers' recommended vaccine dosage, two HVTs conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant line 63 chickens as did both CVI988/Rispens used in this study. The two HVTs also conveyed comparable protection for both commercial lines of chickens as did one of two CVI988/Rispens (CVI988/Rispens-A). At a 2000PFU uniform dose, HVT and CVI988/Rispens again conveyed comparable protection for the MD resistant experimental line of chickens. The findings suggest vaccine protective efficacy is modulated by factors including the types and the sources of vaccines and the genetic backgrounds of chickens. The findings also suggest HVT delivers equal protection in MD resistant lines of chickens as does the industry-recognized golden standard of MD vaccine, CVI988/Rispens.
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gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis tumours. We have found a novel tumour-suppressor miRNA, gga-miR-375, associated with avian leukosis tumorigenesis by miRNA microarray in a previous report. We have also previously studied the biological function of gga-miR-375; Overexpression of gga-miR-375 significantly inhibited DF-1 cell proliferation, and significantly reduced the expression of yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) by repressing the activity of a luciferase reporter carrying the 3'-untranslated region of YAP1. This indicates that gga-miR-375 is frequently downregulated in avian leukosis by inhibiting cell proliferation through YAP1 oncogene targeting. Overexpression of gga-miR-375 markedly promoted serum starvation induced apoptosis, and there may be the reason why the tumour cycle is so long in the infected chickens. In vivo assays, gga-miR-375 was significantly downregulated in chicken livers 20 days after infection with ALV-J, and YAP1 was significantly upregulated 20 days after ALV-J infection (P<0.05). We also found that expression of cyclin E, an important regulator of cell cycle progression, was significantly upregulated (P<0.05). Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), which is related to caspase-dependent apoptosis, was also significantly upregulated after infection. Our data suggests that gga-miR-375 may function as a tumour suppressor thereby regulating cancer cell proliferation and it plays a key role in avian leukosis tumorigenesis.
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Properties of a meq-deleted rmd5 Mareks disease vaccine: protection against virulent MDV challenge and induction of lymphoid organ atrophy are simultaneously attenuated by serial passage in vitro.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We have previously shown that deletion of the meq gene from the genome of Cosmid-cloned rMd5 strain of Mareks disease virus (MDV-1) resulted in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of the virus. The rMd5deltaMeq (Meq null) virus has been shown to be an excellent vaccine in maternal antibody positive (MAb+) chickens challenged with a very virulent plus (vv+) strain of MDV, 648A. The only drawback was that it retained its ability to induce bursa and thymus atrophy (BTA) like that of the parental rMd5 in maternal antibody negative (MAb-) chickens. We recently reported that the attenuated Meq null virus did not induce BTA at the 40th cell culture passage onward. Its protective ability against challenge with vv+ MDV, strain 686 was similar to the original virus at the 19th passage in MAb- chickens. In this study, we compared the same series of attenuated meq null viruses in commercial chickens. In commercial chickens with MAb, the attenuated viruses quickly lost protection with increasing cell culture attenuation. These data suggest that although attenuation of these meq null viruses eliminated BTA, it had no influence on their protective efficacy in MAb- chickens. However, in commercial chickens (MAb+), the best protection was provided by the original 19th passage; the attenuated 40th passage was as good as one of the currently commercial CVI988/Rispens vaccine, and it did not induce BTA. Therefore, protection against virulent MDV challenge and induction of lymphoid organ atrophy are simultaneously attenuated by serial passage in vitro.
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Deletion of Mareks disease virus large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase impairs virus growth in vitro and in vivo.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Mareks disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus, is the causative agent of a neoplastic disease in domestic chickens called Mareks disease (MD). In the unique long (UL) region of the MDV genome, open reading frames UL39 and UL40 encode the large and small subunits of the ribonucleotide reductase (RR) enzyme, named RR1 and RR2, respectively. MDV RR is distinguishable from that present in chicken and duck cells by monoclonal antibody T81. Using recombinant DNA technology we have generated a mutant MDV (Md5deltaRR1) in which RR1 was deleted. PCR amplification of the RR gene in Md5deltaRR1-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) confirmed the deletion of the 2.4 kb RR1 gene with a resultant amplicon of a 640-bp fragment. Restriction enzyme digests with SalI confirmed a UL39 deletion and the absence of gross rearrangement. The biologic characteristics of Md5deltaRR1 virus were studied in vitro and in vivo. The Md5deltaRR1 replicated in DEF, but significantly slower than parental Md5-BAC, suggesting that RR is important but not essential for replication in fibroblasts. In vivo studies, however, showed that the RR1 deletion virus was impaired for its ability to replicate in chickens. Inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with Md5deltaRR1 showed the mutant virus is nonpathogenic and does not induce MD in birds. A revertant virus, Md5deltaRR1/R, was generated with the restored phenotype of the parental Md5-BAC in vivo, indicating that RR is essential for replication of the virus in chickens. Protection studies in SPF chickens indicated that the Md5deltaRR1 virus is not a candidate vaccine against MD.
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DNA methylation down-regulates EGFR expression in chickens.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a growth-factor-receptor tyrosine kinase, is up-regulated in numerous tumors, which provides a good target for cancer therapy. Although it has been documented that oncoviruses are responsible for the activation of EGFR in tumors, the impact of Mareks disease virus (MDV) infection on EGFR has not yet been studied. We performed quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR to check EGFR expression and found that it was significantly down-regulated after MDV infection. To explore the mechanism of EGFR repression, we examined the level of methylation of the EGFR promoter. The methylation level was significantly increased at 21 days postinfection, indicating a potential role of promoter methylation in EGFR repression.
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DNMT gene expression and methylome in Mareks disease resistant and susceptible chickens prior to and following infection by MDV.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Mareks disease (MD) is characterized as a T cell lymphoma induced by a cell-associated ?-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus type 1 (MDV1). As with many viral infectious diseases, DNA methylation variations were observed in the progression of MD; these variations are thought to play an important role in host-virus interactions. We observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) and 3b (DNMT3b) were differentially expressed in chicken MD-resistant line 6 3 and MD-susceptible line 7 2 at 21 d after MDV infection. To better understand the role of methylation variation induced by MDV infection in both chicken lines, we mapped the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in each line using Methyl-MAPS (methylation mapping analysis by paired-end sequencing). Collectively, the data sets collected in this study provide a more comprehensive picture of the chicken methylome. Overall, methylation levels were reduced in chickens from the resistant line 6 3 after MDV infection. We identified 11,512 infection-induced differential methylation regions (iDMRs). The number of iDMRs was larger in line 7 2 than in line 6 3, and most of iDMRs found in line 6 3 were overlapped with the iDMRs found in line 7 2. We further showed that in vitro methylation levels were associated with MDV replication, and found that MDV propagation in the infected cells was restricted by pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation. Our results suggest that DNA methylation in the host may be associated with disease resistance or susceptibility. The methylation variations induced by viral infection may consequentially change the host transcriptome and result in diverse disease outcomes.
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Genome-wide copy number variant analysis in inbred chickens lines with different susceptibility to Mareks disease.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Breeding of genetically resistant chickens to Mareks disease (MD) is a vital strategy to poultry health. To find the markers underlying the genetic resistance to MD, copy number variation (CNV) was examined in inbred MD-resistant and -susceptible chicken lines. A total of 45 CNVs were found in four lines of chickens, and 28 were potentially involved in immune response and cell proliferation, etc. Importantly, two CNVs related with MD resistance were transmitted to descendent recombinant congenic lines that differ in susceptibility to MD. Our findings may lead to better strategies for genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry.
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A comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of rMd5deltaMeq and CVI988/ Rispens against a vv+ strain of Mareks disease virus infection in a series of recombinant congenic strains of White Leghorn chickens.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly infectious, oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus known as Mareks disease virus (MDV). MD is presently controlled by vaccination. Current MD vaccines include attenuated serotype 1 strains (e.g., CVI988/Rispens), avirulent serotype 2 (SB-1), and serotype 3 (HVT) MDV strains. In addition, recombinant MDV strains have been developed as potential new and more efficient vaccines to sustain the success of MD control in poultry. One of the candidate recombinant MDV strains, named rMd5deltaMeq, was derived from Md5, a very virulent strain of MDV lacking the MDV oncogene Meq. Our earlier reports suggest that rMd5deltaMeq provided protection equally well or better than commonly used MD vaccines in experimental and commercial lines of chickens challenged with very virulent plus (vv+) strains of MDV. In this study, maternal antibody-positive (trial 1) and negative (trial 2) chickens from a series of relatively MD resistant lines were either vaccinated with the rMd5deltaMeq or CVI988/Rispens followed by infection of a vv+ strain of MDV, 648A, passage 10. This report presents experimental evidence that the rMd5deltaMeq protected significantly better than the CVI988/Rispens (P < 0.01) in the relatively resistant experimental lines of chickens challenged with the vv+ strain of MDV. Together with early reports, the rMd5deltaMeq appeared to provide better protection, comparing with the most efficacious commercially available vaccine, CVI988/Rispens, for control of MD in lines of chickens regardless of their genetic background.
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Gene expression profiling in rMd5- and rMd5deltameq-infected chickens.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens caused by a highly contagious and oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). MD is characterized by bursal-thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves with severe clinical signs that include transient paralysis, anemia, weight loss, and neurologic disorders. Using overlapping cosmids- and BAC-cloned MDV, it has been shown that MDV-encoded vIL-8, pp38, vTR, vLIP, RLORF4, and meq are among the many essential genes that play critical roles in viral pathogenesis. Of all the genes investigated so far, only meq has been shown to be consistently expressed in all MDV-derived tumors and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Meq is a basic leucine-zipper protein that shares homology with the jun/fos family of transcriptional factors. There are two copies of meq gene within the MDV genome that are only present in the serotype-1 strains. It has been shown conclusively that deletion of meq results in loss of transformation of T cells in chickens, with no effect on the early cytolytic phase of infection in lymphoid organs, which is essential for induction of innate and adaptive immunity. The goal of this study was to investigate 1) the effect of the meq oncogene on the expression pattern of select chicken immune and nonimmune-related genes, and 2) its potential role in MDV-induced apoptosis. We used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression profiling of a panel of chicken genes in rMd5- and rMd5deltameq-infected chickens at 5, 14, 21, and 35 days postinfection (dpi). Although the transcriptional activities of several immune-related genes, including IL-6, IL-10, cMGF, GM-CSF, iNOS, IFNbeta, and INFgamma, were higher in rMd5deltameq-infected chickens at 5 dpi when compared to the rMd5-infected birds, the differences in expression levels of the tested genes between the two viral constructs were not significant. In addition, a reduction in the transcriptional activity of Bdcl2 in recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV)+meq-infected chicken embryonic fibroblasts suggested that meq alone did not impede FPV-induced apoptosis. The likely suppressive nature and anti-inflammatory function of the meq oncogene and its possible role in virus-induced cell death is discussed.
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MiRNA expression signatures induced by Mareks disease virus infection in chickens.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Emerging evidence suggests that differential miRNA expression is associated with viral infection and cancer. Mareks disease virus infection induces lymphoma in chickens. However, the host defense response against Mareks disease (MD) progression remains poorly understood. Here, we utilized microarrays to screen miRNAs that were sensitive to Mareks disease virus (MDV) infection. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed the microarray data and revealed expression patterns of some miRNAs in tumor samples. Chicken miRNA gga-miR-15b, which was reduced in infected susceptible chickens and splenic tumors, controlled the expression of ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). ATF2 was significantly increased in the same group. Our results indicated that differential expression of miRNA in resistant and susceptible chickens was caused by MDV infection, which effectively influenced protein expression of ATF2. This latter result might be related to Mareks disease resistance/susceptibility.
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Evaluation of factors affecting vaccine efficacy of recombinant Mareks disease virus lacking the Meq oncogene in chickens.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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We previously reported that deletion of the Meq gene from the oncogenic rMd5 virus rendered it apathogenic for chickens. Here we examined multiple factors affecting Mareks disease vaccine efficacy of this nonpathogenic recombinant Meq null rMd5 virus (rMd5deltaMeq). These factors included host genetics (MHC haplotype), strain or dose of challenge virus, vaccine challenge intervals, and maternal antibody status of the vaccinated chicks. Studies on host genetics were carried out in five chicken lines comprising four different MHC B-haplotypes. Results showed that chicken lines tested were highly protected, with protective indexes of 100% (B*2/*15), 94% (B*2/*2), 87% (B*19/*19), and 83% (B*21/*21). At a challenge dose above 8000 plaque-forming units, differences in protection were observed between the two highly virulent strains examined (648A and 686). The interval between vaccination and challenge indicated a protective efficacy from 0 to 2 days varied greatly (12%-82%) after challenge with vv+686, the most virulent virus. Less variation and significant protection began at 3 days post vaccination and reached a maximum at 5 days post vaccination with about 80%-100% protection. Taken together, our results indicate that the factors examined in this study are important for vaccine efficacy and need to be considered in comparative evaluations of vaccines.
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Down-regulation of promoter methylation level of CD4 gene after MDV infection in MD-susceptible chicken line.
BMC Proc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Mareks disease virus (MDV) is an oncovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in susceptible chickens, and may affect the epigenetic stability of the CD4 gene. The purpose of this study was to find the effect of MDV infection on DNA methylation status of the CD4 gene differed between MD-resistant (L63) and -susceptible (L72) chicken lines.
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Temporal transcriptome changes induced by MDV in Mareks disease-resistant and -susceptible inbred chickens.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens caused by Mareks disease virus (MDV) and characterized by T cell lymphoma and infiltration of lymphoid cells into various organs such as liver, spleen, peripheral nerves and muscle. Resistance to MD and disease risk have long been thought to be influenced both by genetic and environmental factors, the combination of which contributes to the observed outcome in an individual. We hypothesize that after MDV infection, genes related to MD-resistance or -susceptibility may exhibit different trends in transcriptional activity in chicken lines having a varying degree of resistance to MD.
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Comparative evaluation of vaccine efficacy of recombinant Mareks disease virus vaccine lacking Meq oncogene in commercial chickens.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Mareks disease virus (MDV) oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5 Delta Meq, in which the oncogene meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory (ADOL) 15I(5) x 7(1) chickens vaccinated with rMd5 Delta Meq virus or an ADOL preparation of CVI988/Rispens indicated that rMd5 Delta Meq provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens when challenged with the very virulent plus MDV 648A strain. In the present study we set to investigate the vaccine efficacy of rMd5 Delta Meq in the field compared to several commercial preparations of CVI988/Rispens. Three large-scale field experiments, in which seeder chickens were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of 686, vv+ MDV, were conducted in a model developed by Hy-Line International. In addition, comparisons were made with bivalent vaccine (HVT+SB-1), HVT alone and several serotype 3 HVT-vectored vaccines individually or in combination with CVI988/Rispens. Experimental results showed that addition of HVT to either of the two commercial CVI988/Rispens preparations tested (A or B) did not enhance protection conferred by CVI988/Rispens alone and that rMd5 Delta Meq was a better or equal vaccine compared to any of the CVI988/Rispens vaccines tested under the conditions of the field trials presented herein. Our results also emphasized the complexity of factors affecting vaccine efficacy and the importance of challenge dose in protection.
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Alternative splicing variants and DNA methylation status of BDNF in inbred chicken lines.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has multiple alternative splicing variants and plays diverse biological functions in mammals, including neuronal survival, cholesterol metabolism, cell differentiation and tumor development. However, genomic structures of chicken BDNF (cBDNF) variants and its potential functions are still undefined. Here, we characterized two novel alternative splicing variants of cBDNF, cBDNF1 and cBDNF2, via combining comparative genomics methods and molecular techniques in inbred chicken line 6(3) and line 7(2), which have been developed to be resistant and susceptible, respectively, to Mareks disease tumor since 1939. Both cBDNFs consist of a bipartite transcript, with different 5 exons, exon I (298 bp) in cBDNF1 and exon II (286 bp) in cBDNF2, each of which is spliced to the common 3 exon IV. Exon I and IV are highly conserved between chicken and mammals, whereas exon II is unique for chicken. The amino acid sequence of cBDNF1 contains 8 additional amino acids in the N terminal compared to cBDNF2. cBDNF1 and cBDNF2 were only expressed in the hypothalamus among eight tissues, and cBDNF2 showed lower expression than that of cBDNF1 in both lines. The expression level of cBDNF1 was significantly higher in line 7(2) than in line 6(3) (P<0.01). Notably, the DNA methylation levels on the cis-regulatory region of cBDNF1 was negatively correlated with its expression level, which suggests that the mRNA expression level of cBDNF1 may be related to the DNA methylation status in the chickens. We also discussed a potential role of variant cBDNF1 in MD tumor resistance and susceptibility.
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Complete genome sequence of an avian leukosis virus isolate associated with hemangioma and myeloid leukosis in egg-type and meat-type chickens.
J. Virol.
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Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-type chickens that developed myeloid leukosis (ML). In recent years, field cases of hemangioma (HE) or HE and ML, rather than ML alone, have been reported in commercial layer flocks exposed to ALV-J with a high incidence in China. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of an ALV-J isolate that caused both HE and ML in egg-type and meat-type chickens in China. These findings will provide additional insights into the molecular characteristics in genomes, host range, and pathogenicity of ALV-J.
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Complete genome sequence of a novel H9N2 subtype influenza virus FJG9 strain in China reveals a natural reassortant event.
J. Virol.
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A/chicken/FJ/G9/09 (FJ/G9) is an H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) strain causing high morbidity that was isolated from broilers in Fujian Province of China in 2009. FJ/G9 has been used as the vaccine strain against H9N2 AIV infection in Fujian Province of China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of FJ/G9 with natural six-way reassortment, which is the most complex genotype strain in China and even in the world so far. The present findings will aid in understanding the complexity and diversity of H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus.
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Histone methylation analysis and pathway predictions in chickens after MDV infection.
PLoS ONE
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease in chicken induced by Mareks disease virus (MDV). Although studies have focused on the genetic differences between the resistant and susceptible chicken, less is known about the role of epigenetic factors in MD. In this study, genome-wide histone modifications in the non-MHC-associated resistant and susceptible chicken lines were examined. We found that tri-methylation at histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4me3) enrichment is positively correlated with the expression of protein coding genes as well as microRNA (miRNA) genes, whereas tri-methylation at histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27me3) exhibits a negative correlation. By identifying line-specific histone modifications in MDV infection, we found unique H3K4me3 islands in the resistant chicken activated genes, which are related to immune response and cell adhesion. Interestingly, we also found some miRNAs from unique H3K27me3 patterns in the susceptible chickens that targeted genes involved in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-receptor and adrenergic receptor pathways. In conclusion, dynamic line-specific histone modifications in response to MDV infection suggested that intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in MD-resistance and -susceptibility.
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The chicken frizzle feather is due to an ?-keratin (KRT75) mutation that causes a defective rachis.
PLoS Genet.
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Feathers have complex forms and are an excellent model to study the development and evolution of morphologies. Existing chicken feather mutants are especially useful for identifying genetic determinants of feather formation. This study focused on the gene F, underlying the frizzle feather trait that has a characteristic curled feather rachis and barbs in domestic chickens. Our developmental biology studies identified defects in feather medulla formation, and physical studies revealed that the frizzle feather curls in a stepwise manner. The frizzle gene is transmitted in an autosomal incomplete dominant mode. A whole-genome linkage scan of five pedigrees with 2678 SNPs revealed association of the frizzle locus with a keratin gene-enriched region within the linkage group E22C19W28_E50C23. Sequence analyses of the keratin gene cluster identified a 69 bp in-frame deletion in a conserved region of KRT75, an ?-keratin gene. Retroviral-mediated expression of the mutated F cDNA in the wild-type rectrix qualitatively changed the bending of the rachis with some features of frizzle feathers including irregular kinks, severe bending near their distal ends, and substantially higher variations among samples in comparison to normal feathers. These results confirmed KRT75 as the F gene. This study demonstrates the potential of our approach for identifying genetic determinants of feather forms.
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Very virulent plus strains of MDV induce an acute form of transient paralysis in both susceptible and resistant chicken lines.
Viral Immunol.
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Mareks disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system that affects MD-susceptible chickens 8-11 days post-infection (dpi), normally resulting in recovery 1-3?d after the onset of clinical signs. In this study we inoculated chickens from lines 7(2) (MD-susceptible) and 6(3) (MD-resistant) with a very virulent plus strain of MDV at 2?wk of age, and collected brain samples from birds with and without TP at 5, 11, and 21?dpi for gene expression profiling and histological analysis. Data revealed that chickens inoculated with MDV had higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IFN-?, IFN-?, IFN-?, MHC I, and CD18 in their brains at 11?dpi compared to the uninfected control birds. In addition, the expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? were significantly higher in the brains of the birds showing clinical signs of TP than in asymptomatic chickens. Comparative analysis between the two chicken lines showed that the expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-18, CD18, and MHC I were significantly higher in the brains of the birds from line 6(3) with TP than those of line 7(2) exhibiting neurological disorders. A differential expression pattern was observed for some of the tested genes at different time points post-inoculation. Histological analysis showed lymphocytic meningitis, perivascular cuffing, and neuronal degeneration within the brains of birds from both susceptible and resistant lines exhibiting TP at 11?dpi. Vaccination prevented development of TP and other MD-associated clinical symptoms. These observations are suggestive of an underlying immunological mechanism for viral-induced neurological dysfunction, and the differential responses of the two chicken lines to MDV infection.
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Aberrant expression of liver microRNA in chickens infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus.
Virus Res.
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Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus primarily causing myeloid leukosis (ML) in broilers. Although ALV is well under control in a few countries including the USA, poultry industry in many parts of the world continues suffering from serious economic loss due to sporadic or widespread ALV infection, especially ALV-J infection. ALV-J infection of chickens is reportedly mediated by a cellular receptor. So far, however, no genetic variant of the receptor gene that confers resistance to ALV-J has been identified. To advance our understanding on epigenetic factors that are involved in the event of ALV-J infection, we examined the expression of miRNAs in livers of 10-week-old chickens uninfected or infected with ALV-J by miRNA microarray analysis. Our data showed there were 12 miRNAs differentially expressed in liver between the uninfected and infected groups (P<0.01). Of which, the expressions of seven miRNAs (gga-mir-221, gga-mir-222, gga-mir-1456, gga-mir-1704, gga-mir-1777, gga-mir-1790, and gga-mir-2127,) were upregulated by ALV-J infection and may be involved in oncogenicity. The other five miRNAs (gga-let-7b, gga-let-7i, gga-mir-125b, gga-mir-375, and gga-mir-458) were significantly downregulated. The downregulated miRNAs may play important roles in tumor suppression. This finding paves the way for further exploration of epigenetic influence on tumorigenicity upon ALV-J infection.
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Cell culture attenuation eliminates rMd5?Meq-induced bursal and thymic atrophy and renders the mutant virus as an effective and safe vaccine against Mareks disease.
Vaccine
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Mareks disease virus (MDV) encodes a basic leucine zipper oncoprotein, Meq, which structurally resembles jun/fos family of transcriptional activators. It has been clearly demonstrated that deletion of Meq results in loss of transformation and oncogenic capacity of MDV. The rMd5?Meq virus provided superior protection than CVI988/Rispens vaccine in 15×7 chickens when challenged with a very virulent plus (vv+) strain of MDV, 648A. The rMd5?Meq construct was also shown to be an effective vaccine in commercial chickens that were challenged under field conditions by exposure to seeder chicken inoculated with MDV strain 686, a vv+ and arguably the most pathogenic strain of MDV. Although deletion of Meq gene renders the virus non-oncogenic, it still induces lymphoid organ atrophy like that of the parental rMd5, in highly susceptible MDV maternal antibody negative (MAb-) chickens. We have generated 50 cell culture passages of attenuated rMd5?Meq viruses and found no significant lymphoid organ atrophy beginning at 40(th) passage onward when compared with the normal control chickens. The protective ability of these attenuated Meq null viruses against challenge with vv+ MDV strain 686 is similar to the original virus at 19(th) passage in maternal antibody negative chickens. The data indicate that attenuation of these Meq null viruses has no influence on their protective efficacy, but eliminated lymphoid organ atrophy and rendered them safe to use even in MAb- chickens, a characteristic that should facilitate commercialization and licensing by vaccine manufacturers.
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DNA Methylation Fluctuation Induced by Virus Infection Differs between MD-resistant and -susceptible Chickens.
Front Genet
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Mareks disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease induced by Mareks disease virus (MDV) infection. To augment vaccination measures in MD control, host genetic resistant to MD becomes obviously more and more important. To elucidate the mechanism of MD-resistance, most of researches were focused on the genetic differences between resistant and susceptible chickens. However, epigenetic features between MD resistant and susceptible chickens are poorly characterized. Using bisulfite pyrosequencing method, we found some candidate genes have higher promoter methylation in the MD-susceptible (L7(2)) chickens than in the MD-resistant (L6(3)) chickens. The hypermethylated genes, involved in cellular component organization, responding to stimulus, cell adhesion, and immune system process, may play important role in susceptibility to disease by deregulation of these genes. MDV infection induced the expression changes of all three methyltransferases genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in both lines of chickens. The DNMT1 was up-regulated in L7(2), whereas the DNMT3b was down-regulated in L6(3) at 21?dpi. Interestingly, a dynamic change of promoter methylation was observed during MDV life cycle. Some genes, including HDAC9, GH, STAT1, CIITA, FABP3, LATS2, and H2Ac, showed differential methylation behaviors between the two lines of chickens. In summary, the findings from this study suggested that DNA methylation heterogeneity and MDV infection induced methylation alterations differences existed between the two lines of chickens. Therefore, it is suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in modulating the resistance and/or susceptibility to MD in chickens.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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